Section 508 Compliance and Online Course Content - University of ...

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Nov 4, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Contents

Section 508 Compliance and Online Course Content

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Agenda

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1
) Understanding Section 508

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Clarification

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Section 508 Implications for UGA
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Keeping Web Accessibility in Mind produced by WebAIM

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2) Section 508 Standards and Accessible Design

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Section

508 Standards

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508 and Online Courses

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Include Accessibility Statement

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Course Structure

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Course Layout

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Navigation
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Orie
ntation Document

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Color Scheme

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Backgrounds

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Screen Flicker,
Moving or Blinking Text

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Timed Response

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E
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mail

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Wimba

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3) Strategies and Resources for Creating Accessible Course Content

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Popular Content Formats

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Helpful Resources

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All Documents

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Word Documents

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Semantic Structure

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Headings

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Descriptive Hyperlinks

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Text Equivalents

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Text Equivalents Resources

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Tables

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PowerPoint

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Adobe PDF Documents

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Multimedia Content

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Recomm
ended Reading

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Contact Information

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Section 508 Compliance and Online Course Content

Janet Sylvia, OCTS


CAES

and UGA Web Accessibility Group, Co
-
Leader


Ag
enda

1)

Understanding Section 508

2


2) Section 508 Standards and Accessible Design

3) Demo: Creating Accessible Course Content


1
) Understanding Section 508



What is Section 508?



U.S. Federal Law



Section 508 of
Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998
states in par
t:

“Electronic information
and data must be equally accessible to individuals with and without disabilities.”

Clarification



Section 508



Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998



US Federal Law and provides standards for compliance



Section 504



Rehabilitation

Act of 1973



Prohibits discrimination on basis of handicap



Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)



Prohibits discrimination based on disability in the full and equal enjoyment of the goods,
services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a
ny place of public
accommodation or public services


Section 508 Implications for UGA



BOR Policy



Web Accessibility and Persons with Disabilities



UGA Equal Opportunity Office (EOO) Director Annual letter to Deans, Directors and
Department Heads



Information
Technology Accessibility on Campus



Both documents can be found at
http://wag.uga.edu

under Resources, Additional Resources


Keeping Web Accessibility in Mind

produced by WebAIM

htt
p://webaim.org/intro/#people


2) Section 508 Standards and Accessible Design

Section 508 Standards

a) text equivalent for non
-
text element

b) equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized

c) information conveyed with color
is also available without color

d) documents organized and readable without style sheets

e) server
-
side image maps

f) client
-
side image maps

3


g) row and column headers identified for data tables

h) associate data cells with header cells

i) frames shall be t
itled

j) avoid content that causes page flicker

k) text
-
only page only if main cannot be made accessible

l) scripting language used to display content, provide with functional text

m) must provide links to applets, plug
-
ins, etc.

n) electronic forms have i
dentifiable field elements, directions and cues

o) skip repetitive navigation links

p) if timed response, user shall be alerted and sufficient time to request more time


508 and Online Courses

1) Framework (eLC)

2) Accessible Design and Navigation

3) Acces
sible Course Content


Include Accessibility Statement



Syllabus and/or eLC Homepage



Sample Statements



UGA Disability Resource Center (DRC) face
-
to
-
face classes or customize for online
courses


http
://
drc.uga.edu/faculty/sampleaccess.php


Course Structure



Follow a simple and consistent course design



Organize related content



Folders
, Learning Modules
, Homepage



Establish a consistent layout



Folders,
Learning Modules
, Homepage



Consistent color scheme



Same icon layout



Page and content titles that make sense

Course Layout



Design for Ease of Use



Keep Homepage simple and uncluttered



Arran
ge icons in a logical order



Use both icon and text for Homepage links



Use text as primary method of delivering information (images and color are
secondary)



Ensure icons, folders, links, lessons (etc.) have unique and descriptive titles


Navigation



Ensure C
ourse Menu is organized and up
-
to
-
date



Add Search tool and move to top of Course Menu

4




Move frequently used tools just below Search tool



Remove all eLC Tools not currently used


Orientation Document



Provide Orientation Document on Homepage



Describe overall
layout of course



Types of content available in course



Features or Tools that will be used



Include Accessibility Statement



Provide contact information and welcome suggestions on how to increase accessibility


Color Scheme



Choose colors carefully



eLC offers
a “High Contrast” color scheme



Avoid using color alone to convey important information



Red/green and Pastels , may not be distinguishable



Use * or other annotation in addition to color



Ensure that text, graphics and images are understandable when viewed wi
thout color



Tool: Run Vischeck on images and web pages
http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck
/


Backgrounds



Keep all backgrounds simple



Homepage,
Documents, etc.



