LIFE PROCESSES.pdf

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LIFE PROCESSES.pdf

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LIFE PROCESSES





LIFE PROCESSES

Nutrition

Respiration

Transportation /
Circulation

Excretion



Nutrition
:
Process of obtaining food from the surroundings and using it for various
metabolic activities by an organis
m.





Mode of Nutrition

Autotrophic

Heterotrophic

Photosynthesis

CO
2
+ H
2
O
l
Chlorophyl
Sunlight






C
6
H
12
O
6
+ O
2


All green plants and blue
-
green algae


Parasitic

Saprophytic

Holozoic










Obtain food

Obtain

Obtain


from living

food from

food fro
m


organisms.

dead and

complex


They live

decaying

organic


in or on

organisms

substances.


the bodies
of

e.g. fungi,

Eat solid food

other organism.

bacteria

e.g. amoeba,

e.g. lice, leech


frog, humans



Photosynthesis

Light reaction: Photolysis of water to give out H
2
and O
2
.


Dark reaction: Formation of C
6
H
12
O
6
. Also called Benson
and Calvin Cycle.




(a)

Steps of photosynthesis:
During the process of photosynthesis, the following
events occur :




Absorption

of light energy
by chlorophyll
.




Conversion

of light energy to chemical energy
and splitting of
water molecules

into
Hydrogen

and
oxygen
.




H
2
O


2H
+

+ 2e


+ 1/2 O
2



The above processes are considered as
light reaction.





Reduction

of
carbon
-
dioxide

to
carbohydrates
. This is also known as
dark
reaction
.


(b)

Conditions necessary
for photosynthesis
:




Sunlight




Chlorophyll




Carbon
-
dioxide




Water



These conditions are needed for
autotrophic mode of nutrition
.


(c)

Site of photosynthesis
:

Chloroplast

(c
hlorophyll
)

containing organelles (i.e.
plastid) which are found in large
numbers in plant and algal cells undergoing
photosynthesis are called
chloroplast
.

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PROCESS OF NUTRITION (HUMAN)

Ingestion

Digestion

Absorption

Assimilation

Egestion




Human Digestive System

Alimentary canal

Digestive Glands



Mouth or Buccal Cavity



Salivary Glands



Pharynx



Gastric Glands



Oesophagus



Intestinal Glands



Stomach



Liver



Small Intestine



Pancreas



Large Intestine



Anus



Digestion in

Human Being
s


Mouth (or Buccal Cavity)

Oesophagus

Saliva or Ptyalin from
Salivary glands

By Peristaltic movement

Stomach

Duodenum

Gastric Juice

HCl, Pepsin
Lipase, Mucus

From liver



Bile Juice

From pancreas



Pancreatic Juice

I
leum

Small intestine



Intestinal juice

Digestion completed

Colon

Water Reabsorbed

Rectum

Anus


Summary of Digestive enzymes of various glands with their se
cretion and end
products of

Digestion in Man

Name of
gland

Secretion

Site of
action

Enzymes

Food acts upon

End product

1.

Salivary
gland
s

Saliva

Buccal cavity

Salivary
amylase
or Ptylin

Starch

Maltose

2.

Gastic
glands

Gastic

Juice
HCl

Stomach

Pepsin

Proteins

Peptones and
proteoses

Renin

Caesein of milk

Paracaesein

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3.

Liver

Bile

Duodenum


-

Fats

Emulsification of
fats

4.

Pancreas

Pancreatic
juice

Duodenum

Amylase


Starch and
Glycogen

Maltose and
isomaltose

Trypsin

Proteins

Peptones and
peptides

Lipase

Emulsified fats

Fatty acids and
glycerol

5.

Intestinal
glands

Intestinal
juice

Small
intestine

Erepsin


Peptones and
peptides

Amino acids

Maltase

Maltose

Glucose

Sucrase

Sucorose

Glucose and
fructose

Lactase

Lactose


Glucose and
galactose

Lipase

Triglycerides

Monoglycerides
and fatty acids

Mucous

Large
intestine


-

Lubrication of
faecal matter



-


In short,


(i)

Carbohydrates or Starch
amylase
Salivary






Maltose
amylase
Pancreatic







G
lucose


(ii)

Prote
ins
medium
acidic
in
Pepsin








P
eptones
medium
alkaline
in
Trypsin








A
mino acid
s


(iii)

Emulsified
Fats or Lipids





Lipase

F
atty acid and glycerol


RESPIRATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS


S.No.

