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whipmellificiumBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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Introduction to Microbiology


Historical perspectives


discovery of microbes (technology)



repudiation of spontaneous generation


(new ideas about properties of living


things)


A young science! But applied microbiology


is almost as old as agriculture



bread



beer, wine



yogurt, cheese

Microbiology and public health


Disease prevention


sanitation



water supply



pest/vector control



hospital environments (nosocomial)


food safety (and other mass production)


epidemiology



how diseases spread



how to control disease

Emerging diseases (p. 7)

What do we learn from them?

Infectious diseases may be transmitted from


one animal species to another


Migration patterns may affect spread of disease


Technologies may provide some risk for disease


toxic shock syndrome


“mad cow disease”

Proof against spontaneous generation


Why is this so important?


A major insight in the characteristics of living


organisms



Living cells arise from other living cells

Previous experiments did not prevent contami
-


nation by microbes

Pasteur figured out a way to do it

Pasteur’s definitive experiment (1861)

Fortunately, no endospores were present

p. 2

“Golden Age of Microbiology”


Understanding the unique characteristics of


microbes


How to study them


Their role in infectious disease
-

and in the


environment

Late 19
th

century (summarized on p. 4)


Pure culture techniques


discovery of causative agents of disease


Control of infection with aseptic technique


Staining techniques


Discovery of viruses


Beginning to understand the immune system

Early 20
th

century


Antimicrobials


Genetic exchange between bacteria


(transformation)


Elucidation of DNA as heritable material


Vaccines (it began with smallpox)


Late 20
th

century


Biotechnology


restriction endonucleases

recombinant


DNA technology


genetic engineering



genomics


Viroids, prions


Eradication of smallpox; polio?

Infectious disease


emerging diseases



resurgent diseases



chronic disease



autoimmune disease?

Microbes and the environment


Unique metabolic processes


Nutrient cycling (what does that mean? Ch. 30)


Carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycle through the


ecosystem


All living things need them


Microbes (especially bacteria) are required for


cycling to occur

Microbes (especially bacteria) as model


organisms


Easy to grow


Don’t take up much room


“Easy” to manipulate


Many processes can be extrapolated to


larger organisms

Scope of the course


What are microbes?


How do we distinguish one from another?


Where in the environment are they found?


How do they grow there?


Oxygen requirements


Metabolism


How do we measure/detect growth?


How do they cause disease?


What is pathogenicity?



Scope of the course, continued


How do we control microbial growth?


To prevent disease


To cure disease


In the environment


What is epidemiology?


How do infectious diseases arise and spread
in a population?


How can we control (or prevent) that?