MGT430 Workshop 2

wheatprisonMobile - Wireless

Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Calculating pre
-
computer


Counting on fingers and toes


Abacus: manipulating stones or beads to count


The word calculate comes from calculus, the Latin
word for small stone


First mechanical adding machine


Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642


Wheels to move counters


Machines in the age of industrialization


Mechanical loom with cards punched with holes


Joseph Marie Jacquard


The start of programming machines



Early computing


Charles Babbage and the Analytical Engine


19
th

century


Machine that calculated, stored values in memory and
perform logical comparisons


Mechanical rather than electronics


Herman Hollerith and the 1890 census


Punched cards to record census data


Cards read in a tabulating machine (per program)


Machine adds together totals


Hollerith’s company went onto become IBM

Electronic computers


ENIAC


first electronic and digital computer


1946


Programmable


5000 calculations per second


Used vacuum tubes


First generation computer


Drawbacks: size and could only run 1 program


Enigma Machine


code breaker for WWII (pre
-
eniac)

Next wave of computing


Second generation, late 1950s


Transistors replace the vacuum tubes


200,000 to 250,000 calculations per second


Third generation, mid 1960s


Integrated circuitry, miniaturization


Fourth generation, 1971


Further miniaturization of circuits


Multiprogramming and virtual storage


Fifth generation, 1980s


Millions of calculations per second


6
th

Generation 90’s and now the 7
th
, 8
th

??


What deinfes this era??


The Dawn of PC’s


1975, ALTAIR, flicking switches


1977, Commodore and Radio Shack produce
personal computers


1979, Apple computer


garage built w/RS parts,
the fastest selling PC (and most usable) so far


1982, IBM introduces the PC which helps change
the market


business audience


1984, Apple Macintosh, GUI, mouse, windows,
32
-
bit OS


And then . . .. Think of the machines that followed



Microcomputer Systems


Personal Computer

(PC)


microcomputer
for use by an individual


Desktop



fit on an office desk


Laptop



small, portable PC



The decline of the desktop



Information Appliances


Smaller devices??? Other devices???


Tablets


Mobile Phones
-

BlackBerry


iPhone


Android


etc

&
PDA’s


Netbooks



mini
-
notebooks


What about
Video
-
game consoles


PS


Xbox


Wii


Other
what else can you add to this list??


Terminals


outdated or reborn?


Devices that allow access to a network


Dumb terminals



keyboard and video monitor
with limited processing


Intelligent terminals



modified networked PCs or
network computers


Network terminals or computers


Windows terminals

depend on network servers for
software, processing and storage


virtual sessions?


Internet terminals

depend on the Internet for operating
systems and software


UNIVERSAL CLIENT??


Hmmmm . . .
Chromebooks?

Mainframe Computer Systems


Large, fast powerful computer systems


Large primary and secondary storage
capacity


High transaction processing


Complex computations


Paralell processing


And more

Computer hardware functions


Input


Keyboards, mice, optical scanners


Convert data into electronic form


Processing


Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Arithmetic
-
logic unit performs the arithmetic functions


Control unit


Output


Video display units, printers, etc.


Convert electronic information into human
-
intelligible form

What are the 5 basic categories of
computer hardware?

Hardware


Input devices


Output devices


CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers


Secondary storage devices


Network and telecom devices



Do you see the system theme continuing
here? Input, processing, output, storage,
control/feedback mechanisms?

Computer hardware functions


Storage


Primary Storage Unit or memory


Secondary Storage


Magnetic disks and Optical disks


Control


Control unit of the CPU


Controls the other components of the computer


Peripherals


Computer Storage Fundamentals


Binary representation


Data are processed and stored in computer
system through the presence or absence of
signals


Either ON or OFF


ON = number 1


OFF = number 0


Bit and Byte


Bit

(short for binary digit)


Smallest element of data


Either zero or one


Byte


Group of eight bits which operate as a single
unit


Represents one character or number

Representing characters in bytes

Computers use the binary system

Measuring storage capacities


Bit
one single piece of info (T/F, 1/0, +/
-
)


Byte
8 bits


Kilobyte

(KB): one thousand bytes


Megabyte

(MB): one million bytes


Gigabyte

(GB): one billion bytes


Terabyte

(TB): one trillion bytes


Petabyte

(PB): one quadrillion bytes

What’s in your machine?


