Prof. B.T. Maharaj

weightwelloffMobile - Wireless

Dec 12, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1. Project number


SP8



2. Project title:


Statistical Spectrum Detection (SSD)


in Cognitive Radio

3. Study leader:




Prof B.T. Maharaj and Mr. P.A. Jansen v Vuuren

4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project:


Electronic / Computer
Engineering

5. Research group:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7. Brief description of the project


8. What will be expected of the student


Statistical methods are frequently used to determine channel occupancy in wireless
communicat
ion systems. These methods rely on a set of assumptions that have to be
made regarding the operational environment in which they will be deployed. The most
fundamental assumption that statistical methods rely on, is that of the noise in the channel
being a
dditive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). A noisy signal and its accompanying
normal curve, could be used to determine the occupancy of the spectrum. If however
,

there is no sign of a signal within the given noise (or at least not one discernible from the
noise

itself) using only energy detection methods, a receiver would not be able to detect
the presence of a signal completely hidden within this noise. It is, however, possible that
a signal is only partially submerged into the noise of the channel, here small
infrequent
spikes of data can be observed within the similar set of noisy samples.


The aim of this project would be to implement and compare two statistical methods used
to determine channel occupancy; the recursive one
-
sided hypothesis test (ROHT), and
m
aximum normal fit (MNF) method. ROHT makes use of the fact that discarding
stronger signal components allows weaker signal components to become more
prominent. This method sorts the samples under consideration according to the position
they take in the dis
tribution of the signal. They are then systematically removed from the
one side of the distribution
,

until the statistics of the system are no longer affected by the
removal of any more samples. The MNF method commences by initializing and
smoothing the es
timated probability density function (PDF). The lowest peak of this
distribution is then isolated. This peak represents the mean point of the noise. A
maximum fit of a normal distribution is generated such that the mean of this distribution
corresponds to
the mean of the noise samples (determined from the peak
-
detection
process). The variance is then computed to maximally fill the remaining distribution. A
simple subtraction of the generated noise distribution from the actual noisy
-
signal sample
distributio
n, yields the distribution of the signal components.


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and system layout



Design and simulations



Development of software



Demonstration of simulation



Development of hardware



Documentation and user manuals


8.2 New

knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with
statistical methods used to determine channel occupancy
.



The student will have to develop the relevant

hardware on a suitable platform
(FPGA / DSP development board).



The student will need to carry out sufficient simulations to verify the correct
operation of the system (Matlab/C++).


9. Resources


Workplace and PC in our BWMC Lab

Matlab and C/C++ will b
e student’s responsibility



10. References


[1]

S. O. Rice, “Mathematical analysis of random noise,”
Bell Syst. Technol. J
., vol. 24,
pp. 46

156, 1945.

[2]

D. Datla, A. M. Wyglinski, and G. J. Minden, “A spectrum surveying framework for
dynamic spectrum access networks,”
Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on
,
vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 4158

4168, Oct. 2009.

[3]

M. Wellens, A. de Baynast, and P. Mahonen, “Perf
ormance of dynamic spectrum
access based on spectrum occupancy statistics,”
Communications, IET
, vol. 2, no. 6,
pp. 772

782, July 2008.


















1. Project number


SP9




2. Project title:


Diagnostic Tool for Animal Health

3. Study

leader:




Prof B.T. Maharaj and Prof P. Irons

4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project:


Computer Engineering

5. Research group:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7. Brief description of the project


There is need in the automation of clinical diagnosis in the food production and food
security in the world. One such area identified in South Africa is in the sheep farming
industry. This is particularly useful for training veterinarians and also in the
V
eterinary
Academic Hospitals.


The objective of this tool is to be able to check:

a.

Whether the doctor is checking in the correct anatomical position for a particular
condition

b.

Be able to correctly determine if any abnormal condition exists. This will need t
o
be established by checking for various conditions through graphical images, data
extraction and processing.

c.

The data and analysis will need to be displayed on a graphical user interface
(GUI) platform.


