Genetic Engineering bullet points

weedheightswaistBiotechnology

Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering
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3. Selective Breeding Allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce
the next generation



4. Humans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic
variation in plants, anim
als, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to the next
generation of organisms Nearly all domestic animals and plants have been produced by
selective breeding



5. Hybridization Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both
org
anisms Hybrids are often hardier than their parents



16. Inbreeding The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics



17. The goal is to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms There are
always risks to inbreeding Beca
use most members of a species are genetically similar,
there is a chance that a cross between two individuals will bring together two recessive
alleles for a genetic defect



18. Increasing Variations Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a populat
ion by
inducing mutations You can increase the mutation rate by using the following…
Radiation Chemicals Most mutations can be harmful but sometimes they can bring
desirable characteristics



19. Producing New Kinds of Bacteria Using this method of inducing

mutations, scientists
have made many useful strains of bacteria Ex.) bacteria that can digest oil



20. Producing New Kinds of Plants Scientists use drugs that prevent chromosomal
separation during meiosis This results in cells that have double or triple t
he normal
number of chromosomes called… Polyploidy






Manipulating DNA



22. Until recently, animal and plant breeders could not modify the genetic code of living
things They were limited by the variation that exists in nature Today scientists can go
right t
o the genetic code and re
-
write an organisms DNA, transfer genes at will from one
organism to another and design new living things to meet specific needs



23. Different techniques are used to… Extract DNA from cells Cut DNA into smaller
pieces Identify the

sequence of bases in a DNA molecule Make unlimited copies of DNA



24. Genetic Engineering Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism



25. DNA Extraction DNA can be extracted from most cells by a simple chemical
procedure The cells are opened and
the DNA is separated from other parts of the cell



26. Cutting DNA DNA molecules are much too large to be analyzed so biologists cut
them into smaller fragments



27. Restriction Enzymes Cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides



28. Separating DNA Ele
ctrophoresis Mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end of a
porous gel Electric charge is applied Negatively charged DNA molecules move towards
positive ends Small fragments move faster and farther than larger ones




30. Using the DNA Sequence Knowing
the sequence of an organisms DNA allows
researchers to study specific genes, to compare them with the genes of other organisms,
to try to discover the functions of different genes and gene combinations



31. Cutting and Pasting Short sequences can be assemb
led using laboratory machines
known as DNA synthesizers “ Synthetic” sequences can be joined to “natural” ones using
enzymes that splice DNA together The same enzymes make it possible to take a gene
from one organism and attach it to the DNA of another org
anism



32. Recombinant DNA DNA molecules produced by combining DNA from other sources



34. Making Copies In order to study genes, biologists often need to make copies of a
particular gene



35. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique used to copy DNA Inve
nted by
American scientists Kary Mullis Autobiography


Dancing Naked in the Mind Field



37. How PCR Works Add a primer to the portions of a sequence you want to copy Heat
DNA to separate its two strands, then cool to let the primers bind to single
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strande
d DNA
DNA polymerase starts making copies of the region between the primers






Cell Transformation



44. It would do little good to modify a DNA molecule in a test tube if it were not possible
to put that DNA back into a living cell and make it work During t
ransformation, a cell
takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes part of the cells DNA



45. Transforming Bacteria 1. The foreign DNA is first joined to a small circular DNA
molecule known as a plasmid Plasmid


small circular DNA molecul
e Easily replicated



46. Transforming Bacteria 2. The plasmid has a genetic marker


a gene that makes it
possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid (and foreign DNA) from those that
don’t



47.




48. Transforming Plant Cells Many plant cells c
an be transformed by using a bacteria that
usually produces tumors in a plants cells Researchers have inactivated the tumor
producing gene and inserted a piece of foreign DNA into the plasmid The recombinant
plasmid can then be used to infect plant cells I
f transformation is successful, the
recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell



49.




