Presence and the Moving Image Bibliography 5/19/13

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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)


Presence and the Moving Image



Balakrishnan, B., &

Sundar, S.


(2011). Where am I? How can I get there? Impact of navigability and
narrative transportation on spatial

Computer Interaction
, 161
204. Doi: 10.1080/07370024.2011.60168

From video games to virtual worlds on the World Wide Web, modern media are becoming increasingly
spatial, with user traversing artifici
al spaces and experiences a kind of immersion known as “spatial
presence.” But how do these media induce spatial presence? Are the affordance for movement
provided by these technologies responsible for this illusion? Or do narratives that accompany them
rsuade us to suspend disbelief and transport ourselves into a virtual space? We explore these
theoretical questions by pitting the navigability affordances of a video game against narrative
transportation and examining their relative contributions to the f
ormation of spatial presence in a
virtual reality context. Results from a large experiment (N=240) reveal that the narrative actually
detracts from spatial presence while traversibility (in the form of greater degrees of steering motion)
enhances it even w
ithout invoking a mental model of the portrayed environment. Theoretical and
practical implications are discussed.

Karapanos, E., Barreto, M., Nisi, V., Niforat
os, E.

(2012). Does locality make a difference? Assessing the effectiveness of location

Interacting with Computers

With the increasing sophistication of mobile computing, a growing interest has been paid to locative
media that aim at
providing immersive experiences. Location aware narratives are a particular kind of
locative media that aim at ‘‘telling stories that unfold in real space’’. This paper presents a study that
aimed at assessing an underlying hypothesis of location
aware nar
ratives: that the coupling between the
physical space and the narrative will result in increased levels of immersion in the narrative. Forty
individuals experienced a location
aware video narrative in three locations: (a) the original location that
ntains physical cues from the narrative world, (b) a different location that yet portrays a similar
atmosphere, and (c) a location that contains neither physical cues nor a similar atmosphere. Significant
differences were found in users’ experiences with t
he narrative in terms of immersion in the story and
mental imagery, but not with regard to feelings of presence, emotional involvement or the memorability
of story elements. We reflect on these findings and the implications for the design of location

narratives and highlight questions for further research.

Lee, S.,
Kim, G.


(2008). Effects of visual cues and sustained attention on spatial presence in virtual e
nviroments based
on spatial and object distinction.

Interacting with Computer
, 491

This article reports two human experiments to investigate the effects of visual cues and sustained

on spatial presence over a period of prolonged exposur
e in virtual environments. Inspired by
the two

functional subsystems subserving spatial and object vision in the human brain, visual cues and

attention were each classified into spatial and object cues, and spatial and non
attention, resp

In the first experiment, the effects of visual cues on spatial presence were
examined when subjects

were exposed to virtual environments configured with combinations of spatial
and object cues. It was

found that both types of visual cues enhanced

spatial presence with saturation
over a period of prolonged

exposure, but the contribution of spatial cues became more relevant with
longer exposure time. In the

second experiment, subjects were asked to carry out two tasks involving
sustained spatial att

and sustained non
spatial attention. We observed that spatially directed
attention improved spatial presence

more than non
spatially directed attention did. Furthermore,
spatial attention had a positive interaction

with detailed object cues.

Sacau, A., Laarni, J., & Hartmann, T.

(2008). Influence if individual factors on presence.
Computers in Human Behavior
, 2255

The present paper is a review
of the role of individual factors in Spatial Presence. If Spatial Presence

is a
subjective mental phenomenon psychological factors must have an important role on it. Our

shows that, even though many authors claim about the need for a better understa
nding about

relation, empirical evidence is still very limited. Personality
related factors as absorption, and the

capability to be immersed show to have an influence on the sense of Presence. Additional evidence is

needed for the role of such factors

as extraversion/introversion. Evidence of the impact of cognitive

abilities on Presence in complex media environments is greatly indirect, and based on studies

the effect of those cognitive abilities on situation awareness and task performan
ce. The

of practice and demographic factors is also considered.

Samana, R., Wallach, H.,
Safir, M.

(2009). The impact of personality traits in the experienc
e of presence.
Proceedings from IEEE 2009:
Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference
. Haifa, Israel.

This study was designed to examine the correlation

between five personality traits (empathy,
imagination, immersive

tendencies, dissociation
tendencies and locus of control) and

Additionally, the study attempted to identify an optimal

Virtual Reality user profile. Sixty one students
(43 women & 18men) completed personality questionnaires, experienced exposure

in a virtual
and completed a presence questionnaire.

Although presence correlated with immersive
tendencies and

empathy, empathy and internal locus of control (and not

immersive tendencies) were
the best predictors for the sense of

presence. Thus, this study revealed t
he importance of empathy

internal locus of control in sense of presence.

Schubert, T. W.