The input will be an ultrasound that will be
conducted on the sheep. The project will need
to firstly establish that the doctor has placed the device in the correct position on the
sheep. The interface will need to be designed to check for correctness and then capture
this information which needs to
be processed.

The processed data should be used to develop a database and from this using investigated
techniques (student needs to do this) to make a diagnosis based on a set of conditions.
The student will need to analyze various images captured and use
these to develop a
multimedia platform that can display the various diagnoses.



8. What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and system layout



Identification of appropriate software platform for display



Development

of system hardware interface



Development of Diagnostic technique and characterization



Implementation of System and Field Testing



Documentation and user manuals


8.2 New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student wi
ll have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with the
diagnostic techniques used in sheep.



The student will have to develop the relevant hardware on a suitable platform to
interface the raw data into a library for processing.



The student
will need to develop technique/s possibly using Artificial Intelligence
to be able to make diagnosis for various conditions.



The student will need to develop the necessary software for the multimedia
platform for the whole ecosystem.


9. Resources


Workplace and PC in our BWMC Lab

Identified software will be procured.

Student will be expected to undertake some field tests and trails with Veterinary Science
in Onderstepoort.



10. References


[1]
www.vet.ucalgary.ca




























1. Project number
: SP10




2.
Project title:

Development of a Super Wi
-
Fi Network

3.
Study leader:

Prof BT Maharaj




4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project
:


Electronic / Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7.
Brief description of the project

Super Wi
-
Fi

is a term coined by the United States
Federal Communications Commission

(FCC) to describe a
wireless networking

proposal which the FCC plans to use for the
creation of longer
-
distance wireless

internet

connections. The use of the trademark "Wi
-
Fi" in the name has been criticized because it is not based on
Wi
-
Fi

techn
ology or
endorsed by the
Wi
-
Fi Alliance
.

Instead of using the 2.4
GHz

radio frequency

of
Wi
-
Fi
, the 'Super Wi
-
Fi' proposal uses
the lower
-
frequency
white spaces

between
television channel frequencies
. T
hese lower
frequencies allow the signal to travel further and penetrate walls better than the higher
frequencies previously used. The FCC's plan is to allow those white space frequencies to
be used for free, as happens with Wi
-
Fi and
Bluetooth

Super Wi
-
Fi powered devices work on the IEEE 802.22 standard, allowing it to
propagate signals on UHV and UHF bands within a cell size of approximately
many km’s
(eg. 20km)
from the point of origin
at
data
speeds of
around
22 Mpbs.


You are expected to investigate the concept of super Wi
-
Fi and select a band of
frequency to operate in either the VHF or UHF frequency band. You are then to design a
single ‘cell
-
like’ coverage and build the hardware.


8.
What will be expected of the student

8.1 Nature of deliverables



Design of the super Wi
-
Fi network



Construct a transmitter with RF front end and antennas (no need to build each
sub
-
component)



Implement this on campus and demonstrate connectivity for a pa
rticular
application that student will select



Able to transmit data at least 1Mbps.


8.2 New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student



The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with the
design
of Super Wi
-
Fi network.



The student will need to investigate from ICASA to TV bands not in use in SA.



Need to be able to simulate this and then test the components in the laboratory
using BWMC test equipment.

References:

www.fcc.gov


1. Project number


SP11




2.
Project title:


Null Frequency Jamming in Wireless Mesh
Networks

3.
Study leader:




Prof B.T. Maharaj and Mr. P.A. Jansen v Vuuren

4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project
:


Electronic / Comput
er Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of the project:

Investigative

7.
Brief description of the project


Wireless
mesh networks (WMN’s) are defined as the interconnection of peer
-
to
-
peer
wireless mobile nodes that are capable of
communication with each other without fixed
infrastructures.

