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viraginitysplashInternet and Web Development

Nov 10, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Copyright © 2004 ProsoftTraining, All Rights Reserved.


Site Development

Foundations

© 2007 Prosoft Learning Corporation

All rights reserved

Copyright © 2004 ProsoftTraining, All Rights Reserved.


Lesson 1:

Introduction to

Web Site Development


Objectives


Distinguish between using a text editor and
using a GUI markup language editor


Identify Web page design issues


Identify the standards organization that
controls markup languages


Identify front
-
end and back
-
end Web issues


Define the concepts of creative design and
branding standards, and demonstrate their
importance to business

Creating Web Pages


The need for skills in Web
-
based
technologies:


Contribute to team projects


Create Web pages


Create r
é
sum
é
s


You must know at least the following
markup languages:


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


Extensible HTML (XHTML)

Additional Web Page Elements


Web pages use more than HTML or XHTML
--

additional technologies include:


Flash


Java


ActiveX


You must also understand how Web pages
use:


Databases


Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

Databases and Web Pages


Databases can store information about
company inventory


Databases can store customer
information

Web Pages and CGI


CGI is used for many purposes:


To help Web pages pass information to and from
databases


To provide active content (e.g., hit counters)


To provide dynamic content


Examples of CGI technology include:


Perl


PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)


Active Server Pages (ASP) and .NET


JavaServer Pages (JSP)


Server
-
Side JavaScript (SSJS)


ColdFusion

Text Editors and

Markup Languages


You do not need to use a special editor
application to create markup


You can use a simple text editor (e.g.,
Notepad or Vi)


When creating HTML or XHTML files, you
must:


Save the text as plaintext


Save the file using either the .html or .htm
file name extension

Graphical User Interface (GUI) HTML
Editors


GUI HTML editors:


Create HTML/XHTML code for you


You type page text as you would with a standard
word processor


You point and click with a mouse


Popular GUI HTML editors include:


Adobe Dreamweaver


Microsoft FrontPage


SeaMonkey Composer



Why Learn

Markup Languages?


GUI HTML editors do not keep pace with
the latest improvements in markup
language


You can add features to pages not
supported by the editor


You will not be limited by the GUI
editor’s capabilities

Front
-
End Issues


A Web page is an interface that should:


Provide a distinct message


Be accessible by all users


Incorporate appealing images and graphical elements


Include constantly updated hyperlinks


Use tables wisely


Present carefully designed Web forms


Connect pages to databases securely


Use the most current technologies appropriate


Use images sparingly


Be easily navigable and without dead ends


Include alternative navigation

Web Page Accessibility


An accessible Web page has:


A user
-
friendly and accessible front end


Back
-
end server resources that process and store user input


The WC3 estimates that up to 10 percent of people have disabilities
that, if not accommodated by Web sites, can cause companies to lose
significant amounts of revenue


Why adhere to accessibility standards?


It makes your site available to all users


You can be penalized for failing to provide accessibility, either by
losing customers or through government
-
imposed fines

Disabilities Acts


The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


Enforced by the U.S. Justice Department


Requires Web designers to create "reasonable accommodations"
for disabled users:


Ensuring that all images have text
-
based descriptions


Providing text
-
based alternatives to all non
-
text content (e.g.,
Java applets and Flash presentations)


Providing easy
-
to
-
read forms


Additional disabilities acts and initiatives:


Canada’s Common Look and Feel for the Internet


The Australian Government’s Guide to Minimum Web Site
Standards


Accessibility


India’s Maharashtra Right to Information Act

Disabilities Acts
(cont’d)


Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)


Provided by the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative
(WAI)


A product of worldwide cooperation


14 WAI guidelines


Rehabilitation Act: Electronic and Information
Technology Accessibility Standards, Section 508


Known simply as Section 508


All federal agencies must ensure that all electronic
and information technology developed, procured,
maintained or used by federal agencies be
comparably accessible to users with disabilities


Based on the WCAG



Child Online

Protection Act (COPA)


Designed to protect minors from harmful
material


U.S. government law


Penalties specified


You can learn more about COPA at:


The COPA Commission Home Page
www.copacommission.org


The COPA Act Text
www.copacommission.org/commission/original.

shtml

Verifying Web Page Accessibility


Many tools available, including:


WebXACT (
http://webxact.watchfire.com/

)


STEP508 (
www.section508.gov
)


