Mendel, Modern Genetics, Biotechnology - Test Review

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Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Test Review


MENDEL, MODERN GENET
ICS,
HUMAN GENETICS, HERE
DITY, AND
BIOTECHNOLOGY”

VOCABULARY


1. Directions: Briefly write the definition of the terms below.



Stem Cells



Cloning



Heredity



Monohybrid cross



Dihybrid cross



Selective
breeding



P
arental

generation



F
1

generation



F
2

Generation



Alleles



Dominant



Recessive



Homozygous



Heterozygous



Genotype



Phenotype



Law of Segregation



Law of Independent assortment



Punnett Square



Test cross



Pedigree



Gene th
erapy




Gel electrophoresis




Nondisjunction




Gene Linkage




Sex
-
linked trait



Polygenic trait



Incomplete dominance



Codominance



Multiple alleles



Karyotype



Genetic engineering



Recombinant DNA (rDNA)



Restriction enzymes



Vector



Plasmids



Electrophoresis



N
ame _________________________


FILL IN PRACTICE

1. What does the figure
below

represent?

Explain each step of the process.



















2.
What does the

figure
to the right

represent?

Explain each step of the process
.











3
. Explain the concepts illustrated below.


A.



B.


C
.



Brahman Cattle:

Good resistance to heat but poor beef.


English Shorthorn Cattle:

Good beef but poor heat resistance.


Santa Gertrudis Cattle:

Formed by
C
rossing Br
ahman and English shorthorns; has good heat
resistance and beef.





E
xplai
n

the concept illustrated below.


D.




4
. The

history of genetics
“unpacked”

four

complex patter
ns of heredity. They are (A)
codominance
, (B)
incomplete dominance
, (C) m
ultiple

alleles
, (D) polygenic traits, and (E)
traits influenced by the environment
.
Match each of the preceding with the correct passage or figure
below.


_____ The ABO blood group is determined

by three alleles I
A
, I
B
, and i.






______ Soil acidity det
ermines the

color of Hydrangea (flower),

resulting colors range from blue to pink.




______

Two dominant alleles are expressed at the same time.



Full color (C), white (c), light
-
gray or
chinchilla (c
ch
) and white with black
poi
nts or a Himalayan (c
h
). Full color
is dominant to all the other alleles.
Chinchilla is dominant to Himalayan
and white.

______



______

More than one gene influences a trait.



______

Intermediate traits are exhibited.





5. Explain how the picture

to the right demonstrates
Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment.







6. Explain how the picture to the left demonstrates
Mendel’s Law of Segregation.












7. Circle the text below that represents an argument for genetic screening / gene manipula
tion, underline the
opposing argument.


There is probably no
force in a society more powerful than the acquisition of information. As modern genetics
probes deeper and deeper into the essence of the human genome, the science of genetics will come to posse
ss
an information base with power and opportunity for use undreamed of only a few years ago.

With great power comes great responsibility
. Genetic intervention techniques such as genetic engineering, human
gene therapy, and genetic screening raise many que
stions. Since these techniques change the flow of information
at the level of molecules, the level of individuals, and at the level of societies it is wise to consider to what extent
we want to apply these technologies and to reflect on what changes we are

seeking. Genetic screening for
disorders for which a successful therapy exists have been in place for many years. All states of the United States
routinely screen newborns for PKU, an inherited disorder for which a carefully monitored diet provides amelio
ration.
But the increasing ability to detect the presence of more and more defective genes has re
-
energized the ongoing
debate about the ethics of diagnosing genetic disorders prenatally, after birth, and in adults. For example, a
disorder such as Alzheime
r's disease which produces no symptoms until it strikes as early as age 45, or in the case of
kidney disease which produces no symptoms until adulthood and even then progresses slowly. This ability to detect
genetic conditions before symptoms arise, suscep
tibility to genetic diseases such as alcoholism, or the ability to
identify carriers of recessively inherited conditions such as cystic fibrosis, poses new challenges to the ethi
cal
frameworks that had previously been established to deal with controversia
l detection programs. One of the
problems posed by recent developments in molecular genetics is the actual definition of what constitutes a
"disease." There is precedent for defining deviations from the statistical norm, such as high blood pressure or obes
ity,
as "disease."
The use of genetic
screening by insurance compani
es is a scare for many people.
Knowing you are
susceptible to breast cancer or diabetes would be invaluable to an
insurance company
looking for ways to screen
out riskier candidates and th
us keep costs down
-

and profits up.
But, thirty states have already passed laws
prohibiting such screening for jobs and
insurance. Thankfully, because
everyone is susceptible to one d
isease or
another.

But will that statement ring true forever?

8. What i
s the chart below called? In this case what is it meant to represent (
dominant

or
recessive

disorder)?
Develop a punnet square that could have also been used to advise the parents of the affected children (marked
with a star).




9. Name the
biotechnol
ogy technique to the left
. Identify
two practical applications for this technology. What is
significant about the bands?





10. Using the figure below identify which is male which is female. What are these diagrams called?
Are they healthy or unhea
lthy people? Explain.













11. Explain how the phenomena of gene linkage conflicts with Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment?





MULTIPLE CHOICE



1.

The diagram below represents a
homologous
pair.

The letters B

and b represent genes for a certai
n trait.



These letters also represent



A) genes for sex determination

B) hom
ozygous genes

C) an allelic pair of genes

D) linked genes




2.

The appearance of a recessive trait in offspring of animals most probably indicates that


A) one parent was ho
mozygous dominant and the other parent was hybrid for that trait

B) neither parent carried a recessive gene for that trait

C) both parents carried at least one recessive gene for that trait

D) one parent was homozygous dominant and the other parent was hom
ozygous recessive for that trait


3.

Which technique is used to alter bacteria in such a way that they produce human insulin?



A) hydrolysis

B) DNA replication

C) genetic screening

D) recombinant DNA formation




4.

A human DNA segment was inserted into a bact
erial cell and became incorporated alto the bacterial
DNA. This technique is an example of



A) genetic engineering

B) cloning

C) genetic counseling

D) artificial selection


5.

In many humans, exposing the skin to sunlight over prolonged periods of time resul
ts in the production of
more pigment by the skin cells (tanning). This change in skin color provides evidence that


A)

ultraviolet light can cause mutations

B)

gene action can be influenced by the environment

C)

the inheritance of skin color is an acquired characte
ristic

D)

albinism is a recessive characteristic


Two groups of 100 corn seeds were planted in two separate containers of soil and watered regularly.
Group I was grown in light for 4 weeks and group 11 was grown in the dark for 2 weeks and then in the
light f
or 2 weeks. The color of the seedlings was recorded after each 2
-
week period. Light was the only
variable in the experiment. The results

are summarized in the data tabl
e below.




6.

This experiment demonstrates that


A) water and fertilizer are important fo
r seed germination

B) the environment interacts with genes in the expression of an inherited trait

C) the principles of genetics apply only to plants and not to animals

D) heat should have been provided along with carbon dioxide for proper growth