Distributed jammer networks inflict severe disruptions to enemy
battlefield communication. The simplest jamming technique continuously transmits
interference signals, ultimately degrading the cap
acity of the wireless channel. This
however is very energy expensive. A denial of service (DoS) attack strategy is a strategy
that is based on the impersonation or decoding of network packets as a method of sending
false information. This on the other hand

requires network monitoring. Reactive jamming
techniques involve listening and immediately after detecting control packets, send
jamming pulses.


Distributed network protocols operate similar to periodic state machines thus utilising
internal states and
timers for network coordination. This creates ideal opportunities for
carefully engineered radio jamming, such a periodic attack on a specific protocol period
(frequency) and is referred to as null frequency jamming (NFJ). NFJ utilises several
internal sta
tes and timers for network coordination making it energy
-
efficient and hard to
detect.


The basic idea of NFJ is to create a burst of packet losses,

subsequently pushing the

network routing protocols into the

recovery mode. By synchronizing the jamming

per
iodicity to

the protocol recovery time
-
cycle, NFJ causes the routing

protocol operation
to be restricted in the recovery mode,

which leads to network performance collapse.

Higher
-
level

network protocols are characterized by longer recovery periods

and thus

are
more vulnerable to NFJ even with low

jamming rates.


Source Node
Routing Node
Destination Node
Jamming Node
Interference


Figure 1. Distrubuted NFJ network.


8.
What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and network layout



Design and simulations



Development of software



Demonstration of simulation



Documentation and user manuals


8.2 New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with the
desig
n of a wireless mesh network and jamming techniques.



The student will need to learn to use network simulation platforms such as NS
-
2
or OMNET.



The student will need to carry out sufficient simulations to verify the correct
operation of the system.


9. Resources


Workplace and PC in our BWMC Lab

Matlab and C/C++ will be student’s responsibility


10. References


[1]

M. Balakrishnan et al., "Null Frequency Jamming of Dynamic Routing in Wireless
Ad Hoc Networks," in
IEEE Globecom
, Texas, 2011.

[2]

N. Ahmed and H. Huang, "Distributed Jammer Networks: Impact and
Characterization," in
IEEE Military Communications
, Boston, 2009.

[3]

F. Xing and W. Wang, "Understanding Dynamic Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile
Ad Hoc Networks," in
IEEE Military Commu
nications
, Washington DC, 2006.















1. Project number


SP12




2.
Project title:


Channel and Source Coding in Digital Radio
Mondiale (DRM)

3.
Study leader:




Prof B.T. Maharaj and Mr. P.A. Jansen v Vuuren

4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project
:


Electronic / Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7.
Brief description of the project



Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is referred to as the globalization of digi
tal broadcasting

in Amplitude Modulation (AM) radio. It aims to counter the decline in listeners to these

bands by digitizing the broadcasts, allowing for improved audio quality ranging from

low
-
rate voice services to high quality stereo in BW from 4.5 kHz

to 20 kHz.


The aim of

this project is to continue the development of a working DRM receiver based
on work

done in previous years. This project requires the development of a source and
channel

decoder that would adhere to the requirements set forth by
the system
specification for

DRM. In DRM a multilevel coding (MLC) scheme is used, whereby
channel coding and

modulation are jointly optimized, to reach optimum transmission
performance. It is

suggested multistage decoding (MSD) is used where each stage
re
ceives information of

the former stage to reduce multiplicity of possible signal points as
well as channel state information (CSI).


The DRM radio has specific requirements for source encoding based

on MPEG
-
4, part 3.
The tools that are relevant to DRM in
clude advanced audio encoding

(AAC), code

excited linear prediction (CELP), harmonic vector excitation coding

(HVXC) as well as

enhancement tools such as spectral band replication (SBR) and parametric stereo (PS).

Figure 1 further demonstrates the decoding

of a DRM audio source.

This project will
entail the integration of subsystems already designed in order to retrieve

a DRM signal.





Figure 1. DRM Audio Source Decoding



8.
What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and systems layout



Design and simulations



Development of software



Testing and demonstration of well packaged working system



Documentation and user manuals


8.2

New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The
student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with the

specifications (ETSI,2005)
.



The student will need to carry out sufficient simulations to verify the correct

operation of the system.