RAM


Processor


OS


Data path width


Display


Attached peripherals


pointing, audio,
storage, etc.

Semiconductor memory


Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips


Used for primary storage


Advantage:


Small size


Fast
--

Shock and temperature resistance


Disadvantage:


RAM Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric
power or lose memory


New flash/solid state devices are not as volatile
compared to mechanical devices.


Memristors


the missing component


Two types of memory


RAM: random access memory


Primary storage medium


Volatile memory


Read/write memory


ROM: read only memory


Permanent storage


(typically) Can be read but cannot be overwritten


modern chips can but only on the system level


Frequently used programs burnt into chips during
manufacturing


Used to store firmware

Flash drive


Permanent storage


Semiconductor memory


Small chip with thousands
of transistors


Easily transported


What about solid
state hard drives?

Source: Courtesy of Lexar Media.

Magnetic Disks


Used for secondary storage


Fast access and high storage capacity


Source: Quantum.

Source: Corbis.

Types of magnetic disks


Floppy disks


Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket


Hard disk drives


Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in
sealed module


RAID

(Redundant arrays of independent disks)


Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives


Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks


Becoming a thing of the past? Why?


Magnetic Tape


Secondary storage


Tape reels and cartridges


Used in robotic automated drive assemblies


Archival storage and backup storage


Disappearing

Optical Disks

Older Formats

Newer:


Minidisc


Blueray



Will that be it?


Is optical storage
dead? Why?

Storage tradeoffs

Software




General
-

Purpose

Programs

Application
-

Specific

Programs

System

Management

Programs

System

Development

Programs

Application

Software

Computer

Software

System

Software

Operating System Overview

Resource

Management

Task

Management

User

Interface

File

Management

Utilities

and Other

Functions

Operating System Functions


Provides a user interface


Command
-
driven, Menu driven


GUI (graphical user interface)


Manages hardware


CPU, memory, storage,
communications, & I/O


File Management


Task Management

Operating System Types


DOS


Windows 3.1 (3.11)


MacOS


pre OS X Through versions 9.22ish


Windows 95/98/Me


Windows NT
-

3.51, 4, 2000, XP, 2003


Win Vista & 7 & 8 and … 8.1 and . . . ??


UNIX, LINUX, & MacOS X??


Are there others?


Programming Languages



Assembly/machine language


FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, Basic


C/C++/C# (the code behind Unix & Linux)


Visual Basic


.Net development environment


Java, Actionscript, and modern Obj. Oriented


SQL (for database development)


XHTML, XML, CSS (web pages)


Javascript, PHP, ASP, Perl, Ruby on Rails,
jQuery, etc (adds programming to web pages)


Visual design tools


such as Flash, Edge Animate


4GLs


A.I. & non
-
procedural/natural languages


AI


Artificial Intelligence

Software Applications


Office Apps

--

MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access,
Outlook
-

Alternatives?


Enterprise Databases


Oracle, SQL, MySQL, ERP, CRM,
SAP, cloud based services


Groupware
--

Lotus Notes, GroupWise, SharePoint


Web Authoring


Dreamweaver, Muse, Expression Web


Web
--

Netscape & IE, also FTP, chat, IM, newsgroup
readers, email clients, Others?


Art & DTP
--

Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, Flash


Multimedia/3D/2D


AfterEffects, Pro Tools, Final Cut
Pro, Maya, Adobe Premeire, etc.


Accounting, CAD/CAM, Music Authoring/mixing


OTHERS


What do you use??


DO NOT confuse this with your OS.

What about the cloud?


What is the cloud?


What is SaaS?


Examples ?



What do you already use that is in the
cloud?


Is it the way of the future? Absolutely!


All done