Human Body in a 3-D, Immersive,

wafflejourneyAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

88 views

Applied Anatomical Diagnostic
Framework for Visualizing the
Human Body in a 3
-
D, Immersive,
Navigable and Interactive VR
Environment

May 4, 2012

Steven
Beaudoin
, BS

George D.
Lecakes

Jr., MS

Tony
Aita
, BS

Lawrence Weisberg, MD

Michael Goldberg, MD

Vijay Rajput, MD

Shreekanth

Mandayam
, PhD

Contributing Authors

Steven


Beaudoin

George
Lecakes
, MS

Shreekanth

Mandayam
, PhD

Michael
Goldberg, MD

Vijay


Rajput
, MD

Lawrence
Weisberg, MD

Overview


Background


Objectives


Approach


Results


Future Goals


Conclusions


Acknowledgements

-
US Department of Education, 2010


“ To consider integration of 21
st

century competencies, expertise, such
as critical thinking, complex problem
solving,
collaboration, multimedia
communication,
and technological
competencies demonstrated by
professional disciplines”

Cooper Medical School

CAVE® at Medical School


Basic anatomy



Clinical correlation



Systems based practice educational tool



Simulation scenarios (simulated patients /
conditions)


Background

The Rowan University CAVE®

Background

The Rowan University CAVE®


7.5'h x 10'w x 10'd tracked virtual environment
covering 3
-
walls and a floor


4
-

active stereo DLP projectors, 3,000 ANSI lumens,
1400x1050 resolution, with short
-
throw zoom lens


CAVE® structure fabricated with extruded &
powdercoated

80/20 aluminum,


8
-
camera
WorldViz

IR position tracking system


CrystalEyes
® active shutter glasses


6
-

PC computer cluster


WorldViz

Vizard, Autodesk 3D Studio Max / Maya

Objectives


Provide intuitive
correlation of clinical
information



Utilize a CAVE® virtual reality (VR) environment to
enhance viewing of data sets



Ask “what
if?” questions and simulate multiple scenarios
for
pathological/anatomical diagnosis



Utilize multiple diagnostic imaging procedures for
prognostic capability


Approach


Data preparation



CT
-

dataset of volunteer torso from the skull to the pelvis



Consisted of 909 images at 1mm slices



Provided in DICOM data format with each image having a different window
center and window width

Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Approach


Data preprocessing



Utilize image processing tool (MATLAB) to convert images into a standard window center
and window width



Converted the various ranges into standard grayscale range (0
-
255)


0


Black


255


White



Export images to CAVE compatible file format (
tga,png,jpeg
)


Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Approach

Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Raw data

Processed Data

Approach


Data Visualization



Load images (textures) sequentially




Textures are applied to a series of
evenly spaced polygonal planes



Each plane represents one cross
-
sectional slice of patient data



Images are given transparency



Images are rendered back to front

Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Approach


Pixel Values



Values from a CT scan
represent different densities



Radiolucent regions are low
density


air



Radiodense

regions are
higher density


bone

Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Approach


Data Manipulation and Interface


1.
Grayscale histogram


Cull pixel values from the histogram
using a range slider.


2.
Pseudo
-
color histogram


Cull pixel values and color the
ranges with red, green, or blue ranges.


3.
Clip Plane Mode


Clip the polygonal planes with an
OpenGL clipping plane in any orientation.


Xbox 360® Controller


All functionality mapped to buttons

Data
Preparation

Data
Preprocessing

Data
Visualization

Real
-
Time
Processing

Educational / Future Medical Applications


Learn anatomy / clinically applied anatomy in
3D virtual reality



Anatomic pathology and radiological
integration



Correlation of surface and organ anatomy for
surgical procedure



Application of 3D virtual reality to understand
system based practice


e.g. Assess Home
environment for safety for geriatric patient


Other uses of CAVE®

Work In Progress



Fuse multiple image data sets (MRI, CT, PET) to
distinguish redundant and complementary
information for clinically applied anatomical
education

Work In Progress

Acknowledgments


We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of:


Dr. H. Warren Goldman, MD, PhD

Professor and Chair of Neurosurgery

Cooper Hospital, Camden, NJ


Mr. Anthony
Aita

Neurosurgery Department

Cooper Hospital, Camden, NJ


Approach

Approach