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LIFE PROCESSES-converted.pptx

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LIFE

PROCESSES

LIFE

PROCESSES

Nutrition

Respiration

Transportation

/
Circulation

Excretion

Nutrition:
Process
of
obtaining
food
from
the
surroundings
and
using it
for various
metabolic activities
by an

organism.

Mode
of

Nutrition

Autotrophic

Heterotrophic

Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

CO
2
+ H
2
O

Su

nlig

ht


C
6
H
12
O
6
+
O
2

All
green
plants and
blue
-
green

algae

Saprophytic



Obtain
food
from
dead
and
decaying
o
r
g
a
ni
sms

e.g.

fungi,
bacteria

Parasitic



Obtain

food
from
living
organisms.

They

live
in
or

on

the
bodies
of
other

organism.

e.g.
lice,

leech

Holozoic



Obtain
food from
complex
organic
substances.
Eat solid

food

e.g.

amoeba,
frog,

humans

Light
reaction: Photolysis of water
to
give
out
H
2
and

O
2
.

Photosynthesis

Dark
reaction: Formation of C
6
H
12
O
6
. Also
called
Benson
and
Calvin

Cycle.

(a) Steps of
photosynthesis:
During
the
process
of
photosynthesis,
the
following
events
occur
:


Absorption
of
light energy
by

chlorophyll
.


Conversion
of
light energy
to
chemical energy and splitting
of
water

molecules

into
Hydrogen
and

oxygen
.

H
2
O


2H
+
+
2e


+
1/2

O
2

The above
processes
are
considered as
light

reaction.


Reduction
of
carbon
-
dioxide
to
carbohydrates
. This is also known
as
dark
reaction
.

(b)
Conditions
necessary
for

photosynthesis:


Sunlight


Chlorophyll


Carbon
-
dioxide


Water

These
conditions are needed for
autotrophic mode
of

nutrition
.

(c)

Site

of

photosynthesis
:

Chloroplast

(chlorophyll)

containing

organelles

(i
.
e
.

plastid)

which

are

found

in

large

numbers

in

plant

and

algal

cells

undergoing

photosynthesis

are

called

chloroplast
.

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PROCESS
OF
NUTRITION

(HUMAN)

Ingestion

Digestion

Egestion

Absorption

Assimilation

Human
Digestive

System

Alimentary

canal

Digestive

Glands



Salivary

Glands



Gastric

Glands



Intestinal

Glands



Liver



Pancreas



Mouth
or Buccal

Cavity



Pharynx



Oesophagus



Stomach



Small

Intestine



Large

Intestine



Anus

Digestion in Human

Beings

Mouth
(or Buccal

Cavity)

Oes
o
p
h
a
g
us

Saliva
or
Ptyalin
from
Salivary

glands

By Peristaltic
movement
Stomach

D
u
o
d
e
n
u
m

Gastric

Juice

HCl, Pepsin
Lipase,

Mucus

From

liver



Bile
Juice
From

pancreas



Pancreatic

Juice

I
l
e
u
m

Small

intestine



Intestinal
juice
Digestion

completed

C
o
l
on

Water

Reabsorbed

Rectum


Anus


Summary of
Digestive
enzymes
of
various glands
with
their secretion
and

end

products
of
Digestion in

Man

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Name

of
gland

Secretion

Site

of
a
c
tion

Enzymes

Food acts

upon

End

product

1.

Salivary

glands

Saliva

Buccal

cavity

Salivary

amyl
a
se

or

Ptylin

Starch

Maltose

2.

Gastic

g
l
a
n
ds

Gastic

Juice
HCl

Stomach

Pepsin

Proteins

Peptones

and
proteoses

Renin

Caesein
of

milk

Paracaesein

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3.

Liver

Bile

Duodenum

-

Fats

Emulsification

of
fats

4.

Pancreas

P
a
n
cre
a
t
i
c
juice

Duodenum

Amylase

Starch

and
Glycogen

Maltose

and
isomaltose

Trypsin

Proteins

Peptones

and
peptides

Lipase

Emulsified

fats

Fatty
acids

and
glycerol

5. Intestinal
glands

Inte
s
t
i
n
a
l
juice

Small
i
ntes
t
i
ne

Erepsin

Peptones

and
peptides

Amino acids

Maltase

Maltose

Glucose

Sucrase

Sucorose

Glucose

and
fructose

Lactase

Lactose

Glucose

and
galactose

Lipase

Triglycerides

Mo
n
o
g
l
yceri
d
es
and
fatty

acids

Mucous

Large
i
ntes
t
i
ne

-

Lubrication

of
faecal

matter

-

In

short,

(i)
Carbohydrates
or
Starch

Salivary




Maltose

Pan

crea

t

ic


Glucose

amylase

amylase

(ii)
Proteins

Pe p

s i n



Pept ones

T r y

p s i n



Ami no
aci ds

in

acidic

medium

in
alkaline

medium

(iii)
Emulsified
Fats or
Lipids

Lipa

s

e


Fatty
acid
and

glycerol


RESPIRATION IN ANIMALS AND

PLANTS

S.No.

