Surveillance

voltaireblingData Management

Nov 20, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Surveillance

Society










Definition


The monitoring of the behavior, activities, or
other changing information, usually for the
purpose of influencing, managing, directing,
or protecting.



Most usually involves observation of
individuals or groups by government
organizations.

Positive? Negative?


Surveillance is useful to governments and law
enforcement to maintain social control,
recognize and monitor threats, and
prevent/investigate criminal activity.



Civil rights groups are concerned that mass
surveillance will result in limited or non
-
existent political and/or personal freedoms.

Types of Surveillance


Computer surveillance


Telephones


Surveillance cameras


Social network analysis


Biometric surveillance


Aerial surveillance


Corporate surveillance


Types of Surveillance


Human operatives


Satellite imagery


Identification and credentials


RFID and geolocation devices


RFID tagging


Global positioning system


Mobile phones


Surveillance devices


Postal services

Computer Surveillance



Vast majority of computer surveillance
involves monitoring of data and traffic on the
Internet.


Real
-
time monitoring by Federal law
enforcement agencies.


“Trigger” words or phrases


Visiting certain types of web sites


Communicating with suspicious individuals or
groups



FBI software
-

Magic Lantern
and
CIPAV
can
be used to gain unauthorized access to data;
can be installed physically or remotely


vanEck phreaking


reads electromagnetic
emanations remotely from computing devices
to extract data


Pinwale



stores and indexes large numbers of
emails of American citizens and foreigners

Telephones


Widespread official and unofficial wiretapping


AT&T and Verizon are paid by the FBI to keep
records easily searchable and accessible


Speech
-
to
-
text software creates machine
-
readable text from intercepted audio


Technology available to US, UK governments to
remotely activate microphones in cell phones


“Multilateration” of cell phone towers used to
collect location data from cell phone use

Surveillance Cameras


Video cameras
used to observe an area


Connected to a recording device or IP network


Automated software
organizes digital video
footage into a searchable database


Homeland Security grants
in US enable cities
to install cameras and to connect them to
central monitoring center


“Golden Shield Project”


US companies install
cameras, facial recognition software in China
to track individuals. Goal is to have a picture
of every person in China in central database.







Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) funding research to link cameras to a
central monitoring station in a city


Identix’
s

facial recognition software used at
Super Bowl 2001


Traffic cameras in DC used for day
-
to
-
day
monitoring by DC police


Trapwire

-

Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV)
cameras track people’s movements across city

Social Network Analysis


Maps of social networks based on data from
Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, traffic analysis
information from phone call records


These maps are “data mined” to extract
personal interests, friendships, affiliations,
beliefs, thoughts, activities.


DARPA, National Security Agency (NSA),
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
invest in social network analysis.



AT&T’s programming language “
Hancock”

sifts
through databases of phone call and Internet
traffic records.


Employers report using social networking sites
to collect personal data on prospective or
current employees.

Biometric Surveillance


Biometric surveillance measures and analyzes
human physical and/or behavioral
characteristics for authentication,
identification, or screening purposes.


Fingerprints, DNA, facial patterns, voice
recognition, iris scanning, etc.


Some technology can identify a person up to
500 ft. by facial features.


Affective computing


computers recognize a
person’s emotional state based on analysis of
facial expressions, speed of talking, tone and
pitch of voice, posture, etc.


DNA fingerprinting


analyzes major markers
in DNA to produce a match


FBI spending $1 billion to build database for
people in US. Computers are in underground
facility as large as two football fields.


Facial thermographs


identify fear, stress

Aerial Surveillance


Aerial surveillance gathers visual imagery or
video from an airborne vehicle.


Unmanned aerial vehicle
(UAV),
helicopter,
spy plane, micro
-
aerial vehicles
(MAV),
forward
-
looking infrared devices.


DHS testing UAVs to patrol US skies


UK building up fleet of UAVs for its police


MAVs can carry Tasers for crowd control or as
weapons




DARPA programs automate much of the aerial
surveillance process.


Self
-
piloting UAVs decide who is “suspicious,”
monitor them, coordinate with other UAVs,
notify human operators in centralized
monitoring station


AI drones increase area that can be
continuously monitored, reducing number of
human operators

Data Mining and Profiling


Data mining


application of statistical
techniques to discover relationships within
data


Assemble data to create a profile, i.e., a
picture of patterns and behavior


Economic and social transactions create data


Web traffic and online purchases also used for
profiling


Data analysis used by programs such as
ADVISE and TALON to determine whether the
person is a military, criminal, or political threat


ADVISE


Analysis, Dissemination,
Visualization, Insight, Semantic Enhancement
R&D program authorized by DHS.


