Enterprise Systems Foundations

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Objectives

Business needs

Application architecture

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems Foundations




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What is Business Intelligence (BI)?


According to Wiki (2013)


BI is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and
technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful
information for business purposes.


BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and
develop new opportunities.


Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective
strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long
-
term
stability.


However Internet / Smart Phone age has changed the BI landscape….





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BI landscape in the age of Smart Phones

Crowd
Data

Open
Data

DB

ES

Social Network

Vehicle Sensors

etc.

Time Tables

Road Displays

etc.

Crowd
Systems
& Users

Smart Phones

Web Sites

Etc.


Management

& Analysts

DW

Extraction

Manufacturing

Data, Financial Data etc.


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BI solutions are offered by all main vendors


The BI share is 5
-
10% of the ES market


BI solutions are offered by


Large ES vendors


SAP: SAP Netweaver Business
Warehouse

(SAP NetWeaver BW)
alias "SAP BI"


Oracle : Oracle Business Intelligence
Enterprise Edition Plus (OBI EE Plus)


MS: SQL server series


Specialized vendors


SAS: integrated system of software
products


Microstrategy


Open source platforms :e.g.
Pentaho


Etc.


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The BI architect


What is BI course for?


It intends to provide foundations for BI
architects


BI projects require an architect


BI integrates a variety of software
modules


The main BI project activity is to
customize modules to user requirements


What is BI architect ?


He/she is able to model the needs of
users and follows a framework


He/she is able to transform needs in a
language understood by software
developers


He/she is able to understand the
software platforms to implement BI


He/she is NOT a pure software developer


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Our approach to BI

Plan

Exec

Mon

Dash

Rep

DSS

Ctl

Info

ES
taxonomy

BI Architecture

BI systems modelling

Enterprise

Information

Modeling

SIRE

1.
Process
duration
2.
Activity
timeliness
3.
Resource
flexiblity
1.
Production
unit
cost
2.
Productivity
3.
Usage
/
workload
1.
Customer
access /
acquisition
unit
cost
2.
Customer
use
cost
1.
Technology
response time
2.
Technology
timeliness
3.
Activity &
technology
flexibility
1.
Execution
unit
cost
2.
Preparation
effort
Flexibility
&
speed
Cost
Manager
Customer
Worker
1.
Response
time
2.
Response
timeliness
3.
Vendor
flexiblity
1.
Spec
conformity
of
service
and
products
2.
Technology
dependability
1.
Expectation
conformity
of the
service
2.
Service
dependability
3.
Customer
satisfaction
1.
Expectation
conformity
of work / work
environment
2.
Technology
dependability
3.
Employee
satisfaction
Quality
&
satisfaction
KPI

Identification /

mapping

HIGO

Aggregate Strategic Level (ASL)

GUI Modeling

GOA

Analytic Information

Modeling

DFM

Rich
Semantic
Level (RSL)

Software
Engineering
Interface (SEI)

Implementation Level


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Objectives

Business perspective

Application perspective

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems
Foundations




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The business perspective: Enterprise

Crowd
Data

Open
Data

DB

ES

Social Network

Vehicle Sensors

etc.

Time Tables

Road Displays

etc.

Crowd
Systems
& Users

Smart Phones

Web Sites

Etc.


Management

& Analysts

Extraction

Manufacturing

Data, Financial Data etc.

DW


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BI: scope of Enterprise BI



BI was born for sales analysis:
«what we sold, where, to
whom»


Enterprise has been and still is
the primary target of BI


BI is a primary technology in
Enterprise Systems (ES),
specifically in Management
Information Systems (
MIS)


We here give an overview of ES


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ES targets

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations
Control

Information Management

Enterprise governance

(Strategic decisions & budget
governance)

Operation life cycle of the enterprise

Management of enterprise related
information

(Execution life cycle)


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ES for Management


Governance includes


Strategic planning, where
managers decide products,
markets, geography and structure
of the organization


Management Control, where
managers define budgets and
analyze results and set
appropriate corrective actions

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management


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Define objectives & goals
(plan)

Define corrective actions
(action)

Appraise results monthly
(analysis)

Operations

(Execution)

ES for Management:
Management Cycle


Each
governance level
runs
a
three
-
phase
control cycle (see right)


Information systems support management:


