Dr. Alicia Sanchez & Dr. Clint Bowers

volaryorangeManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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2012

Dr. Alicia Sanchez & Dr. Clint Bowers


G
ROUND

R
ULES


The Top 10 Research Findings for 2012 have
been decided by us alone.


All papers included have empirical results


Papers selected not solely based on quality, but on
relevance to this particular conference


In some cases we have not presented all of the
results that were found by these researchers


We will make our presentation available


We can’t make the research papers available


Everything
in this presentation has been subject
to
our interpretation


Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

W
ANG
, L. & C
HEN
, M. (2012). T
HE

EFFECTS

OF

LEARNING

STYLE

AND

GENDER

CONSCIOUSNESS

ON

NOVICE

S

LEARNING

FROM

PLAYING

EDUCATIONAL

GAMES
.
K
NOWLEDGE

M
ANAGEMENT

& E
-
L
EARNING
: A
N

I
NTERNATIONAL

J
OURNAL
, 4
(1), 63
-
77.

The effects of learning style and gender consciousness
on novice learning in games



Custom Flash Development to learn programming through game
-
play


Learning Styles


Reduced into diverging & converging via Kolb(not visual etc…..)


Divergers



best at viewing concrete situations with multiple viewpoints


Convergers



best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories


Gender Consciousness


Gender role, traits, and equality


Participants


122 eighth grade students (59 m, 63 f)


Goals


examine the effects of learning style and gender consciousness
on:


Comprehension of programming concepts


Project performance


Motivation


10

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

W
ANG
, L. & C
HEN
, M. (2012). T
HE

EFFECTS

OF

LEARNING

STYLE

AND

GENDER

CONSCIOUSNESS

ON

NOVICE

S

LEARNING

FROM

PLAYING

EDUCATIONAL

GAMES
.
K
NOWLEDGE

M
ANAGEMENT

& E
-
L
EARNING
: A
N

I
NTERNATIONAL

J
OURNAL
, 4
(1), 63
-
77.

The effects of learning style and gender consciousness
on novice learning in games



Results:


The
convergers

comprehended
the abstract programming principles
better

than the
divergers
, but the gender
consc

did not have an effect


Divergers

with
low

gender
consc

outperformed

high

gender
consc

divergers

on project performance, but both gender
consc

groups of
convergers

performed equally


High

gender
consc

convergers

outperformed

high

gender
consc

divergers

on project performance, but low gender
consc

convergers

and
divergers

performed equally.


Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation was similar and positive for all four
groups.


Discussion


Learning style impacted programming
comprehension, and gender
consc

impacted project performance
for
divergers

and
convergers

differently.


10

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

P
OWERS
,
K
.
L
.,
BROOKS
,
P
.
J
., A
LDRICH
,
N
.
J
.,
PALLADINO
,
M
.
A
., &
A
LFIERI
,
L
. (2012). E
FFECTS

OF

VIDEO
-
GAME

PLAY

ON

INFORMATION

PROCESSING
:
A

META
-
ANALYTIC

INVESTIGATION
.
P
SYCHOMOMIC

BULLETIN

&
REVIEW
, 1
-
25.

Effects
of video
-
game play on information
processing: a meta
-
analytic
investigation

9

o
Conducted a meta
-
analysis of the literature on video
game use and cognitive change

o
Included true experiments (n
-
46) and quasi
-
experiments (n=72)

o
Overall results demonstrated that there is a moderate
to large effect size support the hypothesis that games
can improve information processing.

o
Largest results for relatively “basic abilities,” such
as visual processing and auditory processing.

o
Smallest was executive functions.


o
No consistent effect for game type

o
Older learners benefitted more than younger learners
.

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

P
OWERS
,
K
.
L
.,
BROOKS
,
P
.
J
., A
LDRICH
,
N
.
J
.,
PALLADINO
,
M
.
A
., &
A
LFIERI
,
L
. (2012). E
FFECTS

OF

VIDEO
-
GAME

PLAY

ON

INFORMATION

PROCESSING
:
A

META
-
ANALYTIC

INVESTIGATION
.
P
SYCHOMOMIC

BULLETIN

&
REVIEW
, 1
-
25.

Effects
of video
-
game play on information
processing: a meta
-
analytic
investigation

9

o
Effects were much stronger for males

o
Quasi
-
experimental effects were stronger than
those from true experiments

o
Overall, supports the use of video games being
associated with improved information processing.

o
Points out gaps in the existing research.



Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

C
HEN
, Z.; L
IAO
, C.C.Y.; C
HENG
, H.N.H.;
Y
EH
, C.Y.C.; & C
HAN
, T.
(2012). I
NFLUENCES

OF

G
AME

Q
UESTS

ON

P
UPILS
’ E
NJOYMENT

AND

G
OAL
-
PURSUING

IN

M
ATH

L
EARNING
.
E
DUCATIONAL

T
ECHNOLOGY

&
S
OCIETY
, 15(2
), 317
-
327.

Influences of Game Quests on Pupils in Math Learning



My
-
Pet
-
My
-
Quest


Pet
-
nurturing game as previous research indicated
motivation, and researchers could implement an economic
model of needs
-
consumption
-
work


Taiwanese students report relatively lower positive attitudes
towards math, even though their math performance is high


Included a quest
-
delivery mechanism as has been used in
role playing games to guide players to perform tasks




Quests provide three elements
-

objectives, learning tasks and
rewards


Related to goal orientation


Researchers implemented a three tiered design process to
include learning & quests within the game


8

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

C
HEN
, Z.; L
IAO
, C.C.Y.; C
HENG
, H.N.H.;
Y
EH
, C.Y.C.; & C
HAN
, T.
(2012). I
NFLUENCES

OF

G
AME

Q
UESTS

ON

P
UPILS
’ E
NJOYMENT

AND

G
OAL
-
PURSUING

IN

M
ATH

L
EARNING
.
E
DUCATIONAL

T
ECHNOLOGY

&
S
OCIETY
, 15(2
), 317
-
327.

Influences of Game Quests on Pupils in Math Learning



Participants
:
53 Taiwanese 4
th

grade students


within
subjects design


Question


What are the influences of game quests on
student’s math learning in terms of perception of
enjoyment and goal
-
pursuing


Findings


Quests had positive impact


Quests influenced student’s perceptions including enjoyment, goal
orientation & goal intensity


Quests elicited more active participation & promoted more
enjoyable experiences


Conclusion


Quests whose goals align with learning
objectives are favored by students




8

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

G
REEN
,
C
.
S
.,
S
UGARMAN
,
M
.
A
., M
EDFORD
,
K
.,
K
LOBUSICKY
,
E
., &
B
AVELIER
,
D
. (2012). T
HE

EFFECT

OF

ACTION

VIDEO

GAME

EXPERIENCE

ON

TASK
-
SWITCHING
. C
OMPUTERS

IN

HUMAN

BEHAVIOR
, (28) 984
-
994.

The effect of action video game experience on task
-
switching
.


7

o
Continues their line of research on video games and the
enhancement of cognitive/perceptual abilities

o
This paper focused on how action video games might lead to
enhanced “task
-
switching” ability

o
Series of 4 small studies:

o
First focused on whether experienced action game players
demonstrated an advantage in modality switching (e.g.,
motor vs. voice response) in a response time task

o
Results showed the action game players had a smaller
“switch cost”

o
Results held for motor and vocal switching

o
Second study sought to replicate the effect with a more
cognitive task.

o
Results found equivalent advantage for game players






Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

G
REEN
,
C
.
S
.,
S
UGARMAN
,
M
.
A
., M
EDFORD
,
K
.,
K
LOBUSICKY
,
E
., &
B
AVELIER
,
D
. (2012). T
HE

EFFECT

OF

ACTION

VIDEO

GAME

EXPERIENCE

ON

TASK
-
SWITCHING
. C
OMPUTERS

IN

HUMAN

BEHAVIOR
, (28) 984
-
994.

The effect of action video game experience on task
-
switching
.


7

o
Third study replicated this effect with a more complex
switching paradigm. The advantage for gamers still held.

o

Final study tested whether these games could be used to
“train” non
-
gamers to reduce task
-
switching costs.

o
Non
-
gamers were asked to play ~50
hrs

of either an
action game or a lab game

o
Both groups improved

o
Action Game group showed greater decrease

o
Overall, these results support the hypothesis that action game
exposure can assist in reducing task
-
switching costs.





Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity



Games


Refraction, Hello Worlds &
Foldit


Puzzle games of varying complexity with
F
oldit

being most
complicated by far


Tutorials


Hypotheses


Games with tutorials will exhibit better player engagement and
retention


Tutorials that present instructions in context will be more
effective


Tutorials that restrict player freedom improve engagement and
retention (by ensuring the player focuses and must complete the
tutorial)


Having on demand access to help improves retention


Online Data methodology


8 types of tutorials, 3 games,
45,318 total subjects!


