2012 Final Exam Study Guide

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Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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BIOM 107
2012
Final Exam Study Guide


Go through expectations listed on first page of
each

chapter

as well as the questions at the end of
each chapter


Chapter 3:

Recombinant DNA Technology and Genomics.

Beginning on page 84 with Gene Microarrays

What kind

of information does a DNA microarray or “Gene chip” provide? What is a practical medical
application for this technology?

How

does
bioinformatics

help us better understand biology?


What was the Human Genome Project designed to accomplish?

What is an ex
ample of something we have learned through a comparison of the human genome to the
genomes of other life forms that we did not know before it became possible to sequence entire
genomes?

Chapter 4: Proteins and Products

How does directed molecular evolution

differ from mutations that occur naturally?

Distinguish the functions of the following groups of proteins

Enzymes:

Hormones:

Antibodies:

What are two examples of enzymes that are used in the food processing industry?

What determines the primary structur
e of a protein?

Why is the structure
and shape
of a protein so important?

E. coli bacterial cells were genetically engineered to produce insulin. What benefit is there to the
bacteria to produce this protein?

What steps are carried out in the downstrea
m processing of a protein?

What properties of microorganisms make them an attractive source or “factory” for making proteins for
commercial use?

Some foreign proteins produced by microorganisms for commercial use are synthesized as
fusion
proteins
. What i
s a benefit of this genetic engineering approach?

What is the purpose of chromatography in the downstream processing of proteins?

How does one ensure that a protein is not lost during downstream processing and not contaminated
with other undesirable protei
ns?

Protein microarrays are used to determine whether a protein is present in a sample containing many
other proteins. How does a protein microarray detect and distinguish one protein from all the others
that may be present in a sample?


Chapter 5 Microb
ial Biotechnology

How does the size of a bacterial genome compare to that of a typical chromosome of the human
genome?

How is foreign DNA
(genes from another organism) introduced into a bacterial cell that has been
selected as the “factory” to express the
foreign DNA and to produce the gene products?

How are reporter genes derived from marine bacteria being used to test individuals for tuberculosis?

How has the cheese
-
making industry been affected by our ability to genetically engineer
microorganisms?

What

are the advantages of producing insulin using bacteria rather than obtaining it from pigs and cows
for use to treat diabetes?

Why is there a problem today with antibiotic resistance in disease
-
causing microorganisms that was not
a problem 50 years ago whe
n antibiotics were first used to fight infection?

Why do we not get protection against all types of infectious bacteria
and viruses
as a result of
vaccination against one type of infectious agent?

How do vaccines protect us from
a
viral or bacterial infec
tion?

Why do we have to get vaccinated every year for the Influenza virus?

What benefit can come from sequencing the genomes of infectious microorganisms?

How does a retrovirus with a genome made of RNA get its genetic information incorporated into the
h
uman genome?

How have molecular techniques discussed in class helped diagnose the causative agents of human
infection and disease?

How does a protein microarray enable the detection of bioweapon pathogens?


Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology

What are 4 unique
advantages that biotechnology offers for transferring specific genes for desired traits
into plants?

What method is commonly used by biotechnologists today to create a “hybrid” plant such as
broccoflower?

How does the naturally
-
occurring Tumor
-
inducing pla
smid of the bacterium
Agrobacterium tumifaciens
give biotechnologists the opportunity to introduce specific desired traits into a plant?

How were biotechnologists able to extend the period of time that a tomato stays ripe before it begins to
rot?

Why did f
armers used to spread spores of the bacterium
Bacillus thuringienesis

across their fields?
Farmers now no longer need to do this. Why?

How can metabolic engineering lead to the production of new kinds of products or more efficient
production of existing p
roducts?


Chapter 7 Animal Biotechnology

What are 5 common criteria for selecting an animal model for evaluating the efficacy of a drug for
human use?

Explain what makes a good animal model for genetic studies on humans?

What are some of the ethical conce
rns surrounding the use of animals for research?