Russell and Norvig's textbook slides - Chapter 1

vinegarclothAI and Robotics

Jul 17, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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ArtificialIntelligence
Chapter1
Chapter11
Outline
}WhatisAI?
}Abriefhistory
}Thestateoftheart
Chapter12
WhatisAI?
Systemsthatthinklikehumans
Systemsthatthinkrationally
Systemsthatactlikehumans
Systemsthatactrationally
Chapter13
Actinghumanly:TheTuringtest
Turing(1950)\Computingmachineryandintelligence":
}\
Canmachinesthink
?"!\
Canmachinesbehaveintelligently
?"
}Operationaltestforintelligentbehavior:the
ImitationGame
AI SYSTEM
HUMAN
?
HUMANINTERROGATOR
}Predictedthatby2000,amachinemighthavea30%chanceof
foolingalaypersonfor5minutes
}AnticipatedallmajorargumentsagainstAIinfollowing50years
}SuggestedmajorcomponentsofAI:knowledge,reasoning,language
understanding,learning
Problem:Turingtestisnot
reproducible
,
constructive
,or
amenableto
mathematicalanalysis
Chapter14
Thinkinghumanly:CognitiveScience
1960s\
cognitiverevolution
":information-processingpsychologyreplaced
prevailingorthodoxyof
behaviorism
Requiresscientictheoriesofinternalactivitiesofthebrain
{Whatlevelofabstraction?\
Knowledge
"or\
circuits
"?
{Howtovalidate?Requires
1)Predictingandtestingbehaviorofhumansubjects(top-down)
or2)Directidenticationfromneurologicaldata(bottom-up)
Bothapproaches(roughly,
CognitiveScience
and
CognitiveNeuroscience
)
arenowdistinctfromAI
BothsharewithAIthefollowingcharacteristic:
theavailabletheoriesdonotexplain(orengender)
anythingresemblinghuman-levelgeneralintelligence
Hence,allthreeeldsshareoneprincipaldirection!
Chapter15
Thinkingrationally:LawsofThought
Normative
(or
prescriptive
)ratherthan
descriptive
Aristotle:whatarecorrectarguments/thoughtprocesses?
SeveralGreekschoolsdevelopedvariousformsof
logic
:
notation
and
rulesofderivation
forthoughts;
mayormaynothaveproceededtotheideaofmechanization
DirectlinethroughmathematicsandphilosophytomodernAI
Problems:1)Notallintelligentbehaviorismediatedbylogicaldeliberation
2)
Whatisthepurposeofthinking
?Whatthoughts
should
Ihave
outofallthethoughts(logicalorotherwise)thatI
could
have?Chapter16
Actingrationally
Rational
behavior:doingtherightthing
Therightthing:thatwhichisexpectedtomaximizegoalachievement,
giventheavailableinformation
Doesn'tnecessarilyinvolvethinking|e.g.,blinkingre ex|but
thinkingshouldbeintheserviceofrationalaction
Aristotle(NicomacheanEthics):
Everyartandeveryinquiry,andsimilarlyevery
actionandpursuit,isthoughttoaimatsomegood
Chapter17
Rationalagents
An
agent
isanentitythatperceivesandacts
Thiscourseisaboutdesigning
rationalagents
Abstractly,anagentisafunctionfrompercepthistoriestoactions:
f:P

