CCNA Curriculum Review

warmersafternoonNetworking and Communications

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

80 views

1

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


CCNA Curriculum Review

CCNA 1 v.3.1.1 Module 9:


TCP/IP Protocol Suite and

IP Addressing

2

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC



This CCNA curriculum review is for officially
enrolled Cisco Networking Academy students and
teachers
only
!


It contains material and images copyrighted and owned
by Cisco Systems.


This review is NOT a stand
-
alone study aid for CCNA
chapter exams or certification exams.


Using this review as your sole study source will not adequately
prepare you for these exams.


Please report any factual or presentation errors to your
instructor for corrections.

Disclaimer

3

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Objectives


Students completing this module will be able to:


Explain why the Internet was developed and how
TCP/IP fits the design of the Internet.


List the four layers of the TCP/IP model.


Describe the functions of each layer of the TCP/IP
model.


Compare the OSI model and the TCP/IP model.


Describe the function and structure of IP addresses.


Explain why subnetting is necessary.

4

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Objectives


Explain the difference between public and private
addressing.


Explain the function of reserved IP addresses.


Explain the use of static and dynamic addressing for a
device.


Describe how dynamic addressing can be done using
RARP, BootP and DHCP.


Use ARP to obtain the MAC address to send a packet
to another device.


Compare and contrast the issues related to addressing
between networks.


5

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


TCP/IP Reference Model
9.1.1


The
U.S. Department of Defense created the
TCP/IP reference model

because it wanted a
network that could survive any conditions.


6

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


TCP Application Layer
9.1.2


TCP/IP includes not only Internet and transport
layer specifications, such as IP and TCP, but
also specifications for common applications.

7

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Transport Layer Protocols
9.1.3


The transport layer constitutes
a logical
connection between the endpoints of the network
,
the sending host and the receiving host.

8

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


TCP Transport Services
9.1.3


Define end
-
to
-
end connectivity between host
applications.


Establishing
end
-
to
-
end communications


Flow control

provided by sliding windows


Reliability

provided by sequence numbers and
acknowledgments

9

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Internet Layer Protocols
9.1.4


The purpose of the Internet layer is to
select the
best path

through the network for packets to
travel.


Creates packets for the Network Layer

10

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Internet Layer Protocol: IP
9.1.4


IP Protocol:


Connectionless, best
-
effort delivery routing of packets.


Not concerned with the content of the packets; only
looks for a path to the destination.


Does not perform error checking and correction. That function
is handled by upper layer protocols.

11

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Internet Layer Protocols: ICMP
9.1.4


Internet Control Message
Protocol
(ICMP) provides
control and messaging
capabilities.


List of permitted control messages:

0
-

Echo Reply

3
-

Destination Unreachable

4
-

Source Quench

5
-

Redirect Message

8
-

Echo Request

9
-

Router Advertisement

10
-

Router Solicitation

11
-

Time Exceeded

12
-

Parameter Problem

13
-

Timestamp

14
-

Timestamp Reply

15
-

Information Request

16
-

Information Reply

17
-

Address Mask Request

18
-

Address Mask Reply

19
-

Reserved for security

20
-
29
-

Reserved for robustness experiment

30
-

Traceroute

31
-

Datagram Conversion Error

32
-

Mobile Host Redirect

33
-

IPv6 Where
-
Are
-
You

34
-

IPv6 Here
-
I
-
Am

35
-

Mobile Registration Request

36
-

Mobile Registration Reply

37
-

Domain Name Request

38
-

Domain Name Reply


12

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Network Access Layer
9.1.5


Includes the
LAN and WAN

technology details,
and
all the details contained in the OSI physical
and data
-
link layers
.


Also called the
host
-
to
-
network layer.


13

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


TCP/IP vs. OSI Models
9.1.6


The TCP/IP model is credible because of its
Internet protocols.


The
OSI

model is a guide
for understanding

the
data communication process
.

14

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


TCP/IP vs. OSI Models


Similarities of the OSI and TCP/IP models:


Both have layers


Both have application layers, though they include very
different services


Both have similar transport and network layers


Packet
-
switched technology is assumed


Networking professionals need to know both models


15

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


IP Protocol


The IP Protocol provides:


Working
definition and format of data packets
.


Hierarchical addressing of networks and hosts.


Ability to
route data packets between remote hosts.


Transfer of data between the TCP/IP internet and
network access layers
.

16

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


IP Addressing


AN IP address is a 32
-
bit sequence of 1s and 0s.


For ease of use, the address is written as four decimal
numbers separated by periods.


Ex.; the IP addresses of two computers are:



192.168.1.8



192.168.1.9


17

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


IP Address Classes
9.2.4


IP addresses are divided into classes to define
the large, medium, and small networks.


Class A

addresses are assigned to larger networks.


Class B

addresses are for medium
-
sized networks.


Class C

for small networks.

18

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Classful IP Address Ranges
9.2.4
-

6

19

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


IP Address Shortage

9.2.6


Public IP addresses were beginning to run out.


New addressing schemes were developed to expand
the number of IP addresses available.


Classless Interdomain routing (CIDR)


IPv6


Network Address Translation
of private addresses
.

20

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Private Addressing

9.2.6


RFC 1918 sets aside three blocks of IP addresses
for private, internal use.


Addresses that fall within these ranges are not routed
on the Internet backbone.



They
cannot be used on links that connect directly to
the Internet!

21

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Assigning IP Addresses

22

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Subnetting

9.2.7


Process of dividing a given IP class network
address into smaller subdivisions or subnets.


“Borrow” host bit spaces to be used for subnetwork
addresses.


Reduces number of host addresses available

23

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


IPv4 vs. IPv6
9.2.8

24

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Static IP Addresses
9.3.2


Best on small, infrequently changing networks.



System administrator manually assigns and tracks IP
addresses for each computer, printer, or server.


Good recordkeeping is critical.


Servers should be assigned a static IP address so
other devices will always know how to access it.

25

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Dynamic Addressing
9.3.2


Hosts with MAC addresses can automatically ask
a designated server for an assigned IP address.


Servers with dynamic addresses will be hard to find by
hosts requesting services!

26

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


Data Between Separate Segments
9.3.6


A datagram on a TCP/IP local
-
area network must
contain both destination MAC & IP addresses.


A host will
obtain an intermediate device MAC if the
destination is on a different physical network.


The router will then obtain and transfer the packet.

27

July 14, 2005

Robert E. Meyers,
CCNA, CCAI

WVU CATC


End