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whipmellificiumBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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1

WHAT IS BIOLOGY?

Biology is the subject that studies living things

Examples of living things are plants,
animals, and microorganisms.

2

God created


Genesis 1


In the beginning God
created

the heavens and the
earth. 1:1


So God
created

the great creatures of the sea and
every living and moving thing with which the water
teems, according to their kinds 1:21


So God
created

man in his own image, in the image
of God he
created

him; male and female he
created

them.

1:27

3

Why Study Biology?

Bird Flu

Stem Cell Research

Renewable Energy

Heart Disease

Cancer

Genetic Defects

Diabetes

Diet and Exercise

4

Why study Biology?


Finding Truth


Bible


Observations, Experiments, Scientific Method


What is life?


Is the environment important?


How do we obtain and use energy to live?


How can we learn using the scientific
method?



5

What is life?

?

6

Unifying Characteristics of Life

7

Basic Unit of Life
-

The Cell


Characteristics of life emerge at the level of cells



A cell is the smallest unit having the capacity to
live and reproduce (or smallest unit that can
sustain all activities for life such as metabolism
and reproduction).



8

Higher Levels of Organization

-
Biologists study life on many levels.



-
Organized into a certain heirarchy (each level
builds on the level below)



9

Looking at life from different levels

Powers of 10

1 meter

1x10
-
6
meters

10

11

(
see next slide
)

12

Unity of Life

All organisms:


Are composed of the same substances


Engage in metabolism


Sense and respond to the environment


Have the capacity to reproduce based on
instructions in DNA

13

Diversity of Life


Millions of living species


Additional millions of species now
extinct


Classification scheme attempts to
organize this diversity



14

Biological Disciplines

Medicine

Zoology

Physiology

Anatomy

Microbiology

Virology

Mycology

Botany

Biochemistry

Cell biology

Genetics

Biotechnology

15

What is Science?

A process or way determining the solution to a
problem, or understanding an event in nature
using the scientific method

Science comes from the Latin verb meaning “to know”

16

Scientific Method


Observation

-

Observe phenomenon, formulate a
question


Hypothesis

-

develop educated guesses


Experimentation
-

devise test to substantiate or
refute hypothesis


Conclusion
-
Evaluate

hypothesis, either confirm
or reject



17

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD



18

OBSERVATION

How do we examine life?

Senses and Tools

19

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD



20

Inductive Logic (used in discovery
science)


Using observations (descriptions) and facts to
arrive at generalizations or hypotheses


Observation
: Eagles, swallows, and robins have
feathers


Hypothesis
: All birds have feathers



21

Deductive Logic


Drawing a specific conclusion based on a
generalization (if … then logic)


Generalization



All mammals have hair


Example



Whales are mammals


Conclusion



Whales have hair

22

Role of Experiments


Procedures used to study a phenomenon under
known conditions



Allows you to predict what will happen if a
hypothesis is not wrong



Can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct

23

Experimental Design


Control group


A standard for comparison


Identical to experimental group except for
variable being studied



Sampling error


Non
-
representative sample skews results


Minimize by using large samples





24

Fig. 1.10, p. 12

CONTROL GROUP

The variable being

tested is absent

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

The variable being

tested is present

Draw samples from some aspect of nature

Compile results

Compile results

Compare and analyze the test results

Report on experimental design, test results,
and conclusions drawn from results

25

Scientific Theory


A hypothesis that has been tested for its
predictive power many times and has not yet
been found incorrect



Has wide
-
ranging explanatory power

ties
together many experiments and observations (ie.
Newton, Einstein, Darwin)




26

A Word about Theory


Scientific theory is when a hypothesis has met
with rigorous experimentation and is repeatedly
backed up.


A theory is widely accepted


Therefore, a Theory and a Hypothesis are not
the same thing.

27

Limits of Science


Scientific approach cannot provide answers to
subjective questions



Cannot provide moral, aesthetic, or
philosophical standards


28

SUMMARY