A
NDERSEN
, E.; O’R
OURKE
, E.; L
IU
, Y.; S
NIDER
, R.;
L
OWDERMILK
, J.;
T
RUONG
, D.; C
OOPER
, S.; &
P
OPOVIC
, Z. (2012). T
HE

I
MPACT

OF

T
UTORIALS

ON

G
AMES

OF

V
ARYING

C
OMPLEXITY
. P
APER

P
RESENTED

AT

CHI’12, A
USTIN
, TX.


6

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

The Impact of Tutorials on Games of Varying Complexity



Results


Tutorials were only justified in
Foldit

(the most complex game)
and not in the other two games whose mechanics might be more
easily discovered through experimentation


Tutorial context sensitivity improved player engagement in
Foldit

(the only game where a tutorial was justified) (players in
Foldit

with context sensitive tutorial played 40% more levels and
16% longer)


Tutorial freedom did not affect player behavior


On
-
demand had a negative impact on engagement in Refraction
(only 31% used it) but increased engagement a small amount in
Hello Worlds.


Discussion


The use of tutorials should be dependent on
complexity of game. The functionality of those tutorials
review these results!


A
NDERSEN
, E.; O’R
OURKE
, E.; L
IU
, Y.; S
NIDER
, R.; L
OWDERMILK
, J.;
T
RUONG
, D.; C
OOPER
, S.; & P
OPOVIC
, Z. (2012). T
HE

I
MPACT

OF

T
UTORIALS

ON

G
AMES

OF

V
ARYING

C
OMPLEXITY
. P
APER

P
RESENTED

AT

CHI’12, A
USTIN
, TX.


6

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

G
ONZALEZ
, C.; S
ANER
, L. D.; & E
ISENBERG
, L. Z. (2012). L
EARNING

TO

S
TAND

IN

THE

O
THER

S

S
HOES
: A C
OMPUTER

V
IDEO

G
AME

E
XPERIENCE

OF

THE

I
SRAELI
-
P
ALENSTINIAN

C
ONFLICT
.
S
OCIAL

S
CIENCE

C
OMPUTER

V
IEW
, S
AGE

P
UBLICATIONS
.

Learning to Stand in the Other’s Shoes



Peacemaker


COTS game that allows you to play multiple roles and make
decisions related to those roles within the Israeli
-
Palenstinian

conflict



Researchers hypothesized:


Practice in the game would reduce the effects of religious
views and political affiliations on decision making to reduce
conflict


Participants
:
42 undergrads ages 18
-
23


Game used in class activity twice in a semester


Randomly assigned to first role (Palestinian President or
Israeli Prime Minister) all played both (Total of 4 plays)


Randomly assigned to Level Difficulty


Calm
vs

violent



5

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

G
ONZALEZ
, C.; S
ANER
, L. D.; & E
ISENBERG
, L. Z. (2012). L
EARNING

TO

S
TAND

IN

THE

O
THER

S

S
HOES
: A C
OMPUTER

V
IDEO

G
AME

E
XPERIENCE

OF

THE

I
SRAELI
-
P
ALENSTINIAN

C
ONFLICT
.
S
OCIAL

S
CIENCE

C
OMPUTER

V
IEW
, S
AGE

P
UBLICATIONS
.

Learning to Stand in the Other’s Shoes



Results


Balance (peace) was the goal of the game and most
students did not achieve great balance scores


Role played impacted time spent playing (Palestinian
role > time than Israeli role)


Religion correlated with balance in the first session,
but not the second.


Political affiliation correlated with balance in the first
session, but not the second.


Conclusion


The game intervention mitigated the
initial religious and political views of its players.



5

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

T
HOM
, J.; M
ILLEN
, D. R.;
D
I
M
ICCO
, J. (2012). R
EMOVING

G
AMIFICATION

FROM

AN

E
NTERPRISE

SNS. P
ROCEEDINGS

ACM C
ONFERENCE

ON

C
OMPUTERS

S
UPPORTING

C
OLLABORATIVE

W
ORK
.

Removing Gamification from an Enterprise SNS



SNS based Gamification


Authors implemented gamification constructs into a social networking
system of a large organization


The gamification goal was to encourage content contribution


Points were awarded


5 points for photo or list


15 points for
comments
on profile pages, photos or lists


Badges were awarded


4 tiers of badges were based on accumulated points


Badges were displayed on user’s profile page


Leaderboard


Showing points


For an initial 6 month period half of the user’s had gamification,
other half didn’t and didn’t know it existed. After 6 months
everyone got it. 10 months after initial introduction, it was
completely removed.


