MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT SOURCES OF ENERGY-converted.pptx

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MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT SOURCES OF ENERGY-converted.pptx

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MAGNETIC EFFECTS
OF
ELECTRIC

CURRENT
SOURCES
OF

ENERGY





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IMPORTANT FACTS:


A source of
energy provides
energy
in
a
convenient form over
a
long period
of

time.


Sources
of
energy
can
be
classified
as
renewable
and
non
-
renewable

sources.


Solar
energy
is
the
main
source
of
energy on the

earth.


Solar cookers, solar water heaters
and
solar concentrators are some devices
used
for
harnessing solar

energy.

Solar cells
are
devices that convert solar energy directly
into

electricity.

Solar

energy

also

manifests

itself

in

nature

as

the

energy

of

winds,

water

flowing

through

rivers,

ocean

waves,

besides

ocean

thermal

energy
.

Energy

harnessed

through

wind

energy

devices

is

utilized

either

to

do

mechanical

work,

or

to

produce

electricity
.

Energy
derived from
the hot
spots
beneath the
earth is called geothermal

energy.

Green

plants

convert

solar

energy

into

chemical

energy

through

the

process

of

photosynthesis
.

This

energy

is

known

as

bio
-
energy
.

Biomass

is

utilized

to

produce

heat

by

burning

it

or

to

produce

biogas

through

its

anaerobic

decomposition

in

a

biogas

plant
.

Hydrogen and
alcohol could
be a
source
of
energy in

future.

Fossil

fuels

like

coal,

petroleum

and

natural

gas

are

a

mixture

of

hydrocarbons
.

These

are

fossil

remains

produced

by

the

decay

of

plants

and

marine

animals

that

were

buried

in

the

earth

millions

of

years

ago
.

Fuels

like

coal,

petroleum

and

natural

gas

are

being

utilized

at

very

high

rates,

resulting

in

fast

depletion

of

their

known

reserves
.

Fossil

fuels

may

not

be

available

in

future,

as

these

are

not

being

formed

now
.

Fuels

are

characterized

by

their

calorific

value

and

ignition

temperature,

besides

the

nature

of

product

produced

by

their

combustion
.

The

three

conditions

essential

for

combustion

are

attainment

of

ignition

temperature,

presence

of

oxygen

and

a

combustible

material
.

The

factors

that

help

to

choose

a

good

fuel

for

a

given

purpose

are

its

availability,

cost,

its

characteristic

and

physical

properties,

besides

considerations

of

the

effects

of

its

by
-
products

on

environment
.

TYPES OF

ENERGY

1.

Wind Energy:
The
energy
possessed due to
moving air is called wind
energy.
Advantages:

(i)

It does
not
cause
any pollution.

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(ii)
The source of
wind energy
is
air. (Renewable

Energy)

(iii)
It
is available
free
of

cost.

Water Energy:
The
energy possessed
due to
flowing
of
water is called
the
water
energy.

Water

Wheel:

The

device

used

for

obtaining

energy

from

flowing

water

is

called

water

2.

wheel
.

The

basic

principle

of

water

wheel

is

that

the

moving

water

rotates

the

water

wheel

and

this

water

wheel

can

be

made

to

turn

machines,

which

do

work

for

us
.

3.
Electric

Power

Plants
:

The

set
-
up,

which

can

produce

large

quantity

of

electricity,

from

a

few

kilowatts

to

a

few

hundred

megawatts,

are

called

power

plants
.

There

are

three

types

of

power

stations

(plants)
.

These

are
:

(a)
Hydroelectric power

stations;

(b)
Thermal
power stations;

(c)
Nuclear (or atomic power

stations)

Principle

of

hydroelectric

power
:

The

potential

energy

of

the

water

stored

at

great

heights

in

the

dams

is

converted

into

kinetic

energy

by

flowing

water

to

flow

at

high

speeds

due

to

which

electricity

is

generated
.

The

electric

power

so

generated

is

called

hydroelectric

power
.

4.

Solar
Energy:
The energy obtained from
the sun
is called solar

energy.

Advantages of
Solar

Energy

(i)

(ii)

(
iii
)

It
is inexhaustible source
of
energy.
It does
not
cause

pollution.

It
is available
free
of

cost.

Disadvantages
of
Solar

Energy:

(i)
It
is
not
available all
the

time.

(ii)
It
is very
much
diffused and scattered.

Tidal Energy:
The
energy obtained from tides is called tidal

Energy.