(2009). A new conception of spatial presence: Once again, with f
ommunication Theory
(2), 161
187. doi:10.1111/j.1468

Recent theories of telepresence or


in a virtual environment argue that it is a subjective
experience of being in the virtual environment, and that it is the outcome of constructing a mental
model of the self as being located in the virtual environment. However, current theories fail to exp
how the subjective experience of


emerges from the unconscious

processes. To fill this gap,


is conceptualized here as a cognitive feeling. From this


is a feedback from un
conscious cognitive processes that informs conscious
thought about the state of the

cognitive system. Current theorizing on the origins and properties
of cognitive feelings is reviewed and applied to

. This



attention to the functionality of


for judgments, decisions, and behavior. By highlighting
the distinction between

cognitive processes and the subjective feeling of

, the
use of questionnaires is theoreticall
y grounded and legitimized as a method of

Finally, embodied cognition theories are reviewed to identify cues that give rise to


Wallach, H.

S., Safir, M.

Samana, R.

(2010). Personality variables and presence.
Virtual Reality
(3), 3

The present study was designed to examine the correlation between five personality traits (empathy,
imagination, immersive tendencies, d
issociation tendencies and locus of control) and presence.
Moreover, this study aimed to identify an optimal virtual reality user’s profile. Eighty
four students (66
women, 18 men) completed personality

questionnaires, experienced exposure in a virtual env
and completed a presence questionnaire. Twenty
three women, among them 13 non
Jewish women
and no men, neglected to look out the virtual window, and reported lower levels of presence. Presence
correlated with immersive tendencies and empathy. Howe
ver, empathy and internal locus of control
were the best predictors for the sense of presence. A correlation between imagination and presence
was only found in the group that avoided viewing the virtual window. This study revealed the
mportance of empathy

and internal locus of control in the sense of presence. In addition, our findings
suggest that the subject’s imagination has an important role when the virtual environment is restricted
and that we must attend to cultural and gender
related factors when
investigating therapy using virtual
reality technology.

Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., &

Mest, F.


(2010). Immersion in mediated environments: The role of personality traits.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior,
and Social Networking

Previous research studies in the context of presence point out the importance of personality factors.

the relation between immersion and the Big Five personality factors has not yet been
examined. Hence, we

assessed these traits in an online survey (N¼220) and relate them to immersive
tendency, a disposition that

determines whether someone is receptive to
immersive experiences during
media exposure. Using structural

equation modeling, we can show that openness to experience,
neuroticism, and extraversion are positively related

to immersive tendency. The immersive tendency
subscale absorption is related to o
penness to experience, whereas

the immersive tendency subscale
emotional involvement is related to openness, extraversion, and neuroticism.

Weibel, D., Wissmath, B
., &

Mest, F.


(2011). Influence of mental imagery on spatial presence and enjoyment assessed in different types of

Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

(10), 607

Previous research studies on spatial presence point out that the users’ imagery abilities are of
importance. However, this influence has not yet been tested for different media. This is surprising
because theoretical considerations suggest that mental imag
ery comes into play when a mediated
environment lacks vividness. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence mental imagery abilities
can have on the sensation of presence and enjoyment in different mediated environments. We presents
the participant
s (n=60) a narrative text, a movie sequence, and a computer game. Across all media, no
effect of mental imagery abilities on presence and enjoyment was found, but imagery abilities
marginally interacted with the mediated environment. Individuals with high
imagery abilities
experienced more presence and enjoyment in the text condition. The results were different for the film
condition: here, individuals with poor imagery abilities reported marginally higher enjoyment ratings,
whereas the presence ratings did

not differ between the two groups. Imagery abilities had no influence
in presence and enjoyment within the computer game condition. The results suggest that good imagery
abilities contribute to the sensations of presence and enjoyment when reading a narra
tive text. The
results for this study have an applied impact for media use because their effectiveness can depend on
the individual mental imagery abilities.


W., Hartmann, T., Böcking, S., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., Schramm, H., Saari, T., Laarni, J., Ravaja,
N., Gouveia, F. R., Biocca, F., Sacau, A., Jäncke, L., Baumgartner, T., &

Jäncke, P.

(2007). A process model of the formation of Spatial Presence experien

Media Psychology
, 493

In order to bridge interdisciplinary differences in Presence research and to establish connections
resence and “older” concepts of psychology and communication, a theoretical model of the
formation of Spatial Pr
esence is proposed. It is applicable to the exposure to different media and
intended to unify the existing efforts to develop a theory of Presence. The model includes assumptions
about attention allocation, mental models, and involvement, and considers the

role of media factors
and user characteristics as well, thus incorporating much previous work. It is argued that a commonly
accepted model of Spatial Presence is the only solution to secure further progress within the
international, interdisciplinary and
paradigm community of Presence research.