RetroAccess (
www.retroaccess.com
)


One way you can help improve
accessibility is by adhering to the XHTML
1.0 standard when you write Web page
code

General Web Page

Accessibility Considerations


Visual challenges


Text readability


Text support for images


Screen reader support


Audio challenges


Alternative audio support


Alternative speech input


Text support for audio elements


Cognitive and technical challenges


Site maps can improve accessibility


Change documentation can improve accessibility


Creative Design

and Branding Standards


A Web page is often part of a larger
marketing and sales strategy


Creating and ensuring brand recognition (name
recognition)


Presenting a strong message


A Web page allows you to develop:


A market


Mind share


A brand


Creative Design

and Branding Standards


Design and branding standards


topics for meetings include:


Target markets


Market messages


Media choices


Color combinations


Sales strategies


Technologies to use


Audience development techniques include:


Flash, Java


Company logos


Strategies developed by sales and marketing


Push and pull technologies


Visitor tracking



Portals


A Web site that act as a centralized access point
for additional Web sites


Portal types:


Vertical


Horizontal


Portal benefits:


Direct users to the best sites


Attract users to products


Improve brand name

Wiki Site


A Web site that allows all visitors to collaborate
in its construction


Wiki software is installed on a Web server


You can lock down certain pages and leave others
open to editing


Wiki examples


Wikipedia (
www.wikipedia.org
)


LinuxQuestions.org
(
http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/Main_Page
)


MemoryAlpha
(
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_Alpha
)


Wiki software purveyors


WikiBase (http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiBase)


JSP Wiki (
www.jspwiki.org
)

File Formats and Active Content


Your pages will include various content formats,
including PDF documents, images and media
files


Common file formats and MIME types


HTML: text/html


JPEG: image/jpeg


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS): text/css


MPEG: audio/mpeg


MP3: audio/mp3


Evaluating proprietary formats


Difficulty/inconvenience


Cost


Audience limitation


Back
-
End Issues


Database connectivity


Types of databases


Web servers use relational databases to store data


Relational databases


Creating relational databases


Relational database vendors


Databases, Web servers and SQL

Relational Database Manipulation
Terminology


Join
--

combining two database tables to create a new table


Table
--

a database topic that contains rows (records) and columns
(attributes or fields)


Record
--

one row of a relational database table


Field
--

one column of a relational database table


Entity (i.e., record)
--

a person, place or thing represented in a database
table row


Attribute
--

a category of information related to an entity


Linking attribute
--

common attribute between tables that allows a join
to occur


Relation
--

a link generated between two entities


Tuple
--

two or more entities currently linked by a relation


Query
--

searching a database



Types of

Database Table Joins


Inner join


Results in a new table in which the information in
one column of the first table is combined with a
column of the second table


The most common type of join


Outer join


Used to combine tables when one column of a
table contains an empty, or null, value


Less common


SQL Commands


SELECT


requests data from a particular
table or table row


FROM


delimits the beginning search point
in a table or table row


WHERE


delimits the ending search point
in a table or table row


JOIN


creates a new table from selected
data


SUM


adds numerical information within
records




Accessing and Updating Databases


Ways to access databases include:


Locally


Over the LAN from a share you establish


Via the Web through a Web application


Database connectivity methods


Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)


Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)


Indexing and cataloging

Bandwidth and Download Time


Download time


Factor in all files


Consider typical connection speeds


Calculate download time for a Web page


Check the size of the HTML file and all associated images, files or
programs


Determine the speed of your network connection


Convert the connection speed and file size to common units of
measure (e.g., bytes or bits)


Divide file size by connection speed

Naming Web Page Files


Web servers search for default page names


Default page names include:


index.html


index.htm


default.htm


default.asp


Default page names can change from server to
server


Apache Server
--

usually index.html


IIS
--

usually default.htm, default.html or index.html

HTTP 404


File Not Found Error


Indicates that a user has requested a file
that does not exist on the specified Web
server


Generated by the server


Can be customized

Habitat For Humanity

Web Site


A not
-
for
-
profit, volunteer
-
driven organization
that builds and sells homes for families
worldwide


Has built more than 150,000 homes worldwide


A Web site example in this course


Like any Web site, it targets an audience


The site is part of a concerted effort to bring in
volunteers


People with technical expertise must run the site


More than technical expertise is required


The Web design team must also understand the
business goals