Respiration
in

Animals

Respiration
in

Plants

1.

Animal
performs
respiration
as

a
single unit.

All

parts

of

plant

(like

root,

stem,

leaves)

perform

respiration

individually
.

2.

Respiratory gases are usually
transported
to
long

distances.

There

is

little

transport

of

respiratory

gases

from

one

part

of

the

plant

to

other
.

3.

Respiration occurs
at
faster

rate.

It
occurs
at
slower

rate.

Respiration

involves:


Gaseous
exchange: Breathing


Breakdown
of
simple food: Cellular

respiration

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Respiratory
System
in

Humans

Respiratory

Tract

Respiratory

Organ



Lungs



External

Nostril



Nasal

passage



Internal

Nostril



Larynx



Trachea



Bronchi



Alveoli

Mechanism

of

Breathing

Mechanism

of

breathing

involves

two

phases
.

Inspiration

(Inhalation)
:

It

is

the

process

by

which

fresh

atmospheric

air

enter

into

the

lungs

(alveoli)

via

respiratory

tract
.

The

diaphragm

contracts

and

becomes

flat

expanding

the

chest

cavity
.

The

intercostal

muscles

contract,

ribs

coming

outwards
.

This

further

enlarges

the

chest

cavity,

lowering

the

pressure

inside

lungs
.

Therefore

air

rushes

in
.

Expiration

(exhalation)
:

It

is

the

process

by

which

foul

air

is

expelled

out

of

the

lungs
.

The

diaphragm

relaxes

and

coming

in

its

normal

arched

position,

compressing

the

lungs
.

Intercostal

muscles

relax

and

move

inwards
.

This

reduces

the

volume

of

chest

cavity

which

is

already

full

of

air
.

This

forces

the

air

out
.

Inhalation



Lifting

of

Ribs

+

Flat

Diaphragm



Increase

in

Volume

of

Chest

Cavity



Air

is

sucked

inside

the

Nostrils



Alveoli

and

Vice

Versa

for

Breathing

out


Aerobic and Anaerobic

Respiration

A
b
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

O
2

(In

yeast)

Ethanol

+
CO
+

Energy

2

(2
-
carbon

compound)

L
a
c
k

o
f

O
2

(In
our muscle

cells)

+

Energy

Lactic

acid

(3
-
carbon

compound)

P
r
e
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

O
2

CO
+
H O
+

Energy

2

2

In

Glucose

cy
l
o
p
l
a
s
m

Pyruvate

(3
-
carbon

compound)

(In

mitochondria)



DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AEROBIC
AND
ANAEROBIC

RESPIRATION

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S.No.

Aerobic

Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

1.

Takes place
in presence
of

oxygen.

Takes place
in absence
of

oxygen.

2.

Complete
breakdown
of
food takes
place.

Partial breakdown of
food
takes

place.

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3.

Food gets
converted into CO
2
and
water.

Food

can

be

converted

into

either

ethanol

and

CO
2

(as

in

yeast)

or

in

lactic

acid

(as

in

animal

muscles)
.

4.

38
molecules
of
ATP are

produced.

2
molecules
of
ATP are

produced.

EXCHANGE
OF
GASES
CO
2
AND O
2
BETWEEN BLOOD
AND

TISSUES

Air

in

Alveoli



Blood

Vessels



Blood



RBC



Respiratory

Pigment

(Haemoglobin)



Oxygen

Links

with

Hb

(high

pressure

of

O
2
)



O
2

is

released

in

tissues

from

Hb

(Low O
2
Pressure
in
Tissues)

Ae

rob

ic


High CO
2
in Tissues


CO
2
Released
into

Respiration

B
l
o
o
d



C
O

2





B
l
o
o
d Vess
e
l
s

i
n

A
l
ve
o
l
i


C
O
2


R
e
l
e
a
sed

o
u
t

T
h
ro
u
gh
N
o
s
tr
il
s.

TRANSPORTATION IN

PLANTS

Transportation in

plants

Diffusion
Osmosis
T
r
a
n
s
l
o
c
at
i
on

P
h
l
o
e
m

Xylem
Xylem vessels
Tracheids

Xylem

parenchyma
Xylem

fibres

Sieve
tubes
Companion
cells
Phloem parenchyma
Phloem

fibres

Transport
of

Water


Absorption
of
ions
by
roots from

soil

Difference
in
concentration of
ions
between root and

soil

Movement
of
water into root
xylem
from
soil (Tracheids
or

vessels)


Stem

Xylem

Water
+

minerals

Xylem in

Leaves

Suction

pull

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Loss
of
water
through
stomata in leaves
:

Transpiration


Suction pressure

develops

CIRCULATION
IN

ANIMALS


Circulatory system (Blood
and
Lymphatic

System)

(i)
Organ


Heart

(ii)
Vessels


Artery, Vein and

Capillaries

(iii)
Connective tissues (fluid)


Blood
and

Lymph

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Heart
(Four

chambered)

Blood

Right
and
Left Atrium
Right
and
Left

Ventricles

(i)
WBC


fight against

diseases

(ii)
RBC


carry respiratory

gases

(iii)
Platelets


clotting
of

blood

(iv)
Plasma



medium

(fluid)

B
L
O
O
D

Blood

Plasma

Blood

Corpuscles

S
erum

Fibrinogen

RBC

(Erythrocytes)

WBC

(Leucocytes)

Platlets
(
T
h
r
o
mb
o
c
y
tes)

Granulocytes

Agranulocytes


Mechanism
of
Double

Circulation

As
the
blood passes twice
through the
heart in one
complete
cycle in
man,
it is called
double
circulation.

