Introduction to Biotechnology Science Final Exam Review Mrs.Tobin

vinegaryellowwaterBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

83 views


1

Introduction to Biotechnology Science

Final Exam Review

Mrs.Tobin



1.

What is Biotechnology? (Define it as specifically as possible)

2.

What are the 8 branches of biotechnology and what is their primary focus? Please give examples.

3.

Who was the first person
to discover and use antibiotics? What was the antibiotic and what was it used for? (What did it
treat?)

4.

Describe the significance of the small pox vaccine. Who created it and how did they do it?

5.

Who are Watson and Crick and what did they do?

6.

Describe t
he process of fermentation using bread or cheese making as an example.

7.

What is selective breeding and why is it used? Give a specific example of something that is selectively bred.

8.

What is the first animal to be cloned? What is the first animal to be publ
icly announced as being a clone?

9.

Can you briefly describe the cloning process?

10.

What is the Human Genome Project and what was its goal?

11.

Name the five major steps in the scientific method.

12.

What are two types of controls that are needed during an experimen
t? What is the difference between them?

13.

What are the top states in the nation for job availability in the biotechnology industry?

14.

What are the four major areas that most jobs at a biotechnology companies fall into?

15.

This is when organisms with desirable
features are purposely mated to produce offspring with desirable characteristics

16.

The process of using yeast to decompose sugars to derive energy, and in the process they produce ethanol and CO2 as a
waste product

17.

Alexander Fleming was the first to use th
ese to inhibit the growth of Staph aureus



18.

This is the name of the 13 year effort to decode the 3 billion DNA subunits that make up human DNA

19.

In 1797 Jenner created a viral vaccine against this virus from the blisters of milk maids who contracted cowpox

20.

In 1953 Watson and Crick first understood the shape of this molecule

21.

In 1981, this animal was the first to be cloned

22.

This technique can be used to include or exclude a person from suspicion during a crime scene investigation. It can also be
used in patern
ity cases or in the identification of human remains.

23.

The use of biotechnology to process and degrade a variety of natural an manmade substances (particularly pollutants)

24.

This type of biotechnology entails manipulating microorganisms such as yeast and bacte
ria

25.

The making of this food material is an an example of one of the oldest forms of biotechnology

26.

In this type of biotech, plants are genetically engineered to be pest resistant

27.

Animals are used as a source of medically valuable proteins and used as import
ant models in basic research in this field of
biotech

28.

Using aquaculture or genetic engineering to increase the number or size of shellfish and finfish are examples of this type of

biotechnology

29.

This type of biotech is involved with the whole spectrum of hu
man medicine

30.

This type of biotech is responsible for all activities that are involved in regulating the final quality of a product

31.

These types of cells are used to regenerate a variety of human tissue and are at the center of widespread controversy

32.

Congres
s is currently debating whether or not these genetically modified (GMO) animals should be allowed to be sold as a
food source


2

33.

How would you make 250mL of a 5% NaCl solution? (Draw it)

34.

You need to make 2L of a .75 g/mL solution of HCl. How would you do it?

(Draw it)

35.

How would you make 500mL a 3M solution of NaOH? (Draw it)

36.

You need to dilute a 6M solution of HCl down to 600mL of a .5M solution. How would you do it? (Draw it)

37.

What does “FDA” stand for?

38.

What are the areas/industries that are regulated by the

FDA (hint: there are 8 of them)

39.

____________ are the structural and functional units of all life forms.

40.


What is the plasma (cell) membrane?

41.

What are organelles?

42.

What does a prokaryote NOT have?

43.

Where else (besides the nucleus) is DNA found within an a
nimal cell?

44.


What are two major types of nucleic acids?

45.

What are DNases and RNases?

46.

What is the building block of DNA and what is it composed of?

47.


What are the 4 bases of DNA?

What bases are complementary to each other?

48.

What do the rungs of the ladder
consist of and what is creates the “backbone” of DNA?

49.

What is chromatin?

50.

How is genetic material in bacteria organized?

51.

What is the haploid number (n)?

What is the diploid number (2n)?

52.

How many chromosomes do somatic human cells contain?

53.

Describe the proce
ss of DNA replication in your own words (you may use a flow chart or pictures).