DSS (Decision Support Systems) help
managers to define budget and plans


Data Warehouse store aggregate data for
management analysis


Reporting Systems
provide information
for
analysis of results

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Opereatiions
Monitoring

Opereations
Control

Information Management


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Indicators

Figures: actual, goals

Aggregate and computed information

Time period

EFF

BDGT

ACT

BDGT

PROD 1

PROD 2

P&L STATEMENT

Sales

2.100





2.000





4.300



4.000





1.955





2.345





Purchase

720





720





1.400



1.500





800





600





HR

850





800





1.600



1.650





900





700





EBITDA1

530





480





1.300



850





255





1.045





Depreciation


200





200





420





420





191





229





Miscellaneous

costs


200





225





400





450





182





218





Allowances

20





20





41





40





19





22





EBIT

110





35





231





74





154





77





Physical

indicators


Cars shipped

1.200





1.100





2.400



2.200





1.200





1.200





Cars

sold


1.100





1.100





2.200



2.200





1.100





1.100





Semeser 2

Annual

values

ES for Management
: Reporting (example)


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ES for Management: Reporting (example)


Reporting systems aggregate time series of
elementary information


E.g. the information «Sales» of semester 2 rolls
up all the invoices of the cars sold


Reporting systems enable to compare goals
against actual results (e.g. budget and
actual sales) where:


Actual results are extracted from operational
records generated by execution activities


Goals are calculated in the planning phase of the
management control cycle


Time series can be segmented by multiple
views e.g.:


Product (in the example sales are segmented by
Product 1 and Product 2)


Market (e.g. Sales in China, France, Italy etc.)


Customer (e.g. Sales for returning customers, for
new customers etc.)


Plant (Cars produced by Shanghai plant, by Milan
plant etc.)



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ES for Management
: Reporting / dashboard


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ES for Management: DSS


Decision Support Systems


Support semi
-
structured
decisions where the main
decision variables are known
and can be processed e.g.:


Budgeting systems


Financial planning


Investment analysis


Loan management


Etc.

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management


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ES for Management: DSS


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ES for Operations


Nowadays ES support the whole
operations cycle


Operations Planning e.g. Define
the production plan of a plant


Execution: e.g. Record a car
delivered, reserve a seat on a
plane etc.


Monitoring: e.g. Track the
position and status of a
shipment


Control: e.g. Analyze the
service level to the dealers

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management


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ES for Operations: Planning (SAP)


Planning implies


To define the objectives of an
action (e.g. cars to be
produced)


To identify resources needed
(e.g. materials to be used)


To balance the set of
resources (e.g. materials,
manpower, machinery)


Planning systems improve
performance of operations
because


They define feasible execution


They can assure punctuality
and optimal resource usage


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ES for Operations: Planning (SAP)


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ES for Operations: Execution (hotel booking)


Execution implies


To collect the data of the
transaction to be executed


To update database
accordingly


Execution systems
simplify and shorten
operations:


By reducing / eliminating
paperwork


By coordinating
interdependent tasks and
activities

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management


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ES for Operations: Execution (hotel booking)


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ES for Operations: Monitoring (shipping)


Monitoring implies


To track the status of a
certain object or service


To undertake immediate
actions in front of alarms


Monitoring systems
assure the promise in the
business processes e.g.


To receive on time the
freight the customer
ordered


To receive the car the
customer ordered


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ES for Operations: Monitoring (shipping)


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ES for Operations: Control (Project)


Control implies


To know the status of a
certain activity at a given
time


To appraise results against
Information Systems for
Operations: Control (Project
case
study
)


Control systems check
the promise e.g.


Measure the deviance from
expected results


Can identify the reasons
why


Can help to
find

correction


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ES for Operations: Control (Project)


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ES for Operations: Information Management (BOM)


Information management
implies to define data (typically
master data) and parameters
used in operations execution
e.g.:


To define the data of raw
materials


To define the layout of a
warehouse


Information management
improves the accuracy of
execution systems e.g.


To provide more information to a
patient


To provide more information on a
material

Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management


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ES for Operations: Information Management (BOM)


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ES for operations: a real life example

Plan

Weekly Supply
Planning

Daily
Expediting

Procurement
Parameters
Management

Procurement
Monitoring

Receive &
Inspect

EU Shipments
Receiving

Extra
-
EU
shipment
Receiving

Quantity
Check

Quality Check

Quality Test

Receiving
Layout
Mngt

Inspection
Parameters
Management

Arrival
Monitoring

Store, Pick &
Deliver

Cart Storage

Automatic
Storage

Cart Delivery

AGV
Delivery

Automatic
Warehouse
Picking

Physical
Count

Inventory
Accounting

Picking /
storage
monitoring

Warehouse
Layout
Mngt

Warehouse
Parameters
Management

Manage WIP

WIP loading
/unloading

Scrap
handling

WIP tracking

WIP
parameters
management

Reports &
Analyze

Store & Pick
statistics

Stock
Dynamics
Analysis

Out of stock
statistics

Service Level
Analysis (KPI)