TALON



Threat and Local Observation Notice,
activated after 9/11 by Dept. of Defense;
contains info on antiwar groups


US is planning 43 “fusion centers”, a national
network of surveillance centers in over 30
states


Fusion centers
will collect, analyze data from
drivers’ licensing centers, hospital records,
criminal records, school records, credit
bureaus, banks, etc.


Info will be placed in a centralized database
that can be accessed by all centers as well as
federal law enforcement and intelligence
agencies

Corporate Surveillance


Monitoring of a person or group’s behavior by
a corporation


Data usually used for marketing purposes


Can be shared with government agencies


Google stores identifying information for each
web search, scans
content of
Gmail
webmail
service to tailor advertising



Many US companies monitor e
-
mail traffic or
workers and/or Internet connections


Companies use software to block non
-
work
related websites such as offensive sites, game
sites, social networking sites, entertainment
sites, shopping sites, and sports sites


Some companies track keystrokes and time
spent at keyboards


Infragard



FBI, DHS, corporations have
information
-
sharing partnership

Human Operatives


Organizations that have enemies who wish to
gather information about the groups’
members or activities face the issue of
infiltration


HUMINT



intelligence gathered by humans
rather than by electronic monitoring and data
mining

Satellite Imagery


Local, state, and domestic Federal agencies
can access imagery from military intelligence
satellites and aircraft sensors


These devices can penetrate cloud cover,
detect chemical traces, and identify objects in
buildings and underground bunkers


Real
-
time video better than still images from
Google Earth

Identification and Credentials


A card containing an identification number


Some countries have national ID numbers


IDs can be verified by passports, drivers’
licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards


Machine
-
readable data can create an
electronic trail

RFID and Geolocation Devices



a. RFID Tagging


Use of very small electronic devices applied or
incorporated into a product, animal, or person
for identification and tracking using radio
waves


Some companies tag employees, who are
monitored while on job


VeriChip

(Applied Digital Solutions), injected
under skin, stores personal information in
“Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry”

b. Global Positioning System


In US, police have planted hidden GPS tracking
devices in people’s vehicles to monitor their
movements


Some cities require parolees to wear GPS
devices to track their movements when they
get out of prison

c. Mobile Phones


Commonly used to collect geolocation data


Multilateration



calculates the differences in
time for a signal to travel from the cell phone
to each of several cell towers near the owner
of the phone

d. Surveillance Devices


“Bugs”
are hidden electronic devices used to
capture, record, and/or transmit data to a
receiving party such as a law enforcement
agency


COINTELPRO



US domestic intelligence
program bugged homes, office, vehicles of
political activists, subversives, criminals

e. Postal Services


Significance of surveillance of postal system
decreasing in favor of Internet and telephone
surveillance


Interception of mail is still option for law
enforcement

Controversy over Surveillance







Support


These tools protect society from terrorists and
criminals


People must become accustomed to having no
privacy


“If you aren’t doing anything wrong, then you
don’t have anything to worry about.”

Opposition


“As long as we do what we’re told, we have
nothing to fear.”


Political activists do not want the government
to know their names


Mass surveillance may make future opposition
impossible


Most people do have things to hide, e.g., job
hunter may not want present employer to
know this

Opposition: Totalitarianism


Fear that society is moving toward a state of
mass surveillance


“Laying the bricks one at a time for a police
state.”


Blurring of lines between public and private
places


Surveillance techniques are not equal, e.g.,
facial recognition requires no cooperation

Opposition:

Psychological/Social Effects



Creates in people a feeling of always being
watched, so they become self
-
policing



The State can control the populace without
having to resort to physical force

Opposition: Privacy


Civil rights groups include Electronic Privacy
Information Center, Electronic Frontier
Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union


Lawsuits include Hepting v. AT&T, EPIC v.
Department of Justice


The Church Committee investigated domestic
intelligence programs such as COINTELPRO

Counter
-
surveillance,

Inverse Surveillance, Sousveillance


Counter
-
surveillance



avoiding surveillance or
making surveillance difficult


Inverse surveillance


reversal of surveillance
on other individuals or groups, e.g., citizens
photographing police


Sousveillance



inverse surveillance, involving
the recording by private individuals, rather
than government or corporate entities