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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Level 1

Microorganisms

MCB1006

Coordinator : M J Larkin

co
-
coordinator : L A
Kulakov


©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Professor Mike Larkin
-

Communications


Room 108 MBC


xt

2288 (Belfast 90972288 )


Email m.larkin@qub.ac.uk


Pigeon hole in Biological Sciences Office


ALWAYS LEAVE MESSAGE and HOW TO
CONTACT YOU!


WWW pages


http://www.qub.ac.uk//mlpage/page1/index.html


http://www.qub.ac.uk//mlpage/courses/level1/page.html


©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Course Theme.



to provide a thorough grounding in the range of
diversity of microorganisms, their structure,
nutrition, growth, physiology and genetics. Also
to provide 'hands
-
on' practical experience in the
isolation and cultivation of microorganisms”.


Working as individuals

in practical work and skills

From group assignment work

you will gain experience
in working with a group, independent research and
literature report writing
.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

10

m
m

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

5

m
m

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

CONTENT


A practical and theoretical introduction to the biology
of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Microbial
cell morphology; structure and function of cell
components. growth, reproduction and enumeration
of microorganisms. Aspects of microbial genetics.
The effects of physical and chemical environments
on microbial growth. The diversity of
microorganisms and aspects of their
pathogenicity

in
plants and animals. The role of microorganisms in
the environment, their uses and aspects of microbial
biotechnology
.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

STAFF


Prof Mike Larkin (Module Co
-
ordinator
)
-

Rm

108,
MBC


Dr Leonid
Kulakov

(co
-
coordinator)


Rm

OG413B, MBC


Dr John McGrath


Rm

LG84 MBC; Prof Sheila Patrick


Microbiology, RVH; Dr Alistair McCracken


Applied Plant
Science,
Newforge

Lane Tel:
90 255244
; Dr Elizabeth Hoey
-

Rm

186/182, MBC;
Dr John
Hallsworth

-

Rm

LG86 MBC
xt

2314


There is a web site for the course with some support
material and useful links at the following address:
http://www.qub.ac.uk/mlpage/courses/level1/page.html

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Texts


Prescott L M et al.
Microbiology 7/e (McGraw
-
Hill
Higher Education) £45.59 ISBN: 0071267271


Online learning at
http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/0072320419/

freely available


There are others listed equally as good.

Brock T
D & Madigan M T. Biology of Microorganisms 12th
Edition £39.98 (Pearson Education) ISBN: 0321536150


Animated tutorials (10
th

Edition) at:
http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_madigan_brockbio_10/5
/1459/373652.cw/index.html


Pages and Chapters will be noted for some


DIRECTED READING
.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.


ASSESSMENT



Written exam
-

70%

.
Different format this year
MCQs will also be used


Practical exercises

-

10%

.


Practical test

-

5%

5 elements to the test and
students must be satisfactory in
ALL

5 elements.


Mid
-
semester class
-
test

-

5%

MCQs in
Week 5


Group assignment work

-

10%

.


©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Practical and Assignment
arrangements


Session A
: Those on Biological Science, Biochemistry,
Environmental Biology, Microbiology, Genetics, Marine Biology,
Molecular Biology and Zoology degree pathways


Session B
: Those on Biomedical Sciences, Food Quality, Safety
and Nutrition, Physiology and Anatomy degree pathways



Assignment Scheduled

Practical Classes

Study Project

Session A

Weeks 1,3,5,8,10

Weeks 1,3,5,9,11

Session B

Weeks 2,4,7*,9,11

Weeks 2,4,7,8,11

*For some students the practical will have to be scheduled be in week 6


©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Group Assignment


Work in groups of 4


same as the practical sessions


The topic must relate to:
“A significant advance in
Microbiology that relates to your degree pathway
subject”.


We offer advice on this in the tutorials and it is an
open learning exercise that relies on your initiative.


Assessment will be on a short and simple report
that:


Assessed in practical in weeks 10 and 11.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

COMPULSORY ELEMENTS


Practical and tutorial attendance 80%; (with valid excuse for non
attendance needed) Continuous assessment mark (
practicals
, tests
and project) 35%; Written exam 35%. These represent the minimum
requirements for modular credit.