Participants


3486 members who contributed at least one item
of content during a four week analysis period





4

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

T
HOM
, J.; M
ILLEN
, D. R.;
D
I
M
ICCO
, J. (2012). R
EMOVING

G
AMIFICATION

FROM

AN

E
NTERPRISE

SNS. P
ROCEEDINGS

ACM C
ONFERENCE

ON

C
OMPUTERS

S
UPPORTING

C
OLLABORATIVE

W
ORK
.

Removing Gamification from an Enterprise SNS



Results


The gamification construct dramatically increased content
contribution initially, but then decayed.


New users who could earn points added more content over
the short and long term, but the proportion of new users who
contributed was the same for the gamification
V
s

non
gamification site users


The removal of the site significantly impacted the
contribution of data


Two main types of comments were observed, terse comments
and target of interest comments. After the gamification
construct was removed, the prevalence of the terse comments
(hi!) subsided


Conclusion


Gamification does motivate some, but not
all. If you’re going to implement, have a plan for
removing!




4

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

V
ENTURA
,
M
., S
HUTE
,
V
., & Z
HAO
,
W
. (2012). T
HE

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

VIDEO

GAME

USE

AND

A

PERFORMANCE
-
BASED

MEASURE

OF

PERSISTENCE
. C
OMPUTERS

IN

E
DUCATION

(60)52
-
58.

The relationship between video game use and a
performance
-
based measure of persistence



3


Investigated whether video game experience was related to
increased ability to persist with a difficult task


Also developed a behavioral test of persistence (anagrams &
riddles) in an attempt to improve upon traditional self
-
report
measures


Found a small, but significant relationship between time
dedicated to unsolved problems and self
-
reported
persistence


Further validity work needed


Results also showed that performance
-
based persistence was
related to video game use.


Game players dedicated more time to difficult problems

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

V
ENTURA
,
M
., S
HUTE
,
V
., & Z
HAO
,
W
. (2012). T
HE

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

VIDEO

GAME

USE

AND

A

PERFORMANCE
-
BASED

MEASURE

OF

PERSISTENCE
. C
OMPUTERS

IN

E
DUCATION

(60)52
-
58.

The relationship between video game use and a
performance
-
based measure of persistence



Need for further research to flesh out these results


Type of video game


Training effects




3

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

S
MITH
, P.A. (2012)
COOPERATIVE

VERSUS

COMPETITIVE

GOAL

STRUCTURES

IN

LEARNING

GAME
. A
DISSERTATION

SUBMITTED

TO

THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

CENTRAL

FLORIDA
.

Cooperative
V
s

Competitive Goal Structures in Learning
Games



Acquisition Proposition


Acquisition based diner dash style resource management
game designed to teach which documents were needed when


Game modified to be cooperative, in which two players could
work together or competitive in which two players tried to
get a higher score


3 Experiments, 2 versions of game
vs

text based content


Coop
Vs

Comp (no instructions for comp)


Coop
Vs

Comp (told to compete)


Coop
Vs

Comp (Winner gets a $10 iTunes card)


Participants


160 Undergraduates 18
-
22



2

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

S
MITH
, P.A. (2012)
COOPERATIVE

VERSUS

COMPETITIVE

GOAL

STRUCTURES

IN

LEARNING

GAME
. A
DISSERTATION

SUBMITTED

TO

THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

CENTRAL

FLORIDA
.

Cooperative
V
s

Competitive Goal Structures in Learning
Games



Results


All game players had significant learning outcomes


In
E
xp

1 (no instruction to compete), the cooperative group
reported a larger increase in intrinsic motivation.


Exp

2 & 3 saw overall increases in intrinsic motivation.


Winners of all competitive games had higher self efficacy than
losers.


Game winners who won $10 had higher self efficacy than
cooperators in
E
xp

3.


Conclusion


The use of competition in games is a complex
variable that can have impacts on learning, motivation and
self efficacy. If you want to use it, read this paper!




2

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

S
HAREK
, D. J. (2012). I
NVESTIGATING

R
EAL
-
TIME

P
REDICTORS

OF

E
NGAGEMENT
: I
MPLICATIONS

F
OR

A
DAPTIVE

V
IDEO

G
AMES

AND

O
NLINE

T
RAINING
. A D
ISSERTATION

SUBMITTED

TO

N
ORTH

C
AROLINA

S
TATE

U
NIVERSITY
.