The student will have to develop the rele
vant hardware and software on a suitable
platform (FPGA / DSP development board)
.


9. Resources




W
orkplace and PC in our BWMC Lab



FPGA development board will be provided



Matlab and C/C++ will be student’s responsibility



Commercial DRM Radio for testing is

available.



10. References


[1] H. Hofmann, C. Hansen and W. Schäfer, “Digit
al Radio Mondiale (DRM) Digital
Sound Broadcasting in the AM Bands,” IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, Vol. 49,

pp.319
-
328, 2003.


[2] “Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM); System Specification
,”

European
Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), ETSI TS 201980, 2009.













1. Project number


SP13

2.
Project title:


Development of a LTE downlink physical layer
system with synchronization

3.
Study leader:




Prof
B.T. Maharaj

4.

Intended degree

programme
:


Electronic or Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH Chair in BWMC

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7.
Brief description of the project


Long Term Evolution (LTE) refers to fourth generation technology (4G) for Broad
band
Wireless Access (BWA). It enables the delivery of high speed wireless broadband
services typically within a metropolitan area as an alternative to Digital Subscriber Line
(DSL) access and is referred to as the “last mile” of network between the servic
e provider
and client.


The problem addressed in this project is the implementation of the physical layer (PHY),
which is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as described in
the LTE specification. This project integrates, and builds

on, the modules previously
developed for an OFDM system. There are existing module already developed, hence the
student would need to use these and integrate them.


Tasks in this project are: (i) the development of the baseband OFDM modulator and
demodula
tor on a suitable hardware platform; (ii) the integration and adoption of
previously completed modules to form part of the complete operational system; (iii) the
design and/or the appropriate selection of hardware or off
-
the
-
shelf modules to
accommodate th
e Radio Frequency (RF) modulation for wireless transmission and
importantly, (iv) the choice of an appropriate synchronization scheme and
implementation there
-
of.


8.
What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables



Specifications and
systems layout



Investigation of various synchronization techniques and selection



Design and simulations

using HP
-
ADS and/or MatLab.



Development of software

and hardware



Testing and demonstration of
TX and RX sub
-
system
s



Documentation and user manuals


8.2
New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself
with the
specifications
of LTE and/or LTE
-
A.



The student will need to carry out sufficient
simulations

t
o verify the correct
operation of the system.



The student will have to develop the

relevant hardware and software

on a suitable
platform (
FPGA development board
)


9.
Resources

Workplace and PC in our BWMC Lab

FPGA
development board will be provided

Matlab
and C/C++ will be student’s responsibility

Components needed to system building and integration would be supplied or purchased


10.
R
eferences


[1] “
The UMTS Long Term Evolution
LTE



The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From

Theory to Practice”, Stefania Sesia,
Issam Toufik and Matthew Baker © 2009 John Wiley & Sons,

Ltd. ISBN: 978
-
0
-
470
-
69716
-
0


[2]
http://www.3gpp.org/LTE
-
Advanced

[3] M. Morelli, C.C.J. Kuo and M.O. Pun, “Synchronisation techniques for orthogonal

frequency division
multiple access (OFDMA): A tutorial review,”
Proc. IEEE
, vol. 95, pp. 1394
-
1427, 2007.



1. Project number


SP14

2.
Project title:


Aircraft Height and Route Adherence
monitor/analysis using Multi
-
lateration

3.
Study leader:




Prof
B.T. Maharaj

4.

Intended degree

programme
:


Electronic or Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH Chair in BWMC

6. Nature of the project:

Design

7.
Brief description of the project


In the aviation industry, aircraft transmit their identity, alt
itude and it is also possible to
determine their location by means of triangulation technique. Research and development
work should be undertaken to develop height monitoring unit and route adherence
monitor/analysis tool.


