time adjustment of
utilization in response to changing
circumstances and objectives.
Changing circumstances and objectives include (and are
not limited to) energy
conservation, changes of the radio’s state
(operational mode, battery life, location, etc.), interference
avoidance (either suffered or inflicted),
quality of service (
), graceful degradation guidelines, and
maximization of radio lifetime.
**From IEEE P1900.1
a) A set of rules governing the behavior of a
Policies may originate from regulators, manufacturers,
developers, network and system operators, and system users. A
policy may define, for example, allowed frequency bands,
waveforms, power levels, and secondary user protocols.
B) A machine interpretable instantiation of
policy as defined in (a)
Policies are normally applied post manufacturing of the
radio as a configuration to a specific service application.
Definition b) recognizes that in some contexts the term
“policy” is assumed to refer to
**From IEEE P1900.1
a) A type of
in which communication systems are
aware of their environment and internal state and
make decisions about their radio operating behavior
based on that information and predefined objectives.
The environmental information may or may not
include location information related to communication
b) Cognitive radio [as defined in item a)] that uses
defined radio, adaptive radio,
technologies to adjust automatically its behavior or
operations to achieve desired objectives.
: IEEE DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS POLICY STANDARDS WORK
Lynn Grande, MILCOM 2009.
Abstract: Cognitive and next generation radio technology is instrumental
in handling the dynamic nature of spectrum management. Efficient use of
spectrum is essential because there is more competition for licensed and
unlicensed spectrum and it is being divided up to more stakeholders.
There are two distinct changes in the area of spectrum management. The
first is the availability of white space (broadcast) spectrum bands that was
freed up by the conversion to digital TV. The second is the United States
government broadband plan, which involves selling off some of its
licensed spectrum for profit. This greatly affects the military, which now
has a much smaller piece of the spectrum pie. How can Semantic Web
technology improve this?
We need an ontology that can define radio
characteristics and define a policy ontology framework to manage
the dynamics changes in a radio system
. If there was a common
ontology, all the devices involved in a radio system and between radio
system would be able to share information easier.
We also need these
to be able to search the spectrum
databases for available white space spectrum. These databases
will be accessed over the internet.
There are many
affected by the spectrum changes,
such as 1) commercial wireless and networking product suppliers:
they need to know how to search for available spectrum to use in
their local devices; 2) military: need to efficiently use their smaller
spectrum band; 3) Federal Communications Commission: they
need to be able to propagate spectrum changes easily to
consumers and make sure that users and suppliers are following
the rules; 4) public safety domain: they need an easier way to
taker over spectrum in emergencies; and lastly, 5) the general
public: who wants all their wireless devices to work all the time.
I do not propose to solve all these issues but to apply the
knowledge and tools defined in this course to create a starting
point that can be carried on in my IEEE working group (P1900.5)
for completion and publication in a standard that could be
accepted by the stakeholders mentioned. The demonstration of
this project will involve creating a subset policy ontology and a
way to query the white space databases for available spectrum. I
will have to create test RDF whitespace database for test.
Realistically this database will be dynamic when other commercial
products attempt to reserve spectrum for their device, thus
making a change to that database. Some of the devices needing
spectrum could be personal area networking devices for medical
Create Policy Ontology with
Tie in existing radio ontology create by Wireless
Innovation Forum MLM working group.
Create white space ontology;
Use newly defined XML schema as a basis
Create test white space database;
Create queries to white space database;
White Space database
enabled network device (CR)
Generic use case defining access to the white
White Space devices, be they access points or
clients, will operate in TV
that isn't being used locally.
When a White Space device is switched on it
connects, over the internet, to a chosen
database and supplies its location. The
database responds with a list of radio
frequencies that are available locally. The
Policy Manager selects one (or more) to use,
and passes that information on to the CR. The
CR then uses that frequency to communicate on
a particular channel.
High level sequence diagram
Use requirements from P1900.5 standard
IEEE Standard Policy Language Requirements and System
Architectures for Dynamic Spectrum Access Systems
Some of the entities:
Use some information from this resource
Need to know:
Database to be used;
Time constraints on availability;
Create Java code to:
Use Jena for
Create test code to simulate:
Querying white space database for available
Policy creation sent to CR using policy ontology.