Physical
Inventory
Report

Supplier
Analysis

Reporting
Parameters
Mngt


Strategic Planning

Management Control

Operations
Planning

Operations
Execution

Operations
Monitoring

Operations

Control

Information Management

The whole range of Planning, Execution,
Monitoring, Control activities is (and has to
be) found in operations support systems
as in the Materials Management example
here below


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Objectives

Business perspective

Application perspective

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems Foundations




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Introduction


In the functional perspective


We consider what ES do


We do not consider how ES is implemented


Specifically we target :


The ES functional structure (= architecture)


The taxonomy of ES processing functions


The ES information structure


The taxonomy of ES information


The approach by which ES functional characteristics are defined


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ES: structure


An ES is a collection of
functions that access
databases / data warehouse to
read, change, insert or delete
records


Function:


A self
-
contained action on database
that can be started independently
e.g.


Book a flight


I
t contains a number of tasks e.g.


Log
-
in


Select the flight


Input personal data


Input payment data


Confirm payment


Database (DB):


Stores permanent information
structured according to a
predefined format (e.g. tables or
cubes)


Contains a set of records, i.e.
tuples e.g. a row in a relational
table

Function

1

Function
….

Function
N

Database


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ES: Function Classes

ES
Functions

Installation

Configuration


Installation

Misc
.

Administration

Database
loading

/
unloading


Database
cleaning

Backup


Misc
.


An ES includes various function
classes
i.e.


Installation that are used by IT
professionals to install the
software application


User functions that execute the
activities performed by users


Administration functions that
are used by professionals who
are in charge of running and
maintaining the application


User


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ES: information classes

CUSTOMER

PRODUCT

CALENDAR

CUSTOMER ORDER

ORDERS BY
PRODUCT,
CUSTOMER, TIME

Master

Information

Event

Information

Analysis

Information

An ES includes a wide range of information that be
classified according to its dynamic properties into the
levels: Master, Event, Analysis


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Taxonomy of information:

information levels


Master information


Describes structural
properties of an object


Typically has one key


Event information


Describes properties of an
event or transaction


Typically has multiple keys


Analysis information


Describes time dependent
values


Typically has multiple keys


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Taxonomy of information
:

information levels

Customer

Product

Calendar

Customer#

Product #

Date#

Customer Order

Customer#

Product #

Order#

Orders by
Product,
Customer, Time

Customer#

Product #

Order#

Date#


Records the attributes of ecah
event (i.e order)


One record for each event (i.e.
order)


Records the facts concerning a time
series (eg. Quantity, Value etc.)


The time series is identified by multiple
domain keys (i.e. customer, order ,
product)


Record structural prioperties (e.g.
customer address)


Exah key identifes an individual in a
given domain


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Taxonomy of information :

examples in different sectors

Information

system

Master

information

Event

Information

Analysis

Information


Warehouse



Materials Master



Location Master



Picking / Storage
transactions



Operations volumes



Inventory turnover

Checking account



Customer Master



Account Master



Balance



Transactions



Operations volumes



Balance trend

Energy billing



Customer Master



Price list



Consumption



Bills


Consumption trends



Customer loyalty

Order processing


Customer Master



Product Master



Price List



Orders



Invoices



Orders analysis



Customer loyalty

Services to citizens



Citizen Master



Service Master



Service request



Services invoices



Service levels



Citizen profile


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ES cross
-
systems architecture

Infobus (EAI)

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database


In a very ideal world an enterprise should store all its information in one
database.


However:


Over time enterprises independently implement interdependent databases


Synchronization of information becomes a critical problem


EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables synchronization across databases


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Objectives

Business perspective

Application perspective

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems Foundations




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Introduction


The business perspective addresses WHAT enterprise domains systems
should support


Business and Management Processes


Decisions


Information


The application perspective addresses WHAT systems should in terms of


Information to be stored


Processing functions to be run and related business rules


Human computer interface


The technology perspective considers HOW systems are implemented.
Specifically we target :


The processing tiers


The executive architecture


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Processing tiers : Gartner’s taxonomy


From 1992
-
93 systems are implemented on a client
-
server schema


Clients may be more or less fat


Fat clients are frequent in smart phone applications (see case study)


Slim clients are typical of large enterprise information systems e.g. CRM


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Processing tiers : three
-
tier architecture


The logic tier may be
implemented on multiple
Application Servers



Typically Data Server is
implemente on one set of
machines and therefore
may be the critical ring of
the processing chain



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The cross
-
systems architecture

Infobus (EAI)

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database

Transacti
on 1

Transacti
on ….

