Programming Paradigmsx

wakecabbagepatchSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

95 views

Programming Models/
Paradigms

Chapter 5:
Programming Languages

What is a Programming
Paradigm


A programming paradigm is a model , example or
standard approach that has evolved different
programming languages over a number of years.



We can basically divide all the languages into 4
models:


Imperative Programming Model


Declarative


Functional


Object
-
Oriented

Imperative Programming Paradigm



Also known as Procedural paradigm represents
the traditional programming process. It is based
on Fetch
-
Decode and Execute cycle. It defines
the programming process to be development of
a sequence of commands that when followed
manipulate data to produce the desired results.
Thus it focuses on an approach to solve the
problem

Declarative Programming Approach


It emphasizes the question “What is the
problem?” rather than “What algorithm is
required for solving the problem?” Here a
general problem solving approach is developed
that can solve a number of problems. These
languages are difficult to design and are special
purpose by nature


PROLOG (Programming
LOGic
) is an example

Functional Paradigm


It views the process of program development as
construction of some small boxes called
Methods or functions. Each of these box is
provided a set of input values and by applying
some transformation output is produced. This
e.g


Here
Find_sum

and
Find_Diff

are functions that are
performing certain
transformations to get
New_balance

as output

Object Oriented Paradigm


In this approach all real world things are
considered as an object. Each object has a
certain set of qualities/ attributes and each
object can perform some job/method. Thus if I
have an object
CAR
then Car has its color,
engine#, make, model etc as attributes and its
methods can be drive(), stop() etc


Examples include C++, Java etc