50. Transforming Animal Cells Animal cells can be transformed in the same ways as
plant cells Many egg cells are large enough that DNA can be d
irectly injected into the
nucleus Once inside enzymes normally responsible for DNA repair and recombination
may help insert the foreign DNA into the chromosomes of the injected cell



51. Knocking Out Genes Recently, it has become possible to eliminate part
icular genes
by careful design of the DNA molecules that are used for transformation DNA molecules
can be constructed with two ends that will sometimes recombine with specific sequences
in the host chromosome Once they do, the host gene may be lost or spec
ifically replaced
with a new gene This makes it possible to pinpoint the specific functions of genes

Applications of Genetic Engineering



57. Transgenic organisms Organisms that contain genetic information from other species
Q: How does one do this? A: Ta
ke a gene from one organism and place it in another



58. This idea has sparked the new booming industry of biotechnology



59. Fun With Fireflies There is an enzyme that makes fireflies glow Luciferase Could we
take a gene out of an animal and put it in som
ething else? Could we get things that don’t
glow, to glow



60. Glowing Tobacco Plant Put luciferase gene in a tobacco plant and you can get a
glowing tobacco plant



69. Transgenic Microorganisms Before: Diabetics had to use insulin from cadavers Now:
We ma
ke bacteria that produce human proteins such as insulin, growth hormone, clotting
factor Future: Bacteria may produce substances to fight cancer, make raw materials for
plastic and fibers



70. Transgenic Animals There are currently no transgenic animals th
at are approved for
human consumption. But there are a lot of experimental studies being done



71. Transgenic Animals Mice susceptible to cancer Mice made to have human immune
systems Livestock with growth hormone Chickens resistant to bacterial infections

that
cause us food poisoning Mad cow resistant cows Sheep and pigs that produce our
proteins Spider web goats



72. Spider Web Goats? Take the gene for making spider web silk



73. Put it in a goat Then milk it Extract the spider web silk in large quantitie
s… And we
could have…



74. The best bullet proof vest ever! Strongest steel cables And much more…



75. Transgenic Plants Already here, already controversial Here are some facts and myths
There are only six categories of trangenic plants



76. Soy Beans 50 p
ercent of soy beans today are genetically modified



77. Corn 25 percent of corn is genetically modified



78. Insect Resistant The bulk of both soy beans and corn that is genetically modified is
modified to have a natural insecticide



79. Herbicide resistan
t Others resist weed killing chemicals



80. The other categories Virus resistant Delayed fruit ripening Altered oil control Pollen
control



81. Golden Rice Rice genetically modified to have added vitamins Not marketed to the
public yet



82. Transgenic Plan
t Myths The fish tomato and the fish berry Genetically modify plants
to have a fish gene that makes them able to live in colder temperatures Experimentally
tested, but never worked



83. Still controversial Soybeans with brazil nut allergens Terminator seed
s



84. A Rising Trend As more and more farmers are realizing the efficiency of these GM
plants, the more they will be used



85. Clone A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced by a single
cell



86. How to get a clone in 4 easy steps
1. Remove the nucleus of an egg



87. How to get a clone in 4 easy steps 2. Fuse egg with a cell taken from another
organism 3. Place in the uterus of a foster mother 4. Foster mother gives birth to cloned
baby



88. Donor Nucleus These two cells are fused u
sing an electric shock. Fused Cell The
fused cell begins dividing normally. Embryo The embryo is placed in the uterus of a
foster mother. The embryo develops normally into a lamb

Dolly Egg Cell An egg cell is
taken from an adult female sheep. The nucleus o
f the egg cell is removed.



89. Dolly First time this was done in a mammal was in 1997 A gigantic scientific
breakthrough at the time



90. We have also cloned Cows Pigs Mice Cats Dogs Horse Monkey



91. Starlight…guess where it was cloned



92. The cutest cl
one First cloned cat “ CC ”



93. Cloned Mice Nucleus Donor Egg Donor Surrogate Mother Cloned babies



94. Female gives birth to her own dam twin! Dam = female horse



95. The worlds first cloned dog



96. The latest clones Will be used to study stem cells And

animal to human transplants



97. Breaking News in the Cloning World! Scientists just announced today that for the
first time, they have successfully cloned a rhesus monkey embryo



98. Pros and Cons of Cloning Pros Saving endangered species Transgenic anim
als for
human consumption Organ and tissue transplants Cons Cloned animals have genetic
defects Health problems



99. Should we reproductively clone humans? No! It took 188 tries on Dolly Success rate
of .4 on the horse Success rate of 1.6 on the dog How ma
ny humans would die before this
worked?