Respiration in Animal
s

Respiration in Plants

1.

Animal perf
orms respiration as a
single unit.

All parts of plant (like root, stem,
leaves) perform respiration
individually.

2.

Respiratory gases are usually
transported to long distances
.

There is little transport of respiratory
gases from one part of the plant to
other.

3.

Respiration occurs at faster rate.

It occurs at slower rate.


Respiration involves:



Gaseous exchange:

Breathing




Breakdown of simple food: Cellular respiration


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Respiratory System in Humans

Respiratory Tract

Respiratory Organ



External Nostril



Lungs



Nasal passage



Internal Nostril



Larynx



Trachea



Bronchi



Alveoli


Mechanism
of B
reathing


Mechanism of breathing
involves two phases.



Inspiration (Inhalation):

It is the process by which fresh atmospheric air enter into the
lungs (alveoli) via respiratory tract. The diaphragm contracts and becomes flat expanding the
chest cavity. The
intercostal muscles

contract, r
ibs coming outwards. This further enlarges
the chest cavity, lowering the pressure inside lungs. Therefore air rushes in.


Expiration (exhalation):

It is the process by which foul air is expelled out of the lungs.
The diaphragm relaxes and coming in its no
rmal arched position, compressing the lungs.
Intercostal muscles relax and move inwards. This reduces the volume of chest cavity which is
already full of air. This forces the air out.


Inhalation


Lifting of Ribs + Flat Diaphragm


Increase in Volume of C
hest Cavity


Air is sucked inside the Nostrils


Alveoli and Vice Versa for Breathing out


A
erobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Absence of O
2
(In yeast)
Ethanol + CO + Energy
2
(2-carbon compound)
Lack of O
2
(In our muscle cells)
Lactic acid + Energy
(3-carbon compound)
Presence of O
2
(In mitochondria)
CO + H O + Energy
2 2
Glucose
In
cyloplasm
Pyruvate
(3-carbon compound)




DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

S.No.

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Resp
iration

1.

Takes place in presence of oxygen
.

Takes place in absence of oxygen
.

2.

Complete breakdown of food takes
place
.

Partial breakdown of food takes place
.

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3.

Food gets converted into CO
2

and
water.

Food can be converted into either
ethanol and CO
2

(as in yeast) or in lactic
acid (as in animal muscles)
.

4.

38 molecules of ATP are produced
.

2 molecules of ATP are produced.


EXCHANGE OF GASES CO
2

AND O
2

BETWEEN BLOOD AND TISSUES


Air in Alveoli


Blood Vessels


Blood


RBC


Respiratory Pigment (H
aemoglobin)


Oxygen Links with Hb (high pressure of O
2
)


O
2

is released in tissues from Hb
(Low O
2

Pressure in Tissues)
spiration
Re
Aerobic







High CO
2

in Tissues


CO
2

Released into
Blood




2
CO

Blood Vessels in Alveoli


CO
2

Released
out Through Nostrils.


TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS



Transportation in plants

Diffusion

Osmosis

Translocation

Xylem
Phloem

Phloem fibres

Xylem vessels


Tracheids



Xylem parenchyma

Xylem fibres

Sieve tubes

Companion cells

Phloem parenchyma




Transport of Water

Absorption of ions by roots from soil

Movement of water into root xylem from soil (Tracheids or vessels)

Stem Xylem

Xylem in Leaves

Difference in concentration of ions
between root and soil

Water + minerals

Los
s of water through stomata in leaves : Transpiration

Suction pressure develops

Suction pull


CIRCULATION IN ANIMALS



Circulatory system (Blood and Lymphatic System)


(i)

Organ


Heart


(ii)

Vessels


Artery, Vein and Capillaries


(iii)

Connec
tive tissues (fluid)


Blood and Lymph


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Heart

(Four chambered)

Blood

Right and Left Atrium

Right and Left Ventricles

(i)

WBC


fight against diseases

(ii)

RBC


c
arry respiratory gases

(iii)

Platelets


c
lotting of blood

(iv)

Plasma


medium (fluid)




BLOOD

Blood
Plasma

Blood
Corpuscles

Serum

Fibrinogen

RBC

(
Erythrocytes
)

WBC

(
Leucocytes
)

Platlets

(
Thrombocytes
)

Granulocytes

Agranulocytes



Mechanism o
f Double Circulation



As the blood passes twice through the heart in one complete cycle in man, it is called
double circulation.