Ensure background doesn’t overpower text



Ensure high contrast between text and background



Web Accessibility Toolbar (want contrast 500+ difference)

http://
www.paciellogroup.com/resources/wat
-
about.html



Background Overpowers Text


Good vs. Poor Contrast



http://www.w3.org/WAI/wcag
-
curric/sam27
-
0.htm


Screen Fli
cker, Moving or Blinking Text



Ensure no component of web content flashes more than 3 times per second



Avoid flashing or blinking text unless it has been tested and complies with Section 508



Also applies to animations of lightning storms or other fast
-
movin
g subjects



Test video content at
http://trace.wisc.edu/peat


Timed Response



Provide means for requesting additional time when timed response is required



Alert students that a timed response is required



Provide suf
ficient time for the student to indicate that more time is required



Also applies to web applications on external websites


5


E
-
mail



Allow students to use external email systems



Personal email systems can be customized as needed


Inaccessible eLC Tools (Bb Vi
sta 8)



Chat / Whiteboard



Avoid required participation in real
-
time sessions



Grading Forms



Provide alternate means of communicating with students who cannot access Grade
Forms



Example: comments can be emailed to students who are unable to access Grading
For
ms



Who’s Online


Wimba



Offers a fully Accessible Interface



Wimba Classroom Accessibility Best Practices Guide available at:
http
://
www.wimba.com/company/accessibility


3) Strategies and Resources for Creating Accessible Course Content


Popular Content Formats



Documents
:



Word



Adobe PDF



PowerPoint



Multimedia
:



Audio Only



Audio+Video



Au
dio Narrated PowerPoint Presentations



Flash Tutorials


Helpful Resources



US Department of Health and Human Services



Section 508 Checklists



http://www.hhs.gov/web/508/checklists/index.html



Wor
d Document 508 Checklist



PDF File 508 Checklist



Multimedia File 508 Checklist



HTML 508 Checklist



PowerPoint 508 Checklist



Excel 508 Checklist


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Testing Documents for 508 Compliance



http://www.hhs.
gov/web/508/testdocuments.html





WebAIM, Articles



http://www.webaim.org/articles


All Documents



HTML is typically the most accessible and preferred document type



Recommendation: provide text content in more t
han one format (ex: Word and PDF, or Word
and HTML, or PPT and HTML, etc.)




Ensure readability:



Ample white space around and between blocks of text



Avoid complex sentences



Divide large blocks of information into manageable sections



Use proper lists (not in
dent or tab)



Resist urge to change font sizes or color to indicate headings or structure; instead use
Styles




Standard font size 12 pt



Font type: sans
-
serif (such as Arial, Verdana, Tahoma)



http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_typefaces#Sans_serif



Word Documents



Document Title, Subject, Author, Keywords



Default Language specified as English



Change of language requires new language specification



Create structure using Styles, required for Headi
ngs, Lists,

etc.




Descriptive hyperlinks



ALT text for images where 100 characters or less sufficient



Long Description when ALT text is insufficient



Create a Table of Contents ; update as content is updated


Semantic Structure



Semantic structure is
critical

for accessibility



Use Styles to create semantic structure, such as:



Headings (instead of bold or larger font)



Paragraphs (instead of indent or tab)



Lists (instead of tab, indent)



Data tables contain appropriate headers



Provide table description as ALT tex
t



Emphasis instead of italics



Strong instead of bold



Understanding Styles in Microsoft Word



http://addbalance.com/usersguide/styles.htm

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Headings



H1 Major section, should match title



H2 Section



H3

Subsection



H4 through H6 generally not used, but are available if needed



HTML document should have only one H1



Word may use H1 for each major section of longer documents



Don’t skip down
-
levels (H1 followed by H2 not H4)


Descriptive Hyperlinks



Avoid usin
g “click here” or “email me”



Link text should make sense out
-
of
-
context



Good: There were many inventions during the
Industrial Revolution
of history



Bad: For information about the Industrial Revolution
click here



Avoid placing links too close together



Avoi
d too many hyperlinks in a single document or page (“34 is a lot”)



True for all document types


Text Equivalents



Required for all non
-
text elements (images, graphs, charts, audio, etc.)