Transacti
on N

Database


Over time multiple interdependent databases have been implemented in
enterprises


Synchronization of information is becoming a problem


EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables synchronization across databases


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The cross
-
systems architecture :

Services Oriented Architecture





Service Platforms

Siebel

CICS



Orchestration layer

Services

Servers

Applications

Storage





Executable image of a Business Process

Business Process


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Objectives

Business perspective

Application perspective

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems Foundations




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Business perspective : implications for the ES
architect


The architect


Understands enterprise
business, organization &
business processes


Analyzes business process
/ organization and elicits
ES requirements


Has to use appropriate
frameworks



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Objectives

Business perspective

A
pplication perspective

Technology perspective

Implications

Review questions

Enterprise Systems
Foundations



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Review questions: technology perspective


The business perspective what the systems are for, i.e. what is the
kind the support they can give to the enterprise


Illustrate the five levels of ES (strategic planning, management
control, operations planning, execution, operations monitoring,
operations control, information management)


Exemplify the five levels on a simple case, e.g. a car maker as VW or
public body as University


The application perspective illustrates what systems do regardless
their implementation.


What is the functional structure of information systems?


Information systems contain functions for users (i.e. user
transactions) and functions for administration and installation.
Please comment.


Illustrate the threefold taxonomy of information (Master, Event,
Analysis) and list information on familiar domains e.g. University,
Health Care, Bank



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INCIDENT: Warehouse ES

The ware
-
house

Software

The company

Architecture
(deployment)


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Appendix 1

Railways case study

Enterprise Systems
Foundations


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The railways case study


Mr Motta lives in Pavia, a small city in Northern Italy, and wants to go
to Florence, where his relatives live in a small village not served by
public transportation.


Now, there are no direct connections from Pavia to Florence. Thus,
Motta shall take the bus to the train station, then a local train to
Milan, and, finally, a fast train from Milan to Florence.


Motta books the fast train and alerts relatives.


However, things do not happen as planned. Because of traffic jam, the
bus is late, but the local train to Milan is late too.


Motta is happy, but when the local train arrives to Milan the fast train
has already left. Motta has to go to the ticket counter and change his
ticket. Relatives in Florence pick up Motta one hour late and have to
pay additional parking.


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To
-
be: the stakeholder oriented system

Tr.2184

PV

Arrival: 9.27
Platform: 3

Tr.2184 MI

Arrival: 10.13
Platform:18
Tr.9431 MI

Departure: 10.16
Platform: 16
If you want
to select later schedules
please answer “yes” to
this sms

Contract n
°
72673

Planned delivery 10.30
Rescheduled delivery
12.35

Mr. Motta will arrive at
13.25 instead of 13.05

Car
Rental


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The architecture: overall concept



PASS runs as an App on a smart
phone


Business logic and information on
the business process run on a
server (IRMA)


Service systems are accessed via
web services


Android platform (I
-
Phone as a
potential extension)


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The architecture: data


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Deployment diagram

Miscellaneous
Services
Information Services
Mobile
(
Android
)
Communication
Persistence
APP
IRMA System
RequestHandlers
Compensation Engine
Persistence
Communication
EventsNotifier
InformationRetrieval
TransactionHandler
Transaction Services

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Appendix 2

Modeling layers

Enterprise Systems
Foundations


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ES modelling levels

Layer

Target

Notations

Explanation


ASL

Aggregate Strategic
Layer

Aggregate

needs


List / Grid

Needs

are

aggregate

and

expressed

by

simple

notations,

as

grids

or

lists

RSL

Rich Semantic Layer

Detailed

needs


Diagrams & Specification
languages

Needs

are

detailed

and

expressed

by

diagrams

RSL

is

conceptual

and

independent

from

implementation

SEI

Software Engineering
Interface

Software

Diagrams Specification &
programming languages

Transforms

RSL

into

a

notation

targeting

software

engineers

In

most

cases

such

notation

is

executable
.



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ES modeling grid

Analysis Layer

Analysis Domain

Information

Business functions

User Interface

Aggregate Strategic
Layer (ASL)

Business
Information
Models

Business models (e.g.
financial
mathematical
models; KPI)


Stakeholder /
Goal Oriented
Conceptual
Models

Rich Semantic Layer
(RSL)

Conceptual
Information
Models

UML & BPMN (flow
intensive systems)

Software Engineering
Interface (SEI)

Implementation
Frameworks /
Platforms

Implementation
Frameworks /
Platforms

GUI
Implementation
Frameworks/
Platforms