Positioning and Bed

viraginityfumblingSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 2 days ago)


Body Mechanics,
Positioning and Bed

PN 1 Nursing Skill Labs

Physiology of movement

involves skeletal system, muscular system and
nervous system

body mechanics is the efficient use of the body
as a machine and a means of locomotion

concept of body mechanics includes body
alignment or posture, balance, coordinated
body movement and postural balance

General principles…………...

develop good posture

use the longest and strongest muscles of
the arms and legs

use the internal girdle and a long midriff
when stooping, reaching, lifting or pulling

work as closely as possible to object

use weight of body as a force for pulling
or pushing

Before you ambulate the

assess pt capabilities

administer pain med if needed

plan what you are going to do and make
sure you have the right number of
helpers, the right equipment etc.

explain to patient what is going to
happen and what their role is

make sure the area is free of obstacles

elevate bed, lock wheels etc.

watch body mechanics of both you and
your patient

protect patient from harm if dependent

avoid friction on patients skin

move smoothly using a rhythmic motion

use mechanical devices as indicated but
make sure you know how to use them
safely !!!!

be realistic about what you can do safely
and without injury

dangle patient prior to standing to avoid
incidents related to postural hypotension

Bed making guidelines

usually only changed as needed ($) or

consider body mechanics

put bed at
proper height for you

tidy room

keep soiled linen away from uniform

don’t put sheets on floor

bring laundry
hamper with you if possible

check linen for personal belongings!!

dispose of linen in proper containers

make one side then the other

leave bed at safe height

call bell reattached, side rails up PRN

ensure patient is comfortable and safe
when you leave room!!!!

Making an occupied bed…….

only do this when needed

movement good for pt. so get pt up if

make 1/2 the bed, then the other

use side rails for safety

may work side to side or top to bottom
depending on patient ability to help

Moving the patient up in bed


many patients can assist by using over
bed bars, pushing with their feet, using
the side rails etc.

Assess the patient’s capabilities before

Be clear when instructing the patient
about the move

on count of 3, move with patients help

Moving the patient up in bed


explain what you’re doing to patient

raise bed to comfortable position

remove pillow and place at head of bed

place lift sheet under patient

have patient flex knees if able to assist

place pts arms across chest and flex

stand at pt center point, knee on bed

roll draw sheet in towards pt and grasp

shift your weight as you move patient
upwards on count of three

position pt comfortably and leave in safe
manner (side rails, call bell etc.)

Positioning the head of the bed

Low or semi Fowler’s

30º head of bed


semi sitting, 45º

High Fowler’s

90º head of bed

buttocks bear the main weight of the
body so need to be assessed frequently

Positioning Patients

prone position
: on abdomen, flat on bed, head
to side

: 90º head, arms rest on overbed

: on back, legs together, sight bend in

Sim’s position
: S shape, side lying, lower arm
behind body, knees bent, upper knee bent

side lying
: lower arm forward

Supportive equipment……..

pillows: support prevent pressure,
elevate parts, splints

mattresses: spring, foam, air, pressure,
kevlar, water

adjustable beds: heads, height, knee

trapeze bar attached to frame, moving,

Supportive equipment……..

foot boards: prevent plantar flexion or

cradles: keep weight of sheets off legs

sandbags: prevent external rotation,
immobilize a part

trochanter rolls: to support hips from
rotating externally