Pulmonary veins

Lungs

Oxygenated


blood

Right ventricle

Deo
xygenated


blood

Pulmonary aorta

Left Auricle

Oxygenated
blood

Left Ventircle

Syst
emic aorta

Body tissues

(Except Lungs)

Right auricle

Venae cavae

Deo
xygenated

blood


Pulmonary circulation


systemic circulation




BLOOD VESSELS

S.No.

Arteries

Veins

1.

Al
ways carry blood away from the
heart.

Always bring back blood to the
heart.

2.


They carry oxygenated blood except
pulmonary artery.

They carry deoxygenated blood
except

pulmonary vein.

3.

Blood flows under high pressure.

Blood flows at lower pressure.

4.

More thick and elastic.

Thin walled.

5.

Have no valves.

Have valves to ensure
unidirectional

flow of blood.


Capillaries
:
Occur at the terminals of artery
and vein, thin
-
walled and narrow, only
one
-
cell thick.

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ARTERIES



CAPILLARIES



TISSUES



CAPILLARIES



VEINS


Exchange of materials


Oxygenated blood


Deoxygenated blood




DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN BLOOD AND LYMPH

S. No.

Blood

Lymph

1
.

It is red in colour due to the presence of
haemoglobin in erythrocytes.

It is colourless, as it lacks erythrocytes.

2
.

It consists of plasma, erythrocytes,
leucocytes and platelets.

It consists of plasma and
leucocytes
only.

3
.


Blood contains many of plasma
proteins and high concentration of
calcium and phosphorus.

Lymph contains fewer plasma proteins
and a low concentration of calcium and
phosphorus.

4
.

It flow is fairly rapid.

Its flow is very slow.

5
.

I
t mainly transports materials from one
organ to another in the body.

It mainly conveys materials from the
tissues into the blood.

6
.



The path of circulation of blood

Heart


Arteries


Capillaries



Veins


Heart

The path of circulation of lymph

Tissu
e spaces


Lymphatic capillaries


Lymph vessels


veins


Heart


EXCRETION


It is the biological process of elimination of harmful metabolic waste products from the
body of an organism.

Organism

Excretory organ

Sponges

Osculum

Earthworm

Nephridia

Inse
cts

Malpighian tubule

Humans

Kidneys, lungs and skin


Excretion in humans



Human excretory system consists of
:



Kidneys (a pair)



Ureters (a pair)



Urinary bladder



Urethra


Nephron

is the

structural and functional unit

of the kidney.

Each nephron c
onsists of
a
glomerulus, Bowman’s

capsule, tubular part

and collecting duct.


Blood having Metabolic Waste


Afferent Arteriole


Glomerulus


Bowman’s
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Capsule


PCT (Proximal Convoluted Tubule)


Loop of Henle


DCT (Distal Convoluted
Tubule)


Collecting

Duct


Ureter


Urinary bladder


Urethra


Urine excreted out



Blood is brought to kidneys by
renal arteries

Water and dissolved constituents of blood (nitrogenous wastes, glucose,
amino acids, mineral salts, etc.) filtered out in Bowman’s capsule under
high filtration pressure (glomerular filtrate)

Bowman’s capsule receives glomerular filtrate

Most of the water and much of the glucose and ions reabsorbed
(Selective reabsorpti
on)

Ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine etc removed by tubular secretion

Urine is formed

FORMATION OF URINE





The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube the ureter which connects the
kidney with the urinary bladder.




In case of k
idney failure
,

procedures done
are:
D
ialysis
and K
idney
transplantation
.




EXCRETION
IN PLANTS

Gaseous waste

(O
2
& CO
2
)

Excess water

Falling of
leaves

Stored as resins
and
gums

Stored in cellular
vacuoles


Through t
ranspiration

By stomata

Through
photosynthesis
and
respiration

By stomata

In old xylem
tissue







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