Ph.D. Entrance Examination, 2010
(Ph.D. in Biotechnology)
Syllabus for Paper II:
Part I (Objective type questions) and Part II (Subjective short & long type questions)
Graphic Era University
Unit 1: Cell Biology
and eukaryotic cell architecture. Molecular organization and functions of cell
membrance. Organisation and functions of the cytoplasm, cell organelles, endoplasmic
, Golgi complex, mitochondria, L
ysosomes, nucleolus and subnuclear
secretion and targeting. Intracellular digestion. Oxidative phosphorylation.
Cell division. Cell growth
and differentiation. Control of proliferation and self regulation. Cell
motility. Cell traff
signaling. Apoptosis, Crossing ov
Unit 2: Molecular Biology
History of DNA and Biotechnology
DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Structure
and functions of DNA
polymerases. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair. Synthesis and
processing of different
types of RNA. RNA pol
ymerases. Protein biosynthesis.
plasmids. Transposons and intervening sequences. Minisatellites
macrosatellites. Molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations. Site directed
ecombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses. Molecular mechanism of
transduction, transformation and conjugation.
Unit 3: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Photosynthesis Urea cycle Nitrogen cycle,
Structure and function of carbohydrates,
and nucleic acids, Synthesis of
carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, Citric acid cycle and metabolic
phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, Vitamins, plant and
Functional molecules, antioxida
nts, nutrient precursor, HSPs, anti
Rama Chandran plot
.and β helix, Primary and Secondary structure of proteins.
: Gene Structure and Expression
Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Repeated and non
The structure and chemical nature of the gene.
Expression of gen
etic information, transcription
mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences
and enhncers, transcription factors, posttranscriptional
Genetic code. Mechanism o
f translation and its control, post
gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
PCR and DNA cloning.
Molecular Markers and Genomics
DNA molecular markers: Principles, type
and applications; res
triction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly amplified
polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD), Simple sequence repeats (SSR), Single nucleotide
polymorphism (SNP), Structural and functional genomics, gene
mapping, genome mapping,
tagging and comparative genomics and application of genomics.
: Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology
Isolation and purification of DNA / RNA from prokaryotes / eukaryotes. Reverse transcription.
n endonucleases. Generation of DNA fragments, Cloning and expression vectors,
cosmids, phages, viruses (vaccinia, herpes, retrovirus and adenovirus), shuttle vectors.
expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. DNA libraries, scre
DNA clones, transformation of bacterial and animal cells.
mutagenesis. DNA amplification. Production of diagnostics
and vaccines using r
Genetically modified foods / products.
manipulation of rumen microbes.
Safety aspects of
genetic engineering. Ethical issues related to use of biotechnology products.
Intellectual Property Rights.
Production of pharmaceutical proteins.
: Animal Tissue culture and H
Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nutrient requirements of mammalian
cells. Media for culturing cells. Growth supplements. Primary cultures. Established cell lines.
Stationary, Roller and Suspension culture tech
scale production of cells using
bioreactors, microcarriers and perfusion techniques.
Characterisation and maintenance of cells,
karyotyping, cryopreservation and revival. Detection
of contaminants in cell cultures. Isolation and
culture of ly
mphocytes. Application of cell and
Micromanipulation of cells. Cell
cloning. Cell fusion and Somatic cell hybrids. Principles and
methods of hybridoma technology.
Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies
and their applicatio
n in animal health and
Unit 8: Tissue Culture
Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Regulation of cell cycle and cell
Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totipotency. Anther culture, somaclonal
variations. Hybrid embryo culture and embryo rescue, somatic hybridization and
Application of tissue culture in crop improvement. Secondary metabolite
mutagenesis, cryopreservation and plant tissue cult
Unit 9: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue
methods of gene transfer to plants,
direct and vector
mediated. Molecular analysis
. Potential applications of plant genetic engineering for crop improvement, i.e.
pest resistance (insect, viral, fungal and bacterial disease resistance), abiotic stress
herbicide resistance, storage protein quality, increasing shelf
e, oil quality, Current
transgenics, biosafty norms and controlled field trials and release of transgenics
: Molecular Biology Techniques
Quantitation of nucleic acids. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Isolation of plasmids. Produc
radioisotopic and non
rodioisotopic probes. Nucleic acid hybridization.
radioisotypic methods of biochemical analysis. Autoradiography. Blotting techniques. Nucleic
quencing methods. Methods of peptide synthesis. Protein purification methods.
Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). DNA fingerprinting. Polymerase Chain
Computer applications in molecular biology. Animal cloning and transgenic
Southern, Western Bloting Protein finger printing DNA Fringerprinting.