Artificial Intelligence: Introduction

vinegarclothAI and Robotics

Jul 17, 2012 (5 years and 4 months ago)

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Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Course: CS40002
Course: CS40002
Instructor: Dr.
Instructor: Dr.
Pallab Dasgupta
Pallab Dasgupta
Department of Computer Scienc
e & Engineering
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
2
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
What is AI?
What is AI?


Turing Test (1950)
Turing Test (1950)


The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype


It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
human at the other end
human at the other end

Sufficiency: The Chinese Room Argument
3
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
The ability to solve problems
The ability to solve problems


Search:
Search:
Efficient trial
Efficient trial
-
-
and
and
-
-
error
error


Enormous computational complexity
Enormous computational complexity


Space
Space-
-
time trade
time trade
-
-offs
offs


Use of domain knowledge
Use of domain knowledge –

heuristics
heuristics
Integer
Prog.
Linear
Prog.
Dynamic
Prog.
Heuristic
Search
Evolutionary
Algorithms
During 1985
During 1985
-
-
1995
1995
computation became free
computation became free
4
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Knowledge and Deduction
Knowledge and Deduction


How to store and retrieve knowledge?
How to store and retrieve knowledge?


How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?
How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?


The gap between knowledge and realization
The gap between knowledge and realization


Logics of knowledge
Logics of knowledge
Knowledge
Based
Systems
Expert
Systems
Automated
Theorem
Provers
Formal
Verification


The knowledge base may be huge
The knowledge base may be huge


Between 1990
Between 1990


2000
2000
storage became free
storage became free
5
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
The ability to learn
The ability to learn


Can we learn to solve a problem better?
Can we learn to solve a problem better?


Learning the answers
Learning the answers


Learning the rules of the game
Learning the rules of the game


Learning to plan
Learning to plan


Belief networks
Belief networks


Perceptrons
Perceptrons
and Neural networks
and Neural networks
6
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
What then is AI?
What then is AI?
Automated Problem Solving
Automated Problem Solving
Logic and Deduction
Logic and Deduction
Machine Learning
Machine Learning
Computer vision
Computer vision
NLP
NLP
Robotics
Robotics
Human Computer
Human Computer
interaction
interaction
In this decade, communication will become free
7
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Fundamentals
Fundamentals


The notion of expressing computation as an
The notion of expressing computation as an
algorithm
algorithm


Godel’s
Godel’s
Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
Incompleteness Theorem (1931):


In any language expressive enough to describe the
In any language expressive enough to describe the
properties of natural numbers, there are true statements that
properties of natural numbers, there are true statements that
are
are
undecidable
undecidable
: that is, their truth cannot be established by
: that is, their truth cannot be established by
any algorithm.
any algorithm.
8
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Fundamentals
Fundamentals


Church
Church
-
-
Turing Thesis (1936):
Turing Thesis (1936):


The Turing machine is capable of computing any
The Turing machine is capable of computing any
computable function
computable function


This is the accepted definition of computability
This is the accepted definition of computability


The notion of intractability
The notion of intractability


NP
NP-
-
completeness
completeness


Reduction
Reduction
9
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
Course Outline
Course Outline


Problem solving by search
Problem solving by search


State space search,
State space search,


Problem reduction search,
Problem reduction search,


Game playing
Game play
ing


Logic and deduction
Logic and deduction


First
First
-
-
order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction


Planning
Planning


Reasoning under Uncertainty
Reasoning under Uncertainty


Learning
Learning


Additional Topics
Additional Topics
10
CSE, IIT
CSE, IIT
Kharagpur
Kharagpur
References
References


Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence


A Modern Approach
A Modern Approach
--
--
Stuart Russell and Peter
Stuart Russell and Peter
Norvig
Norvig


Principles of Artificial Intelligence
Principles of Artificial Intelligence
--
--
N J
Nilsson
N J Nilsson


Heuristics
Heuristics
--
--
Judea Pearl
Judea Pearl