CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING-I1x

visitormaddeningUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING
-
I
1




Q.1.

Write a note on brick masonary sewer.



Masonry

is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by

mortar
; the
term

masonry

can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction
are

brick
,

stone
,

marble
,

granite
,

travertine
,
limestone
,

cast stone
,

concrete block
,

glass

block,

stucco
,
and

tile
. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the
quality of the mortar a
nd workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can significantly
affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. Masonry units, such as brick, tile, stone, glass
brick or concrete block generally conform to the requirements spe
cified in the 2003

International Building
Code

(
IBC
) Section 2103.

Masonry is commonly used
for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concrete
block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight
-
bearing or a

veneer
. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in
masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength, and are best suited to
structures with light transverse loading when the cores rem
ain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with
concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically

rebar
) offers much greater tensile and lateral
strength to structures.

[
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]
Advantages



The use of material such as bricks and stones can increase the thermal mass of a building.



Brick typically will not require painting an
d so can provide a structure with reduced life
-
cycle costs.



Masonry is very heat resistant and thus provides good fire protection.



Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from hurricanes or
tornadoes.



Masonry structures built in com
pression preferably with lime mortar can have a useful life
of more than 500 years as compared to 30 to 100 for structures of steel or reinforced
concrete.


Q.2

What is trap? Write down its type.



TRAP transporters were discovered in the laboratory of
Prof. David J. Kelly at the

University of Sheffield
,
UK. His group were working on the mechanism used by the photosynthetic
bacterium
Rhodobacter

capsulatus

to take up certain

dicarboxylic acids
. They characterised a binding
protein component (DctP) of a
transporter that recognized these compounds, which they assumed would
form part of a typical

ABC transporter
, but when they sequenced the ge
nes surrounding
dctP

they found
two other genes encoding integral membrane proteins,

dctQ

and

dctM
, but no genes encoding
components of an ABC transporter.
[1]

They further showed that uptake of the same dicarboxylates was
independent of ATP and that uptake required an electrochemical ion gradient, making this a unique
binding protein
-
dependent secondary transporter.
[1]

Since these early studies, it has become clear that TRAP transporters are present in
many
bacteria

and

archaea
,
[2]

with many bacterial having multiple
TRAP transporters, some having over
20 different systems.
[3]

[
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]
Substrates

To date, most substrates for TRAP transporters contain a common feature which is
that they are organic
acids.
[4]

This includes C4
-
dicarboxylates such as succinate, malate and fumarate,
[1]

keto
-
acids such as
pyruvate and alpha
-
ketobutyrate
[5]
[6]

and the sugar acid,

N
-
acetyl neuraminic acid (or sialic acid).
[7]

Other
substrates include the compatible solute ectoine and hydroxyectoine and pyroglutamate.
[4]

[
e
dit
]
Composition


Q.3

Draw the diagram of one pipe system.



Pipe Systems, Inc
.



Pipe Systems, Inc. is a mechanical and service contractor that strives; to provide its customers state of
the art installations, to complete projects within a specified time
frame and to offer value added solutions.

This is accomplished through:



Committing its efforts and processes to pre
-
planning in the selection of materials, methods, and
sequencing to ensure cost effective projects and services.



Listening to its customers,
subcontractors, suppliers and co
-
workers to develop and maintain a clear
understanding of their needs.



Maintaining an atmosphere that encourages teamwork, training, listening and an evolution of processes
and systems that promote proactive problem solving.

Pipe Systems, Inc. is committed to meeting or exceeding its customer’s expectations. Pipe Systems, Inc.
develops and maintains an attitude conducive to obtaining this goal. Pipe Systems, Inc.’s customer’s
lowest cost and their greatest profits are achieve
d through prevention, versus discovery and correction.


Q.4

Define septic tank. What is its recommended size?



A

septic tank

is a key component of the

septic system
, a small
-
scale

sewage treatment

system
common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private
corporations. (Other components, typically mandated and/or restricted by local governments, optionally
include pumps, alarms,

sand filters
, and clarified liquid effluent disposal means such as a

septic drain
field
,
ponds, natural stone fiber filter plants or

peat moss

beds.) Septic systems are a type of On
-
Site
Sewage Facility (
OSSF
). In

North America
, approximately 25% of the population relies on septic tanks;
this can include

suburbs

and small towns

as well as
rural

areas (
Indianapolis

is an example of a large city
where many of the city's neighborhoods are still on

separate septic systems). In Europe, they are in
general limited to rural areas only.

The term "septic" refers to the

anaerobic bacterial

environment that develops i
n the tank and that
decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. Septic tanks can be coupled with
other

on
-
site wastewater treatment

units such

as

biofilters

or aerobic systems involving artificial
forced

aeration
.
[1]

Periodic

preventive maintenance

is required to remove the irreducible solids that se
ttle and gradually fill
the tank, reducing its efficiency. Eventually solids will completely fill the tank and enter the field drains and
destroy their effectiveness leading to costly repairs.

A septic tank generally consists of a tank (or sometimes more t
han one tank) of between 4000
and 7500 liters (1,000 and 2,000 gallons) in size connected to an inlet wastewater pipe
at one end and a

septic drain field

at the other.
In general, these pipe connections are
made via a T pipe, which allows liquid entry and exit without disturbing any crust on the
surface. Today, the design of the tank usually incorporates two chambers (each of
which is equipped with a manhole cover), whic
h are separated by means of a dividing
wall that has openings located about midway between the floor and roof of the tank.

Q.5

Define (a), Free board (b), Dowel (c) Service Road (d) Hydraulic gradient (e)
spoil bank.

Q.6

What is beam? Why it is provided in

the canal.



A

beam

is a horizontal

structural element

that is capable of withstanding

load
primarily by
resisting

bending
. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external
loads, own weight,

span

and external reactions to these loads is called a

bending moment
.

Beams are traditionally descriptions of buildi
ng or civil engineering structural elements, but smaller
structures such as truck or automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural
systems contain beam structures that are designed and analyzed in a similar fashion.

Beams generally
carry

vertical

gravitational

forces

but can also be used to carry

horizontal

loads (i.e.,
loads due to an

earthquake

or wind). T
he loads carried by a beam are transferred to

columns
,

walls
,
or

gir
ders
, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural

compression members
. In

light frame
construction

the

joists

rest on the beam.

[
edit
]
Types of beams

Beams are characterized by their

pr
ofile

(the shape of their cross
-
section), their length, and their

material
.
In contemporary

construction
, beams
are typically made of

steel
,

reinforced concrete
, or

wood
. One of the
most common types of steel beam is the

I
-
beam

or wide
-
fl
ange
beam (also known as a "universal beam"
or, for stouter sections, a "universal column"). This is commonly used in steel
-
frame buildings and
bridges
.
Other common beam profiles are the

C
-
channel
, the

hollow structural section

beam, the

pipe
, and
the

angle
.

Beams are also described by how they are supported. Supports restrict lateral and/or rotational
movements so as to satisfy stability conditions as well as to limit the deformations to a certain allowance.
A

simple beam

is supported by a pin support at one end and a roller support at the other end. A beam
with a laterally and rotationally fixed support at one end with no support at the other end is called
a
cantilever

beam
. A beam simply supported at two points and having one end or both ends extended
beyond the supports is called an
overhanging beam
.


Q.7

What is the drawing procedure you culverts