Investigating Real
-
Time Predictors of Engagement



Gridblocker


Isometric tile
-
based puzzle game in which player must move
a block until the block ends up standing over a goal.
Multiple levels of increasing complexity.


3 conditions


Linear


Players get a harder level when they complete the
previous easier level


Choice


Players choose whether the next level will be easier
or harder than the just completed level


Adaptive


Uses an algorithm to determine the difficulty of
the upcoming level


Goal


To test the impact of condition on engagement


Participants


340 people recruited through Amazon



1

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

S
HAREK
, D. J. (2012). I
NVESTIGATING

R
EAL
-
TIME

P
REDICTORS

OF

E
NGAGEMENT
: I
MPLICATIONS

F
OR

A
DAPTIVE

V
IDEO

G
AMES

AND

O
NLINE

T
RAINING
. A D
ISSERTATION

SUBMITTED

TO

N
ORTH

C
AROLINA

S
TATE

U
NIVERSITY
.

Investigating Real
-
Time Predictors of Engagement



Initial results indicated that those in the adaptive or choice
conditions did not report significantly:


Higher engagement


Higher personal affect


Lower levels of cognitive load


Adaptive algorithm analysis:


Choice players should have played easier levels less often than
they chose


Those in adaptive condition played fewer levels yet achieved
greater difficulty than other conditions. No differences in
length of time played.


Conclusion


Adaptive leveling when done appropriately can
lead to exposure to more challenge (and choice can lead to
players selecting less challenge)





1

Sanchez & Bowers Top 10 of 2012

W
ANG
, L. & C
HEN
, M. (2012). T
HE

EFFECTS

OF

LEARNING

STYLE

AND

GENDER

CONSCIOUSNESS

ON

NOVICE

S

LEARNING

FROM

PLAYING

EDUCATIONAL

GAMES
.
K
NOWLEDGE

M
ANAGEMENT

& E
-
L
EARNING
: A
N

I
NTERNATIONAL

J
OURNAL
, 4
(1),
63
-
77.

P
OWERS
,
K
.
L
.,
BROOKS
,
P
.
J
., A
LDRICH
,
N
.
J
.,
PALLADINO
,
M
.
A
., & A
LFIERI
,
L
. (2012). E
FFECTS

OF

VIDEO
-
GAME

PLAY

ON

INFORMATION

PROCESSING
:
A

META
-
ANALYTIC

INVESTIGATION
.
P
SYCHOMOMIC

BULLETIN

&
REVIEW
, 1
-
25.

C
HEN
, Z.; L
IAO
, C.C.Y.; C
HENG
, H.N.H.;
Y
EH
, C.Y.C.; & C
HAN
, T. (2012). I
NFLUENCES

OF

G
AME

Q
UESTS

ON

P
UPILS

E
NJOYMENT

AND

G
OAL
-
PURSUING

IN

M
ATH

L
EARNING
.
E
DUCATIONAL

T
ECHNOLOGY

& S
OCIETY
, 15(2
), 317
-
327.

G
REEN
,
C
.
S
.,
S
UGARMAN
,
M
.
A
., M
EDFORD
,
K
.,
K
LOBUSICKY
,
E
., &
B
AVELIER
,
D
. (2012). T
HE

EFFECT

OF

ACTION

VIDEO

GAME

EXPERIENCE

ON

TASK
-
SWITCHING
. C
OMPUTERS

IN

HUMAN

BEHAVIOR
, (28) 984
-
994.

A
NDERSEN
, E.; O’R
OURKE
, E.; L
IU
, Y.; S
NIDER
, R.;
L
OWDERMILK
, J.; T
RUONG
, D.; C
OOPER
, S.; &
P
OPOVIC
, Z. (2012).
T
HE

I
MPACT

OF

T
UTORIALS

ON

G
AMES

OF

V
ARYING

C
OMPLEXITY
. P
APER

P
RESENTED

AT

CHI’12, A
USTIN
, TX.

G
ONZALEZ
, C.; S
ANER
, L. D.; & E
ISENBERG
, L. Z. (2012). L
EARNING

TO

S
TAND

IN

THE

O
THER

S

S
HOES
: A C
OMPUTER

V
IDEO

G
AME

E
XPERIENCE

OF

THE

I
SRAELI
-
P
ALENSTINIAN

C
ONFLICT
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