Merits
of
tidal

energy

5.


It
is
an
inexhaustible source
of

energy.


It
is independent
of
uncertainty
of

rainfall.


It
is
a
pollution free source
of

energy.


It does
not require large
area
of
valuable

land.

Demerits
of
tidal

energy


Power generation is intermittent
due to
variation
in
tidal

range.


The

most

difficult

problem

in

the

use

of

tidal

power

are

the

barrage

construction

in
areas
of
high tidal flow and corrosion
of

barrage.

6.

Merits
of wave

energy


It
is
a
renewable
and
pollution
free
source
of

energy.


It does
not require large land

areas.

Demerits
of
wave

energy


The power
supply is variable
in nature due to
variability in
wave

formation.

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It
is expensive.


Marine
life could
be
affected
due to
wave energy harnessing

structures.

7.

Merits
of

OTEC


The electric
power produced is continuous, renewable
and
pollution

free.


OTEC
system enriches
the
fishing
grounds by
transferring nutrients from
the
unproductive deep
waters
to the
warmer

surface.


OTEC
system
does
not have daily
or
seasonal variations in their output
as
in
case
with
the
solar energy

devices.

Demerits
of

OTEC


OTEC
system requires
a
lot
of
capital

investment.


The conversion
efficiency is low
as
there is small temperature difference between
the
surface water
and
the
deep

water.

8.

Merits
of geothermal

energy


It
is
the most
versatile and
least
polluting renewable
source of

energy.


It
is relatively inexpensive
and
power generation level is higher
as
compared
to
solar energy
and
wind

energy.

Demerits
of
geothermal

energy


Though

geothermal

energy

is

inexhaustible,

a

single

bore

has

a

limited

life

span

of
about
10
years.


Geothermal
hot
spots
are

scattered.


Noise pollution
is caused by
drilling
operations
at
geothermal
sites.

9.

Advantages of
nuclear
fusion over
nuclear

fission

Energy

released

in

fusion

reaction

is

much

greater

than

energy

released

in

fission

reaction.

The

products

of

fusion

are

not

radioactive

whereas

it

is

radioactive

in

case

of

nuclear
fission
and
require careful

disposal.

Hazards

of

nuclear

power

generation

and

safety

measures

The

major

hazards

of

nuclear

power

generation

are
:


Storage

and

disposal

of

spent

or

used

nuclear

fuels

as

they

continue

to

decay

into

harmful

subatomic

particles

(radiations)
.

This

would

lead

to

environmental

contamination
.


There

is

a

risk

of

accidental

leakage

of

nuclear

radiation
.


It

has

high

cost

of

installation

of

a

nuclear

power

plant
.

Types

of

Nuclear

Reactions
:

(i)
Nuclear

Fusion

Reaction
:

The

process

in

which

two

or

more

nuclei

of

lighter

atoms

combine

to

form

a

heavy

nucleus

with

the

liberation

of

a

large

amount

of

energy

is

cal l ed

f usi on

react i on
.

For

example
:

1
H
2


1

H
2


2

He
4



Tremendous

Energy
.
(
17
.
3

MeV)

(ii)
Nuclear

Fission

Reactions
:

The

process

of

splitting

of

a

nucleus

of

a

heavy

atom

into

a

number

of

nuclei

of

smaller

mass

with

the

liberation

of

large

amount

of

energy

is

called

nuclear

fission
.

For

example

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92
U
235


0
n
1

56
Ba
139

36
Kr
94


3
0
n
1


Energy
(200

MeV)

Cause

of

tremendous

Amount

of

Energy
:

The

cause

of

tremendous

amount

of

energy

during

the

nuclear

fission

is

the

loss

of

mass
.

The

loss

of

mass

is

also

called

mass

defect
.

Einstein
Equation:
E


mc

2

Where m = The mass
lost
or mass
defect.
c = the
velocity
of
light.
E =
amount
of
energy.

Chain

Reaction:

A

reaction

in

which

the

number

of

neutrons

goes

on

increasing

during
fission till whole
of the
fissionable material is

disintegrated.

Nuclear Reactor:
It
is
a
device, which is
used
for carrying out fission reaction
at a
controlled rate.
It
is
used to
generate

electricity.

Nuclear

fuel:

The

fissionable

material

used

in

the

nuclear

reactor

is

called

nuclear

fuel.

For
ex., U
235
,

Pu
239
.

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