Automatic Dependent Surveillance
-
Broadcast (ADS
-
B) will be a key element of the
future air traffic management system. Unlike the current surveillance technique, where
ground
-
based radar transmits “interrogating” signals and uses the “replies” from aircraft
transponders to determine locat
ion, ADS
-
B equipped aircraft will broadcast their Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positions once per second. The information received
by air traffic controllers and other ADS
-
B aircraft includes the aircraft’s identification,
altitude, speed, vel
ocity, projected path and other useful information. ADS
-
B data will be
received by dedicated ground receivers, which will immediately pass them to the
controllers’ screens at the nearest air traffic controller station.


On the other hand, Multilateration (
MLAT) is a proven technology that has been in use
for many decades. It was developed in the military to accurately locate aircraft by using a
method known as Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA). Multilateration employs a number
of ground stations, which are
placed in strategic locations around an airport, its local
terminal area or a wider area that covers the larger surrounding airspace. MLAT ground
stations receive replies from all transponder
-
equipped aircraft, including legacy radar and
ADS
-
B avionics, an
d determine aircraft position based on the Time Difference of Arrival
(TDOA) of the replies. Since individual aircraft will be at different distances from each
of the ground stations, their replies will be received by each station at fractionally
different

times. Using advanced computer processing techniques, these individual time
differences allow an aircraft’s position to be precisely calculated.

Hence the student is expected to develop a system that will monitor aircraft height and
route adherence using
the TDOA technique.







8.
What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and systems layout



Development of algorithm



Design and
software development



Simulation, Testing and demonstration

of system performance



Documentation and user manuals


8.2 New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student will have to study the literature on Time
-
Difference
-
of
-
Arrival and
Multilateration



Familiarize himself/herself with the end user req
uirement.



The student will need to carry out sufficient
simulations

to verify the correct
operation of the system.



The student will have to develop the

relevant software

on a suitable platform with
a GUI for demonstration.


9.
Resources

Workplace and PC in

our BWMC Lab

C/C++
/C#
will be student’s responsibility

Exposure to the ATNS system and documentation will be available


10. References:

[1] C. James. (
2007
, Apr
)


Multilateration: Radar’s Replacement?”
,

Avionics Magazin
e,
pp. 30
-
34.


[2] P. J. Martone and G. E. Tucker, "Candidate requirements for multilateration and
ADS
-
B systems to serve as alternatives to secondary radar," in
Digital Avionics Systems,
2001. DASC. the 20th Conference,
2001, pp. 7C2/1
-
7C2/12 vol.2.

[3] H. Schau and A.

Robinson, "Passive source localization employing intersecting
spherical surfaces from time
-
of
-
arrival differences," Acoustics, Speech and Signal
Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 35, pp. 1223
-
1225, 1987.













1. Project number


SP15

2.
Project title:


Synchronization in a
software defined digital video
broadcasting transmitter/receiver using DVB
-
T2

3.
Study leader:




Prof B. T. Maharaj and Mr K. Dhuness

4.

Intended degree

programme
:


Electronic or Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




Sentech Chair in BWMC

6. Nature of the project:

Design


7.
Brief description of the project

South Africa has recently reaffirmed its commitment to adopt the digital video
broadcasting (DVB
-
T2) standard. Hence it is expected as from December 2013
all
analog transmissions will be switched off, thus leaving South Africa to be solely reliant
on digital video broadcasting. Hence a basic DVB
-
T2 platform is an important tool,
which can be used in a number of investigations (e.g. cognitive radio IEEE 80
2.22). The
challenge of this project is to implement such a digital video broadcasting transmission in
software in baseband.


8.
What will be expected of the student

8.1 Nature of deliverables

The student will deliver a DVB
-
T2 transmitter and receiver. The

transmitter will consist
of a software defined BCH and LDPC encoder, together with an orthogonal frequency
division multiplexed (OFDM) transmission. The receiver should be able to equalize/
mitigate the effects of the channel and decode the received OFDM
transmission. The
student will write VHDL, TCL, C/C++ or Matlab code to implement the transmitter and
receiver structure. System specifications, design, simulations, system demonstration and
documentation are expected deliverables.