PRACTICAL SESSIONS:
The class will be divided into two groups
to be taught on
EITHER

Tuesdays

OR

Thursdays 3
-
6 pm in Lab.
117, 1st floor MBC.
A list is be posted outside the Laboratory



A clean white laboratory coat and a permanent, waterproof fine
marker
-
pen will be required for ALL practical sessions.



Practical manuals are

available from The School Office


©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Lecture outline


History/Introduction


Microbiological Techniques/ Diversity


Diversity/ Structure and function


Prokaryotic structure and function


Nuclear structure, cell walls etc….


Prokaryotic structure and function


Prokaryotic structure and function


Bacterial growth.


Bacterial Genetic systems (LK)



©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History



A. Definition
:



“Microbiology is the study of organisms too
small to be seen with the unaided human
eye”.



Diameter less than 0.1mm



Some
Metazoa
, Protozoa and Algae.



Usually
Fungi, Bacteria (
Archaebacteria

and
Eubacteria
) and Viruses
.



©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

1
m
m

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..



B
. Discovery of Microorganisms (?)


Antonie

Van Leeuwenhoek Royal Soc London
Fellow 1680
-
1723. Simple Microscope.


1767
Linneaus

-

SIX species in class “Chaos”


1838 600 TYPES known

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


C. Spontaneous generation. ABIOGENESIS
.


1665
Redi
. Flies from meat.


1729
Spallazani
. Boiled meat infusions


Late 1700’s Oxygen needed for life


1822
-
1895 Pasteur


1837 Schwann. Cell theory.


1877 Tyndall. Spores survive boiling.



©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


D. Microbial transformations of matter


1837 Yeast
-
Sugar
-
Alcohol


1839
Leibig

and Wohler


1857 Pasteur.
Anaerobiosis

“life without air”

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


E. Microorganisms in disease


1813 Fungi and wheat.


1845 Fungi. Potato blight.


1840 Fungi. Skin diseases.


1864 Lister and surgical asepsis (1847
Semmelweis

childbed fever and asepsis!)


1876 Koch. Anthrax “
Kochs

Postulates



MICROBIOLOGY HAS ARRIVED. Koch. German School.
Pasteur. French School. Vaccines.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


F. The 20th century.


1900 yellow fever transmitted


1903 Antibodies


1910 First chemical antibiotics (
Erlich
)


1915 bacterial viruses discovered.


1928 Genetic transformation.


1929 Penicillin discovered


1941 Fungal genetics. Gene theory.


1943 Bacterial genetics.


1944 Streptomycin discovered.


1944 DNA holds the genetic code.


1953 Structure of DNA

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


G
. Molecular Biology.


1961
Operon

Model.
E. coli.


1960’s
Bacteriophage

development as a molecular
model.



Lambda phage central to these studies



1968 Insertion sequences / transposable DNA.



1970 restriction
endonucleases
. Arber and Smith.



1974 onwards. Gene cloning and genetic engineering



1980’s rapid DNA sequencing and gene construction



1990’s BIOTECHNOLOGY HAS ARRIVED.



DIRECTED READING: Prescott. Chapter 1.

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


G. The genome era
-

crowded with discoveries.


1970’s early sequencing efforts


Sanger et al


1972 First gene sequenced Walter
Frier

-

Ghent:
bacteriophage

MS2


1975
-
1977 Extended sequencing :
Maxam

Gilbert and Sanger
methodologies :
http://www.sanger.ac.uk/



1975 The first complete DNA genome:
bacteriophage

φX174


1983 Mullis PCR with Tag polymerase (based on method of
Kleppe

1971)


1986
-
1987 Automated sequencers


1995 Fluorescent dye base sequencing


1995
Sequence of smallest bacterium,
Mycoplasma

genitalium


1996
Archaea

and yeast sequences


1997
E. coli
K12 sequence


major landmark


Blattner

vs

Kohara

race


2006 Final Human genome sequence completed


2006 High throughput
pyrosequencing



Metagenomics

arrives!

©
M J Larkin Biological Sciences. The Queen’s University of Belfast.

Microbiology History cont……..


Microbial genome sequencing links



Sanger Institute UK


http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/



Lists bacterial pathogens sequenced and ongoing



Joint Genome Institute USA


http://www.jgi.doe.gov/


Many environmental microorganisms and
metagenomic

projects