Applied Microbiology

whipmellificiumBiotechnology

Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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Microbiology part

-
> Introduction into Microbiology


Book: Foundations in Microbiology, Basic Principles,


6
th

edition, by
Talaro
, McGraw
-
Hill



1
st

lecture: Chapter 1 + 2 (Main Themes of Microbiology + Chemistry of


Biology)

2
nd

lecture: Chapter 4 (Prokaryotic cells)

3
rd

Lecture: Chapter 5 (Eukaryotic cells)

4
th

Lecture: Chapter 6 (Viruses)

5
th

Lecture: Chapter 12 + 13 (Infections


human/microbe interaction


and


their treatment


antimicrobial drugs)



Microbiology

Microbiology

The study of organisms too small to be seen without
magnification


Microorganisms include:

bacteria

viruses

fungi

protozoa

helminths (worms)

algae

-
> All living organisms
are made out of cells


-
> Cells are the
smallest living unit


Human egg cell + sperm

Microbiology

Single cell organisms


Multi cell organisms


-
> Single cell organisms
-
>
Microorganisms

Bacteria

Archea

Yeast
-

Fungi

Microbiology

Single cell organisms


Multi cell organisms


-
> multi cell organisms
-
> higher degree or organization of
cells within the organism
-
>
specialization of cells

Human red blood cells

Plant cells

Human skin cells

Microbiology

Size of the cells

Microbiology

Microbiology

-
> Nutrient production and energy flow

-
> Decomposition

-
> Biotechnology

production of foods, drugs and vaccines

-
> Genetic engineering

-
> Bioremediation

-
> Infectious disease

Microbes are Involved in

Microorganisms are important for Food production

Microbiology

Microbes at Work

clean up of Oil spills.

Microbiology

Microbiology

Infectious Diseases

Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases.


10 B new infections/year worldwide


13 M deaths from infections/year worldwide

Infectious diseases

Microbiology

Infectious diseases

Microbiology

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
(1632
-
1723)


Dutch linen merchant


First to observe living
microbes


Single
-
lens magnified up
to 300X

Insert figure 1.8

Microbiology

Louis Pasteur
(1822
-
1895)


Showed microbes caused
fermentation and spoilage


Disproved spontaneous
generation of microorganisms


Developed pasteurization


Demonstrated what is now
known as Germ Theory of
Disease


Developed a rabies vaccine

Insert figure 1.11

Robert Koch
(1843
-
1910)


Established
Koch’s postulates

-

a sequence of experimental
steps that verified the germ
theory


Identified cause of anthrax
(
Bacillus anthracis
),
Tuberculosis (
Mycobacteria

tuberculosis
), and cholera
(
Vibrio cholerae)


Developed pure culture
methods

Insert figure 1.12

Evolutionary time line

Microbiology

Taxonomy: Organizing, Classifying
and Naming Living Things


Formal system originated by Carl von Linn
é


(1701
-
1778)


Concerned with:



classification


orderly arrangement of organisms into
groups


nomenclature


assigning names


identification


discovering and recording traits of
organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes


Two cell types
-

The Three Domain System

Prokaryotes


Microbiology

Classification
of Cells


5 Kingdoms

Microbiology

Levels of Classification


Domain
-

Archaea, Bacteria & Eukarya


Kingdom
-

5


Phylum or Division


Class


Order


Family


Genus


species

Naming Micoorganisms


Binomial (scientific) nomenclature


Gives each microbe 2 names:


Genus

-

noun, always capitalized


species

-

adjective, lowercase


Both italicized or underlined


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)


Bacillus subtilis

(B. subtilis)


Escherichia coli

(E. coli
)


Characteristics of Microbes


Procaryotes and eukaryotes


procaryote


microscopic, unicellular organisms,
lack nuclei and membrane
-
bound organelles


eucaryote


unicellular (microscopic) and
multicellular, nucleus and membrane
-
bound
organelles


Viruses


acellular, parasitic particles composed of a nucleic
acid and protein

Microbiology

Two cell types

Microbiology

Microbiology

Viruses
-
> are
NO living organisms

-
>
parasites


Microbiology

Chapter 2: Chemistry of Biology

Carbon is the fundamental element of life

-
> contains 4 atoms in its outer orbital

-
> can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds

-
> can form linear, branched, or ringed molecules

4 Families of Macromolecules

Carbohydrates


Sugars and polysaccharides


general formula (
CH
2
O
)
n


Monomer


monosaccharide (glucose, fructose)


Polymer

polysaccharide (starch, cellulose, glycogen)


Subunits linked by glycosidic bonds


Functions


structural support, nutrient and energy
stores

Fig. 2.15

Lipids


Long or complex, hydrophobic, C
-

H chains


Triglycerides, phospholipids in membranes, steroids
like cholesterol


Functions


triglycerides


energy storage


phospholipid


major cell membrane component


steroids


cell membrane component

Insert figure 2.19

phospholipids

Insert figure 2.18

triglycerides

Insert figure 2.20

Cell membrane

Biological Membrane

Proteins


Predominant molecules in cells


Monomer


amino acids


20


Polymer


peptide, polypeptide, protein


Subunits linked by peptide bonds


Fold into very specific 3
-
D shapes


Functions
-

support, enzymes, transport, defense,
movement

Fig. 2.21

The Peptide Bond

Insert figure 2.22

Protein structure

Protein structure

Nucleic Acids


DNA and RNA


Monomer


nucleotide


DNA


deoxyribonucleic acid


A,T,C,G


nitrogen bases


double helix


function
-

hereditary material


RNA


ribonucleic acid


A,U,C,G


nitrogen bases


function
-

organize protein synthesis

Insert figure 2.23

Nucleic acid structure