!A
Foranygivenclassofenvironmentsandtasks,weseekthe
agent(orclassofagents)withthebestperformance
Caveat:
computationallimitationsmake
perfectrationalityunachievable
!designbest
program
forgivenmachineresources
Chapter18
AIprehistory
Philosophy
logic,methodsofreasoning
mindasphysicalsystem
foundationsoflearning,language,rationality
Mathematics
formalrepresentationandproof
algorithms,computation,(un)decidability,(in)tractability
probability
Psychology
adaptation
phenomenaofperceptionandmotorcontrol
experimentaltechniques(psychophysics,etc.)
Economics
formaltheoryofrationaldecisions
Linguistics
knowledgerepresentation
grammar
Neuroscience
plasticphysicalsubstrateformentalactivity
Controltheory
homeostaticsystems,stability
simpleoptimalagentdesigns
Chapter19
PottedhistoryofAI
1943
McCulloch&Pitts:Booleancircuitmodelofbrain
1950
Turing's\ComputingMachineryandIntelligence"
1952{69
Look,Ma,nohands!
1950s
EarlyAIprograms,includingSamuel'scheckersprogram,
Newell&Simon'sLogicTheorist,Gelernter'sGeometryEngine
1956
Dartmouthmeeting:\ArticialIntelligence"adopted
1965
Robinson'scompletealgorithmforlogicalreasoning
1966{74
AIdiscoverscomputationalcomplexity
Neuralnetworkresearchalmostdisappears
1969{79
Earlydevelopmentofknowledge-basedsystems
1980{88
Expertsystemsindustrybooms
1988{93
Expertsystemsindustrybusts:\AIWinter"
1985{95
Neuralnetworksreturntopopularity
1988
{Resurgenceofprobability;generalincreaseintechnicaldepth
\NouvelleAI":ALife,GAs,softcomputing
1995
{Agents,agents,everywhere:::
2003
{Human-levelAIbackontheagenda
Chapter110
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}Playadecentgameoftabletennis
Chapter111
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
Chapter112
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
Chapter113
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
Chapter114
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
Chapter115
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}Playadecentgameofbridge
Chapter116
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
Chapter117
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
Chapter118
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
Chapter119
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
Chapter120
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}
Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
}TranslatespokenEnglishintospokenSwedishinrealtime
Chapter121
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}
Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
}
TranslatespokenEnglishintospokenSwedishinrealtime
}Conversesuccessfullywithanotherpersonforanhour
Chapter122
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}
Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
}
TranslatespokenEnglishintospokenSwedishinrealtime
}
Conversesuccessfullywithanotherpersonforanhour
}Performacomplexsurgicaloperation
Chapter123
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}
Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
}
TranslatespokenEnglishintospokenSwedishinrealtime
}
Conversesuccessfullywithanotherpersonforanhour
}
Performacomplexsurgicaloperation
}Unloadanydishwasherandputeverythingaway
Chapter124
Stateoftheart
Whichofthefollowingcanbedoneatpresent?
}
Playadecentgameoftabletennis
}
Drivesafelyalongacurvingmountainroad
}
DrivesafelyalongTelegraphAvenue
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesontheweb
}
Buyaweek'sworthofgroceriesatBerkeleyBowl
}
Playadecentgameofbridge
}
Discoverandproveanewmathematicaltheorem
}
Designandexecutearesearchprograminmolecularbiology
}
Writeanintentionallyfunnystory
}
Givecompetentlegaladviceinaspecializedareaoflaw
}
TranslatespokenEnglishintospokenSwedishinrealtime
}
Conversesuccessfullywithanotherpersonforanhour
}
Performacomplexsurgicaloperation
}
Unloadanydishwasherandputeverythingaway
Chapter125
Unintentionallyfunnystories
OnedayJoeBearwashungry.HeaskedhisfriendIrvingBirdwheresome
honeywas.Irvingtoldhimtherewasabeehiveintheoaktree.Joethreat-
enedtohitIrvingifhedidn'ttellhimwheresomehoneywas.TheEnd.
HenrySquirrelwasthirsty.Hewalkedovertotheriverbankwherehisgood
friendBillBirdwassitting.Henryslippedandfellintheriver.Gravity
drowned.TheEnd.
Onceuponatimetherewasadishonestfoxandavaincrow.Onedaythe
crowwassittinginhistree,holdingapieceofcheeseinhismouth.He
noticedthathewasholdingthepieceofcheese.Hebecamehungry,and
swallowedthecheese.Thefoxwalkedovertothecrow.TheEnd.
Chapter126
Unintentionallyfunnystories
JoeBearwashungry.HeaskedIrvingBirdwheresomehoneywas.Irving
refusedtotellhim,soJoeoeredtobringhimawormifhe'dtellhimwhere
somehoneywas.Irvingagreed.ButJoedidn'tknowwhereanywormswere,
soheaskedIrving,whorefusedtosay.SoJoeoeredtobringhimawormif
he'dtellhimwhereawormwas.Irvingagreed.ButJoedidn'tknowwhere
anywormswere,soheaskedIrving,whorefusedtosay.SoJoeoeredto
bringhimawormifhe'dtellhimwhereawormwas:::
Chapter127