Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage

volaryorangeManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 6 days ago)

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Chapter 07

Training


Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin

Human Resource Management:

Gaining a Competitive Advantage

Learning Objectives


Discuss how training, informal and continuous learning,
and knowledge management can contribute to
companies


business strategy.


Explain the manager

s role in identifying training needs
and supporting training.


Conduct a needs assessment.


Evaluate employees


readiness for training.


Discuss strengths and weaknesses of presentation,
hands
-
on and group training methods.

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Learning Objectives


Explain potential
e
-
learning training advantages.


Design a training session to maximize learning.


Choose an appropriate evaluation design based on
training objectives and analysis of constraints.


Design a cross
-
cultural preparation program.


Develop a program for effectively managing diversity.

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Continuous & High
-
Leverage Training


Training

facilitates employees’ learning job
-
related
knowledge, skills and behavior.


Continuous learning
requires employees to
understand the entire work process, acquire and apply
new skills and share what they have learned with
others.


High
-
leverage training is:


linked to strategic business goals and objectives,


supported by top management,


relies on an instructional design model, and is


benchmarked to programs in other organizations.




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Training can...


Increase employees’ knowledge of foreign competitors
and cultures.


Help ensure that employees have skills to work with new
technology.


Help employees understand how to work effectively in
teams to contribute to product and service quality.


Improve employee performance which leads to improved
business results.

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Training can...


Ensure that the company

s culture emphasizes
innovation, creativity and learning.


Ensure employment security by providing new ways
for employees to contribute when their


jobs change or interests change


skills become obsolete


Prepare employees to work more effectively with each
other.

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6

Formal and Informal Training

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7

2 Types of Knowledge


personal knowledge based on individual experience
difficult to codify.


well documented, easily articulated and transferred
person to person.

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Key Features of Continuous Training

Continuous

Training

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Strategic Learning & Development Process

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The Training Process

1. Needs Assessment



Organizational, Person and Task Analysis

2. Ensuring Employees




Readiness for training



Attitudes and motivation



Basic skills

3. Creating a Learning Environment



Identify learning objectives and training


outcomes



Meaningful material



Practice, feedback and observation of others



Administering and coordinating program

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Designing Effective Training Activities

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4. Ensure Transfer of Training



Self
-
management strategies



Peer and manager support

5. Select Training Methods



Presentational Methods



Hands
-
on Methods



Group Methods

6. Evaluate Training Programs



Identify Training outcomes & evaluation design



Cost
-
benefit analysis

Needs Assessment Process

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13

3 Factors to Choose Training

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14

5 Factors That Influence

Employee Performance and Learning

Input

Output

Consequences

Feedback

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15

Task Analysis

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16

Factors That Influence Motivation to Learn

Self
-

Efficacy

Basic Skills

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17

Ensure Employee Motivation for Learning

Motivation to learn


trainee’s
desire

to learn the training program’s content
.


Self
-
efficacy
-

employees'
belief
that they can
successfully learn the training program’s content.

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Ensuring Employee Readiness for Learning


To increase employees' self
-
efficacy level
:

1.
Let employees know that the purpose of training is
to
improve
performance
.

2.

Provide information about the training program and purpose

prior to actual training
.

3.

Show employees their peers’

training success
.

4.

Provide employees feedback
that


learning is under their control and


they have the ability and responsibility to overcome learning
difficulties experienced in the program
.

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Basic Skills

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7 Conditions for Learning


1.
Need to know why they should learn.

2.
Meaningful training content.

3.
Opportunities to practice or social network interaction.

4.
Feedback.

5.
Observe, experience, and interact with others.

6.
Good program coordination and administration.

7.
Commit training content to memory.

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Transfer of Training

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Selecting Training Methods


Presentation Methods


Instructor
-
led classroom instruction


Distance learning, teleconferencing & webcasting


Audiovisual techniques


Mobile technologies



Hands
-
on Methods


On
-
the
-
job training


Self
-
directed learning


Simulations


Business games and case studies


Behavior modeling


Interactive video


E
-
learning

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Evaluating Training Programs

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Evaluation Designs


P
retest/Posttest with
comparison group


Posttest only with
comparison group


Pretest/Posttest

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Determining Return on Investment

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Cross
-
Cultural Preparation



Expatriate
-

is an employee sent by a company to
manage operations in a different country.



Expatriates need to be:

1.
Competent in their area of expertise
.

2.
Able to communicate verbally and nonverbally in host
country.

3.
Flexible, tolerant

of ambiguity

and sensitive to cultural
differences.

4.
Motivated to succeed, able to enjoy the challenge

of
working in other countries
, and willing to learn

about
the host country

s culture, language and customs.

5.
Supported by their families
.

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3 Phases of Cross
-
Cultural Preparation

Inclusion

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Managing Diversity and Inclusion


Managing Diversity
-

is the

process of creating an environment that
allows all employees to contribute to organizational goals and
experience personal growth.


2 Types of Diversity Training:

1.
Attitude awareness and change programs

2.
Behavior
-
based programs


2 Goals of Diversity Training and Inclusion:

1.
Eliminate values, stereotypes, and managerial practices that
inhibit employees


personal development .

2.
Allow employees to contribute to organizational goals regardless
of their race, sexual orientation, gender, family status, religious
orientation, or cultural background.

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Managing Diversity Programs

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Socialization and Orientation

Organizational Socialization

is the process used to
transform new employees into effective company
members.

3 Phases of Socializ
ation:

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Summary


Technological innovations, new product markets, and
a diverse workforce have increased the need for
companies to reexamine how their training practices
contribute to learning.


The key to successful training is choosing the most
effective training method.


Managing diversity and cross
-
cultural preparation are
two training issues relevant to capitalize on a diverse
workforce and global markets.


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