22. NT, UNIX and Novell NetWare

volleyballbeginnerNetworking and Communications

Oct 27, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

22. NT, UNIX and Novell NetWare



© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Domain

(my_d)

Domain

(my_d)

Local audit policy Success Failure




User login/logout










File and object access










Use of user rights










User and group management










Security policy changes










Restart/shutdown










Process tracking







\
\
bills_

pc

\
\

freds

_

pc

\
\
server1

Domain audit policy Success Failure




User login/logout










File and object access











etc

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

UNIX file attributes

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

UNIX


TCP/IP for its communications.


NFS for mounting files over a network.


ICMP (for ping, traceroute, and so on).


RIP (for routing).


ARP (for determination of MAC addresses).


DNS (for determining domain names).


BOOTP (for IP address allocation).


FTP (for file transfer).


TELNET (for remote login).


NIS (for creating domains).


RPC (for remote processing execution).


SMTP (for e
-
mail).


SNMP (for network management)

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Transport Driver

Interface (TDI)

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Data link

Data link

Physical

Physical

NetWare

(SPX/IPX)

NetWare

(SPX/IPX)

UNIX/

Internet

(TCP/IP)

UNIX/

Internet

(TCP/IP)

Windows

(NetBEUI)

Windows

(NetBEUI)

Media Access Control

Media Access Control

Ethernet/ ATM/ ISDN/ etc.

Ethernet/ ATM/ ISDN/ etc.

Application program

Application program

Network Device

Interface Specification

(NDIS)

NDIS

Wrapper

NDIS NIC

Driver

NIC

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

ODI (open

data
-
link interface)

NIC (network

interface card)

SPX/IPX

NCP (network

core protocol)

NetWare shell

(NETx)

Application

programs

software

hardware

server

NetWare client: Windows NT, Windows 3.1,

Unix, OS/2, Mac or DOS

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Problems with Novell NetWare 3


It

uses

SPX/IPX

which

is

incompatible

with

TCP/IP

traffic
.


It

is

difficult

to

synchronize

servers

with

user

information
.


The

file

structure

is

local

to

individual

servers
.


Server

architecture

is

flat

and

cannot

be

organized

into

a

hierarchical

structure

(Bindery

services)
.

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

NDS


Hierarchical

server

structure
.


Network
-
wide

users

and

groups
.


Global

objects
.

NDS

integrates

users,

groups,

printers,

servers,

volumes

and

other

physical

resources

into

a

hierarchical

tree

structure
.


System
-
wide

login

with

a

single

password
.

This

allows

users

to

access

resources

which

are

connected

to

remote

servers
.



NDS

processes

logins

between

NetWare

3
.
1

and

NetWare

4
/
5

servers,

if

the

login

names

and

passwords

are

the

same
.


Supports

distributed

file

system
.

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

NDS (cont.)


Synchronization services. NDS allows for directory synchronization,
which allows directories to be mirrored on different partitions or
different servers. This provides increased reliability in that if a server
develops a fault then the files on that server can be replicated by
another server.


Standardized organizational structure for applications, printers,
servers and services. This provides a common structure across
different organizations.


It integrates most of the administrative tasks in Windows
-
based
NWADMIN.EXE program.


It is a truly distributed system where the directory information can
be distributed around the tree.


Support for NFS server for UNIX resources.


Multiple login scripts, as opposed to system and user login scripts in
NetWare 3.1.


Windows NT support.

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Organization

Electrical

Mechanical

Production

Administration

BINS/VOL1

Q_LASER

CD_DISK

SYS/VOL2

Container

objects

Container

objects

Root

objects

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University


[ROOT]
.

This

is

the

top

level

of

the

tree
.

The

top

of

the

NDS

tree

is

the

[ROOT]

object
.


C=Country
.

This

object

can

be

used,

or

not,

to

represent

different

countries,

typically

where

an

organization

is

distributed

over

two

or

more

countries
.

If

it

is

used

then

it

must

be

placed

below

the

[ROOT]

object
.

NDS

normally

does

not

use

the

Country

object

and

uses

the

Organization

Unit

to

define

the

geographically

located

sites,

such

as

SALES_UK
.
[ROOT],

SALES_USA
.
[ROOT],

and

so

on
.



L=Locality
.

This

object

defines

locations

within

other

objects,

and

identifies

network

portions
.

The

Country

and

Locality

objects

are

included

in

the

X
.
500

specification,

but

they

are

not

normally

used,

because

many

NetWare

4

utilities

do

not

recognize

it
.

When

used,

it

must

be

placed

below

the

[Root]

object,

Country

object,

Organization

object,

or

Organizational

Unit

object
.

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Leaf Objects (CN
-

Common Name)

Apart from the container objects (C, O, OU, and so
on) there are leaf objects. These are assigned a CN
(for Common Name). They include:


CN=AFP Server


CN=Bindery



CN=Bindery Queue CN=Computer


CN=Directory Map

CN=Group

CN=Organizational Role

CN=Print Queue CN=Print Server

CN=Printer


CN=Profile


CN=Server CN=User


CN=Volume


© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University



LP=Licensed

Product
.

This

object

is

automatically

created

when

a

license

certificate

is

installed
.

When

used,

it

must

be

placed

below

the

[Root]

object,

Country

object,

Organization

object,

or

Organizational

Unit

object
.


O=Organization
.

This

object

represents

the

name

of

the

organization,

a

company

division

or

a

department
.

Each

NDS

Directory

tree

has

at

least

one

Organization

object,

and

it

must

be

placed

below

the

[Root]

object

(unless

the

tree

uses

the

Country

or

Locality

object)
.



OU=Organization

Unit
.

This

object

normally

represents

the

name

of

the

organizational

unit

within

the

organization,

such

as

Production,

Accounts,

and

so

on
.

At

this

level,

User

objects

can

be

added

and

a

system

level

login

script

is

created
.

It

is

normally

placed

below

the

Organizational

object
.



© W. Buchanan, School of Computing, Napier University

Primary server

NIC

MSL

adapter

MSL

adapter

NIC

Secondary server

Duplexed

traffic

Network connections