Intro to Info Tech

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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1

Intro to Info Tech

Systems S/W

Copyright 2003 by Janson Industries

This presentation can be viewed on line at:

http://web.fscj.edu/Janson/cgs1060/wk01.SystemsSW.ppt

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

2

Objectives


Explain 2 types



Operating Systems


The general purpose


Specific tasks



Utility Programs


Types


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

3

Operating System


Set of programs that:


Enable h/w to function


Provide a user interface


Manage system resources


Configure devices


Schedule jobs


Monitor:


Performance


Memory


Applications


Provide security

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

4

Operating System


Set of programs that:



Enable users to run applications



Provide common functions for
applications


Printing


Saving and retrieving files


This is how OS came about



Establish Internet connections

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

5

Operating Systems


PCs use Windows, Linux, or OSX
(Macs)


Some computers can run multiple



Midrange and mainframes use
different OS



OS also called a platform:



Applications written for specific
platforms


Must buy correct application for
your platform

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

6

OS Functions


Booting: starting the computer


Cold boot: powering on the computer


Warm boot: restarting



When installing new applications,
often must reboot (warm boot)



OS programs stored on hard drive



When booting:


Kernel loaded into main memory


Kernel comprised of those programs
that provide basic OS functions


Remains in MM

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

7

OS Interfaces


Interface is the way users can enter
data and instructions and how
information is displayed



Two types:


Command line


Graphical User Interface (GUI)



Command line requires commands
and syntax



GUI is point and click


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

8

GUI

Clicked on icons

Command line

Entered command
and pressed Enter

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

9

OS Categories


Identified by how many tasks and
users it can support simultaneously




Single user/single task


Smaller devices only allow one user
to run one application at a time




Single user/multi
-
tasking


Can run many apps at the same time


Only one app is active


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

10

OS Categories


Multi
-
user


Many users can run many apps at
the same time


Larger computers


Networks




Multi
-
processor


Supports many CPUs and many
active jobs


Many apps can be running
simultaneously

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

11

OS


Manages MM


OS assigns memory to applications


When apps done, releases memory




Sometimes apps too big for RAM




Solution: Virtual Memory


App broken up into pages (pieces)


Pages loaded into MM as needed


Removed when not needed

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

12

OS


Also sets up and manages buffers


Memory that acts as a waiting area



Classic example: print buffer


Printer slow compared to CPU


Instead of CPU waiting for printer to
accept next print job


Output sent to buffer


When printer ready


Output retrieved from buffer and sent
to printer



This process is called
SPOOL
ing


S
imultaneous
P
eripheral
O
perations
O
n
L
ine

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

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Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

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Set up date/time to run an app

Where to store

What to store

When to store

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

15

Scheduling Jobs


In multi
-
user environment OS will
allow priorities to be assigned



By user


CEO has highest priority



By type of job


Print job higher than browsing web



Availability of resources


External storage busy

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

16

Configuring Devices


Each device has its own commands



OS contains "drivers" (programs) to
communicate with the most common
devices



Drivers loaded into MM when
computer started



If OS doesn't have driver, you may
have to install the driver


Usually comes with device or easily
downloaded from the Web

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

17

Monitor Performance


CPU utilization

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18

Can see multiple
resources at a time

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19

Monitor Performance


Disk space used/available

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

20

Monitor Performance


App/process
monitoring

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

21

Monitor Performance


Disk fragmentation


Analyses first, then, if needed, defrag

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

22

File Management


Organize in folders



Copy



Delete



Search


Search particularly helpful when
you forgot where you saved it or
what you named it

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

23

File Management


Disk scanner



Looks for unused/temp files



Looks for uncompressed files



Lets you easily delete and
compress them



Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

24



Uninstaller


Easily remove an app


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

25

Security


Create Userids and Passwords



Force users to log on to the computer



Enforce at file and application level




Keeps track of incorrect log on
attempts


May disable Userid after a certain
number of incorrect attempts




Keeps track of unauthorized attempts
to access files and apps

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

26

Security


Most provide some firewall


Protects computer from unauthorized
access


I.e. you download a web page that
contains a program that looks through
hard drive and email for


Credit Card numbers


SSN


Bank Statements



Some anti
-
virus protection



Usually need utility programs for
better/most up to date security

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

27

Lots of OS


Handheld


Palm, Symbian
(Nokia), Blackberry OS, Android,
iPhone, Windows Phone 7



PC


Windows, OS X, Linux



Midrange


Solaris, IBM i, Linux



Mainframe


MVS, VM, Unix, Linux



Most are proprietary, Linux is open
source


Said another way: most you must
pay for, Linux is
free

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

28

Open Source vs. Closed Source


Open source price is better
-

pro



But if everyone can see source code


Greater security risk
-

con


More eyes to catch errors
-

pro


More programmers can work on to
improve
-

pro



But if not paid for it, what's the
incentive to build/maintain open
source s/w?
-

con


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

29

Utility Programs


S/W that enables the computer to
work better


Example: www.inksaver.com


Potential 75% decrease in ink used


Would you pay $32 for that?



MS continually crams more into OS
that was handled by stand alone utils



However, stand alones usually do a
better job than those utilities included
in Windows


Can buy


Often a free version available online

Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

30

Utility Programs Types


Antivirus


Virus: s/w that will harm or impede
your computers applications and data


Some harmless:
Yankee Doodle


Some not:
Michaelangelo



Two types:


Worms


replicate themselves


Trojan horse


hidden in other s/w,
email, etc.


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

31

Utility Programs Types


Spyware and Spyware removers


You may want to install


Websites will install without permission


Spyware removers usually also remove
adware



Internet filters


Antispam: usually included in email app
(MS Outlook) or by email provider


Web filter: usually included in browser
(MS IE, Firefox, Chrome, etc.)


Pop up blocker: usually included in
browser


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

32

Utility Programs Types


File compression: zip and unzip files to
save space on drives


OS will often do automatically


PKZIP, WinZip



File conversion


WAV to MP3, Word to PDF, Access to
Excel



Media Players


Why not just use Media Player?


Can it access your iPod?


Need iTunes


Copyright 2011 by Janson Industries

33

Points to Remember


Operating Systems enable the
computer hardware to work



Provides a GUI and commands to
perform system functions



Enable the h/w and applications to
function

For classroom based classes:


Bring your thumb drive to the next class