Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Course: CS40002
Course: CS40002
Instructor: Dr.
Instructor: Dr.
Pallab Dasgupta
Pallab Dasgupta
Department of Computer Scienc
e & Engineering
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
2
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
What is AI?
What is AI?
Turing Test (1950)
Turing Test (1950)
The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
human at the other end
human at the other end
•
Sufficiency: The Chinese Room Argument
3
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
The ability to solve problems
The ability to solve problems
Search:
Search:
Efficient trial
Efficient trial


and
and


error
error
Enormous computational complexity
Enormous computational complexity
Space
Space

time trade
time trade

offs
offs
Use of domain knowledge
Use of domain knowledge –
–
heuristics
heuristics
Integer
Prog.
Linear
Prog.
Dynamic
Prog.
Heuristic
Search
Evolutionary
Algorithms
During 1985
During 1985


1995
1995
computation became free
computation became free
4
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Knowledge and Deduction
Knowledge and Deduction
How to store and retrieve knowledge?
How to store and retrieve knowledge?
How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?
How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?
The gap between knowledge and realization
The gap between knowledge and realization
Logics of knowledge
Logics of knowledge
Knowledge
Based
Systems
Expert
Systems
Automated
Theorem
Provers
Formal
Verification
•
•
The knowledge base may be huge
The knowledge base may be huge
•
•
Between 1990
Between 1990
–
–
2000
2000
storage became free
storage became free
5
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
The ability to learn
The ability to learn
Can we learn to solve a problem better?
Can we learn to solve a problem better?
Learning the answers
Learning the answers
Learning the rules of the game
Learning the rules of the game
Learning to plan
Learning to plan
Belief networks
Belief networks
Perceptrons
Perceptrons
and Neural networks
and Neural networks
6
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
What then is AI?
What then is AI?
Automated Problem Solving
Automated Problem Solving
Logic and Deduction
Logic and Deduction
Machine Learning
Machine Learning
Computer vision
Computer vision
NLP
NLP
Robotics
Robotics
Human Computer
Human Computer
interaction
interaction
In this decade, communication will become free
7
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Fundamentals
Fundamentals
The notion of expressing computation as an
The notion of expressing computation as an
algorithm
algorithm
Godel’s
Godel’s
Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
In any language expressive enough to describe the
In any language expressive enough to describe the
properties of natural numbers, there are true statements that
properties of natural numbers, there are true statements that
are
are
undecidable
undecidable
: that is, their truth cannot be established by
: that is, their truth cannot be established by
any algorithm.
any algorithm.
8
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Fundamentals
Fundamentals
Church
Church


Turing Thesis (1936):
Turing Thesis (1936):
The Turing machine is capable of computing any
The Turing machine is capable of computing any
computable function
computable function
This is the accepted definition of computability
This is the accepted definition of computability
The notion of intractability
The notion of intractability
NP
NP

completeness
completeness
Reduction
Reduction
9
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Course Outline
Course Outline
Problem solving by search
Problem solving by search
State space search,
State space search,
Problem reduction search,
Problem reduction search,
Game playing
Game play
ing
Logic and deduction
Logic and deduction
First
First


order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
Planning
Planning
Reasoning under Uncertainty
Reasoning under Uncertainty
Learning
Learning
Additional Topics
Additional Topics
10
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
References
References
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
–
–
A Modern Approach
A Modern Approach


Stuart Russell and Peter
Stuart Russell and Peter
Norvig
Norvig
Principles of Artificial Intelligence
Principles of Artificial Intelligence


N J
Nilsson
N J Nilsson
Heuristics
Heuristics


Judea Pearl
Judea Pearl
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