Pulmonary

veins

O
xy
gena
t
e
d
blood

Right

ventricle

Deoxygenated

b
lo
o
d

Pulm
o
nary

aor
t
a

Lun
g
s

Left

Auricle

Oxygenated

b
l
ood

Left

Ventircle

Systemic

aorta

Right

auricle

Body tissues
Deoxygenated
(Except

Lungs)

blood

Venae

cavae

Pulmonary

circulation

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BLOOD

VESSELS

S.No.

Arteries

Veins

1.

Always carry blood away from
the
heart.

Always
bring
back blood
to
the
heart.

2.

They
carry oxygenated blood
except
pulmonary

artery.

They
carry deoxygenated blood
except
pulmonary vein.

3.

Blood flows under high

pressure.

Blood flows
at
lower

pressure.

4.

More
thick
and

elastic.

Thin walled.

5.

Have
no
valves.

H
ave

va
l
ves

to

e
n
sure
unidirectional flow
of

blood.

Capillaries:
Occur
at
the terminals
of
artery and vein, thin
-
walled
and
narrow, only
one
-
cell thick.

C
A
P
I
L
L
A
R
I
E
S



TISSUES



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ARTERIES



Oxygenated

blood

Exchange of

materials

CAPILLARIES



Deoxygenated

blood

VEINS


DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
BLOOD AND

LYMPH

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S.

No.

Blood

Lymph

1.

It

is

red

in

colour

due

to

the

presence

of
haemoglobin
in
erythrocytes.

It
is colourless,
as
it lacks

erythrocytes.

2.

It
consists
of
plasma, erythrocytes,
leucocytes and

platelets.

It
consists
of
plasma and leucocytes
only.

3.

Blood

contains

many

of

plasma

proteins

and

high

concentration

of

calcium

and

phosphorus
.

Lymph

contains

fewer

plasma

proteins

and

a

low

concentration

of

calcium

and

phosphorus
.

4.

It
flow is fairly

rapid.

Its
flow is
very

slow.

5.

It
mainly transports materials from
one
organ to
another in
the

body.

It
mainly conveys materials from
the
tissues into
the

blood.

6.

The path of
circulation
of
blood
Heart


Arteries


Capillaries



Veins


Heart

The path of
circulation
of

lymph

Tissue
spaces


Lymphatic

capillaries



Lymph vessels


veins


Heart

EXCRETION


It
is
the
biological process
of
elimination
of
harmful metabolic waste products from
the
body of an

organism.

Organism

Excretory

organ

Sponges

Osculum

Earthworm

Nephridia

Insects

Malpighian tubule

Humans

Kidneys, lungs
and

skin

Excretion in

humans

Human
excretory system consists

of:


Kidneys
(a
pair)


Ureters (a

pair)


Urinary

bladder


Urethra

Nephron
is
the
structural
and
functional unit
of
the kidney.
Each nephron consists
of
a
glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, tubular part and collecting

duct.

Blood having Metabolic
Waste


Afferent Arteriole


Glomerulus


Bowman’s

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Capsule


PCT (Proximal Convoluted Tubule)


Loop of
Henle


DCT (Distal Convoluted
Tubule)


Collecting Duct


Ureter


Urinary bladder


Urethra


Urine
excreted

out



FORMATION
OF

URINE


Blood
is
brought
to
kidneys
by renal

arteries


Water
and
dissolved constituents
of
blood (nitrogenous wastes, glucose,
amino acids, mineral salts, etc.) filtered out in
Bowman’s
capsule under
high
filtration
pressure
(glomerular

filtrate)


Bowman’s capsule receives glomerular

filtrate


Most
of
the water
and
much
of
the glucose and
ions reabsorbed
(Selective reabsorption)


Ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine etc
removed by
tubular

secretion


Urine is

formed



The

urine

formed

in

each

kidney

enters

a

long

tube

the

ureter

which

connects

the
kidney with
the
urinary

bladder.


In case
of
kidney
failure, procedures
done are:
Dialysis
and
Kidney
transplantation.


EXCRETION
IN

PLANTS

Gaseous

waste
(O
2
&

CO
2
)

Excess

water

Falling

of
leaves

Stored
as

resins
and

gums

Stored
in

cellular
vacuoles

Through

transpiration

Through photosynthesis
and respiration

By

stomata

By

stomata

In old

xylem
tissue

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