8.2 New knowledge, skil
ls and engineering tools to be mastered by the student



The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with
encoding, decoding,

OFDM
, and
equalization



The student will need to learn to use development tools.



The student will n
eed to study the synchronization scheme that would be
appropriate and implement this in the TX and RX sub
-
systems



The student will be expected to use a TV channel frequency (UHF band) for TX
and RX and build the front
-
ends.


9.
Resources

Workplace and PC
in our BWMC Lab

Matlab and C/C++ will be student’s responsibility

Any hardware needed will be provided and support on design and theory is available


10.
R
eferences

[1]
“Digital video broadcasting (DVB) for second generation digital terrestrial television
broadcasting system (DVB
-
T2)”, ETSI EN 302

755 ver1.1.1 (2009
-
09)

[2] “On the computation/memory trade
-
off in software defined radios”, Vincenzo
Pellegrini, et al, IEEE Globecom, Miami, December 2010.

1. Project number


SP16




2.
Project titl
e:


Channel estimation in long term evolution (LTE)

3.
Study leader:




Prof B.T. Maharaj and Mr. P.A. Jansen v Vuuren

4.

Intended degree

programme

for this project
:


Electronic / Computer Engineering

5.
Research
g
roup:




SENTECH BWMC Lab.

6. Nature of
the project:

Design

7.
Brief description of the project


With enhancements such as high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) and enhanced
uplink, the 3
rd

generation partnership project (3GPP) radio
-
access technology will be
highly competitive for
several years. However, to ensure competitiveness in an even
longer time frame (for the next 10 years and beyond), a long
-
term evolution (LTE) of the
3GPP radio
-
access technology should be considered.


Important parts of such a long
-
term evolution include
reduced latency, higher user data
rates, improved system capacity and coverage, and reduced cost for operator. In order to
achieve this, an evolution of radio interface as well as the radio network architecture
should be considered.


Two methods are common
ly implemented to realize channel estimation; decision
-
directed estimation (DDE) or pilot based estimation (PE). DDE is done by re
-
encoding
and modulating the original signal and compari
ng it with the received signal
.

LTE makes
use of the PE method.

PE is
done by interpolation

(least
-
square (LS) or minimum mean
squared error (MMSE) estimation)

and can be divided into 2 one
-
dimensional f
ilters,
working sequentially
.

Thus estimation should be carried out
jointly i
n the frequency and
time domain.
Interpolation

can only be separated for each dimension if distance of
samples in the time and frequency direction is chosen to comply with the Nyquist
sampling theorem. The amount of pilot cells also need to be low enough to ensure the
syst
em meets the required data ra
te.


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P
D
D
D
P
D
D
D
P
D
D
D
P
D
D
D
P
D
D
D
P
D
P
Data cell
Pilot cell
Frequency
Time

Figure 1. An illustration of frequency
-
time scheme.





8.
What will be expected of the student


8.1 Nature of deliverables




Specifications and systems layout



Design and simulations



Development of software



Testing and
demonstration of well packaged working system



Documentation and user manuals


8.2 New knowledge, skills and engineering tools to be mastered by the student




The student will have to study the literature to familiarize himself/herself with the

specification
s for LTE.



The student will need to carry out sufficient simulations to verify the correct

operation of the system.



The student will have to develop the relevant hardware and software on a suitable
platform (FPGA /
DSP development board)


9. Resources




W
orkplace and PC in our BWMC Lab



FPGA development board will be provided



Matlab and C/C++ will be student’s responsibility



10. References


[1]

C. Gebner,
Long term Evolution: A concise introduction to LTE and its measurement
requirements
. Munchen, Germ
any: Rohde and Schwarz, 2011.

[2]

S. Omar, A. Ancora, and D.T.M. Slock, "Performance analysis of general pilot
-
aided
linear channel estimation in LTE OFDMA systems with application to simplified
MMSE schemes," in
IEEE 19th International Symposium on Perso
nal, Indoor and
Mobile Radio Communications
, 2008, pp. 1
-

6.