walkingceilInternet and Web Development

Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)




Elie Sanchez

Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale

Biomathématiques et Informatique Médicale, Faculté de Médecine

27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France



Most of today’s Web content is suitable for human consumption. The Semantic Web is presented
as an extension of the current web in which information is g
iven well
defined meaning, better
enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Computers
will understand

the meaning
of semantic data on a web page by following links to specified ontologies. But while the vision of
the Semantic Web and associated

research attracts attention, as long as two
based logical
methods are used, no progress can be expected in handling ill
structured, uncertain or imprecise
information encountered in real world knowledge.

These are exciting times in the fields of Fu
zzy Logic and the Semantic Web as we witness
growing connections between these two fields. At a recent Marseille workshop on "Fuzzy Logic
and the Semantic Web", in a conclusion slide, Frank Van Harmelen (in the context of Fuzzy
Logic) said "The need (and i
nterest) is really there in the Semantic Web community". But the
same could be asserted for the Fuzzy Logic community: we believe that in the coming years, the
Semantic Web will be a major field of applications of Fuzzy Logic.

The Semantic Web, as presente
d under W3C recommendations, deals with hard semantics in the
description and manipulation of crisp data and RDF based languages do not have the ability to
represent soft semantics.
The Semantic Web allows relational knowledge to be embedded as
metadata in

web pages enabling machines to use ontologies and inference rules in retrieving and
manipulating data. Ontologies bridge an effective communication gap between users and
machines. The construction of ontologies is crucial in the development of the Scienti
fic Web. Key
ingredients to build up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms and, when possible, a precise
specification of the meaning of these terms.
In fact, computers require precise definitions but
humans normally work better

precise defin
itions and, mostly due to the nature of the
information in world knowledge, there is a need for a collection of tools drawn from Fuzzy Logic,
for example Zadeh's PNL (Precisiated Natural Language).

A Fuzzy Ontology structure can be defined as consisting of

concepts, of fuzzy relations among
concepts, of a concept hierarchy or taxonomy, and of a set of ontology axioms, expressed in an
appropriate logical language. Then, a lexicon for a fuzzy ontology can consist of lexical entries for
concepts (knowledge abo
ut them can be given by fuzzy attributes, with context
values), of lexical entries for fuzzy relations, coupled with weights expressing the strength of
associations, and of reference functions linking lexical entries to concepts or relations, the
y refer

DLs (Description Logics) are a logical reconstruction of frame
based knowledge representation
languages, that can be used to represent the knowledge of an application domain in a structured
and formally well
understood way. They are considered
as a good compromise between
expressive power and computational complexity. DLs are essentially the theoretical counterpart
of the Web Ontology Language OWL DL, the state of the art language to specify ontologies. DLs
can be used to define, integrate and m
aintain ontologies.
DLs have been extended with fuzzy
capabilities, yielding FDLs (Fuzzy Description Logics) in which concepts are interpreted as fuzzy
sets. These are only a few examples of using Fuzzy Logic in the Semantic Web.

This presentation will cov
er concepts, tools, techniques and examples exhibiting the usefulness,
and the necessity, of using Fuzzy Logic in the Semantic Web. In fact, the question is not really a
matter of necessity, but to recognize where, and how, it is necessary. It
will be show
n how
components of the Semantic Web (such as XML, RDF, Description Logics, Conceptual Graphs,
Ontologies) can be covered, with in each case a Fuzzy Logic focus.

Paraphrasing Lotfi Zadeh (ref. below), we can say that
“in moving further into the age of
hine intelligence and automated reasoning, we have reached a point where we can speak,
without exaggeration, of systems which have a high machine IQ (MIQ) … In the context of the
Semantic Web, MIQ becomes Semantic Web IQ, or SWIQ, for short”

Related refe


"New directions in Enhancing the Power of the Internet" (Proceedings UCB/ERL, Berkeley,
Memo N° M01/28, August 2001) and "Enhancing the Power of the Internet", M. Nikravesh, B.
Azvine, R. Yager and L.A. Zadeh (Eds.), Springer Verlag, 2004


FLINT 2002 Int. conf., IEEE SMC Proceedings 02TH8622, New
Orleans, 2002


L. A. Zadeh, "Web Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic

The concept of Web IQ (WIQ)", Invited talk at
the 2003 IEEE/WIC Int. Conference on Web Intelligence (WI 2003), Halifax, Canada, ava


IPMU 2004, Special Session "Fuzzy Logic in the Semantic Web: a New Challenge",
Proceedings pp.1017
, Perugia, Italy, 2004


Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web" Workshop, Extended abstracts available at:
, Marseille, France, 2005


E. Sanchez (Editor), "Fuzzy Logic and the Semantic Web", Elsevier, to appear in late 2005 or
early 2006

Short Bio

Elie Sanchez

is affiliated to the LIF, "Laboratoire
d'Informatique Fondamentale de Marseille" (CNRS and University),
France. He rec
eived a Ph.D. in Mathematics (Faculty of Science)
and a Ph.D. in Human Biology (Faculty of Medicine), both from Aix
Marseille University. He was a former President of the International
Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA). He has been awarded the

Grigore MOISIL Gold Medal and Award and he has
been elected IFSA Fellow. He is affiliated to the editorial board of 20
journals, including Fuzzy sets and Systems, Artificial intelligence in
Medicine, Information Sciences, Multiple
Valued Logics, Soft
uting. Since the early seventies, when he initiated work on
fuzzy relation equations, and on biomedical applications based on fuzzy logic, he published
intensively on fuzzy set theory, soft computing, and related topics, including two edited volumes
hored with Prof. L.A. Zadeh (following sabbatical years spent at UC Berkeley). His recent
research interests lie on Fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web and Web Intelligence. Finally, he is
serving as Editor of a Volume "Fuzzy logic and the Semantic Web" (Elsev
ier, to appear in late
2005 in the New Series
Capturing Intelligence
), in which participants of this panel are contributing
chapter authors.