Provided via ALT text or Long Descriptions



ALT text provides a clear,

concise description of the image using approximately 100
characters or less



Long Descriptions are used when ALT text is insufficient to describe non
-
text element



Avoid using “image of” or filename as ALT text



ALT text can be added to image properties in H
TML, Word, PDF, PowerPoint, etc.



True for all document types containing non
-
text elements


Text Equivalents Resources



WebAIM: Appropriate use of Alternative Text



http
://webaim.org/techniques/alttext/#
basics



Long description for a complicated chart



http
://www.w3.org/WAI/wcag
-
curric/sam3
-
0.htm


Tables



Keep tables simple, especially Word and PPT



Tables have column and row headers (if possible)



Data cells are associated with column and row headers (HTML and PDF only)



Provide descript
ion via ALT text or surrounding text


PowerPoint



To achieve structure:

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Use standard layouts (slide titles and bulleted lists)



Use Slide Title on all slides (i.e. Headings)



Avoid using Text Boxes



ALT text for images (use DESCRIPTION field)



Use Notes to pr
ovide Long Descriptions of images



Simple data tables may be accessible, but include Long Descriptions and provide link to
original PPT



Avoid automatic slide transitions



Use simple slide transitions



Avoid embedded video that causes flicker



Embedded video mu
st be captioned



To create alternate formats:



Use Outline View and copy/paste slide text into HTML or other program (edits
needed)



Avoid Save As Web Page
(NOT ACCESSIBLE)



Consider saving as PPT or 97
-
2003 format at this time


Adobe PDF Documents



Can be tim
e consuming and inherently difficult



Be sure a PDF is required or use HTML, Word, etc.



Original file should be accessible for best results



Tit
le, Language, Headings, Paragraphs, Alt Text, Descriptive Hyperlinks, Lists, etc.



ONLY use File, Save As, PDF (r
equires full version of Acrobat)



File, Print to PDF is not accessible



Scanned text is not accessible PDF



Convert to OCR, clean artifacts, add Semantic Structure



Add Tags using Adobe Acrobat full edition to add structure



Review tags for accuracy, edit and
correct mistakes



Adobe Acrobat built
-
in Accessibility Checker



May give false results



Manual checks are required even if built
-
in accessibility checker indicates “no
problems”



WebAIM: PDF Accessibility



h
ttp://webaim.org/techniques/acrobat
/



California State University System



http
://
www.csus.edu/accessibility/guides.htm



Adobe Accessibility



http
://www.adobe.com/accessibility
/


Multimedia Content



Audio Only



Text transcript of audio



Provided in accessible document format



Audio+Video



Synchronized Captions



Text Transcript



Video Description (unless talking head)

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http://www.hort.uga.edu



Can combine Text Transcript and Video Description:



http
://www.w3.org/WAI/wcag
-
curric/cat
ch.htm



WebAIM examples



http://webaim.org/intro/#
people



Audio
-
narrated PowerPoint



Text
-
only Transcript



Slide Descriptions



Audio must provide text transcript



http://
students.caes.uga.edu/opportunities/index.cfm



Other



Flash Tutorials



Can be made accessible



Should be built
-
in as part of origina
l design



Consult your Flash developer



WebAIM: Creating Accessible Flash Content



http://webaim.org/techniques/flash/



Math Equations



Example: CATEA at Georgia Tech, Model of Accessible Course Design, Intro
to Fluid
Mechanics Course



http
://
www.catea.gatech.
edu/grade/mecheng/mehome.htm


Recommended Reading



Distance Education Accessibility Guidelines



California Community Colleges



http://www.cccco.edu/SystemOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/DistanceEducation/Regulatio
nsandGuidelines/tabid/767/Default.aspx



Contact Information
:


Janet Sylvia, OCTS


CAES
,
University of Georgia

jsylvia@uga.edu


Please post questions to WAG
Listserv

To join visit http://wag.uga.edu