54.

What is transcription?

55.

What is translation?

56.

What are the bases that make up RNA?

57.

What are the three different types of RNA and what role do each play?

58.

What are the building blo
cks of protein?

59.

What is a codon and what does it code for?

60.

What is a mutation?

61.

What are CHO cells, HeLa cells, Vero cells, and E.coli cells and what are they used for?

62.

What is a mutagen?

63.

W
hat is a cGMP?

64.

What can ultimately happen if a product is found t
o be produced while not following cGMPs? What is it considered?

65.

What does “SOP” stand for and what is it?

66.

What are 5 thing
s that you would find on a SOP?

67.

What does “CFR” stand for?

68.

When does a company use a batch record?

69.

What are 5 things you would find
on a batch record?

70.

What are genes?

71.

Many biotechnology efforts to modify DNA molecules have the ultimate goal of doing what?

72.

What is different about the DNA in all organisms?

73.

What are plasmids?

74.

What are R plasmids (what do they contain)?


3

75.

What does it mean

when a bacterial cell is transformed?

76.

What is a vector?

77.

What is agar?

78.

What is “sterile technique”?

79.

What is meant by non
-
coding DNA and where is it found? Why do we have it?

80.

What is a bacteriophage?

81.

How can viruses be used as vectors?

82.

What is gene therapy
? What type of diseases can be treated by gene therapy?

83.

What is genetic engineering?

84.

What are Recombinant DNA technologies?

85.

What does the “r” represent in rInsulin?

86.

What does the phrase “site
-
specific mutagenesis” refer to?

87.

What is gel electrophoresis?

What happens to the molecules when the electricity is turned on?

How does the gel material
act as a molecular strainer?

Which direction do DNA and RNA move?

88.

What are the two most common types of gel substances and what is the difference?

89.

What are the tw
o gel stains that can be used to see the bands of separated molecules?

90.

Which stain do you think we are going to use in our lab and why?

91.

What does ELISA stand for?

92.

What is antibody
-
mediated immunity and how is it applied to an ELISA?

93.

What is an antigen?

94.

Wh
at is an antibody?

95.

What is a secondary antibody?

96.


What is a chromogen?


97.

What is a VNTR? Does anyone have the same VNTR?

98.

What is the Southern Blot Technique used for?

99.

What is the definition of Forensic Science?

100.

What is RFLP and what does the process ent
ail?

101.

What does PCR stand for and what is it used for?

102.

What are the three general classes that fingerprints can be divided into?

103.

What is a minutiae? What are four points of identity that can be used to positively match up a fingerprint?

104.

When can hair be us
ed as a source of DNA for a DNA fingerprint?

105.

What is a fiber defined as?


Conversions


106
) 500µL = _____________ L



107
) 6.2 mg= _________ µg



108
) 5.67 m= _____________ cm


109
) 1570.8 ng= __________ g


110)
Below are five windows from selected microp
ipettes. Given the name of each, record what volume each is set to.


p
-
200


p
-
20 p
-

1000 p
-
10 p
-
50





0

3

5

1

2

6

0

6


, ,5

0

4

3

0

0

, , 7


4


111.
Look at the DNA fingerprint below. Based on th
e information provided, which suspect can not be ruled out?






112.

Identify what the following points of identification are in the provided fingerprint.




114.

Us
ing the picture below, describe the process from start to finish of an ELISA Assay. Be sure to use the words
antigen,
antibody, secondary antibody, chromogen, enzyme, substrate, well plate, positive, and negative.



115
.

The lead scientist on the project

you are working on asks you to transfer
360µL

into a clean micro tube (a really small
tube). You look everywhere but there are no micro
-
pipettes to be found. You only find a 1mL pipette, a 5mL pipette, and a 10
mL pipette.
Which pipette will you use and

how much will you add?


116
.

You are completing a bacterial transformation and the protocol calls for you to add
.25 mL

of the enzyme EcoR1 to your
bacterial sample. All of the 1mL pipettes are being used. The only available pipette is a micro
-
pipette

that can hold 200µl to
1000µL (it’s a P
-
1000).
Can you use this pipette? If so, how many µL would you add?