CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS-converted.pptx

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CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS-converted.pptx

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CARBON AND ITS

COMPOUNDS

C
A
R
B
ON

Free

state

Combined

state

Crystalline

Diamond

Graphite

B
uckmi
n
st
e
r
fullerenes

Amorphous

C
o
k
e

Charcoal

In

living

organisms

In
non
-
living

system
Carbohydrates

Fats
P
rote
i
ns

Carbonates

CO
2

Coal

Petroleum

Natural

gas

Difference between Diamond
and
Graphite

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1.
Diamond has a three
-
dimensional network
structure.

1
.

Graphite

has

a

two
-
dimensional

sheet

like

structure

consisting

of

a

number

of

benzene

rings

fused

together
.

2.
It
is
the hardest
natural
substance

known.

2
.

Graphite

is

soft

and

greasy

and

is

used

as

solid

lubricant

for

heavy

machinery

operating

at

high

temperatures
.

3
.

It

is

a

bad

conductor

of

electricity

but

is

a

very

good

conductor

of

heat
.

Because

of

hardness

and

high

thermal

conductivity,

diamond

tipped

tools

do

not

overheat

and

hence

are

extensively

used

for

cutting

and

drilling

purposes
.

3
.

It

is

a

good

conductor

of

both

heat

and

electricity
.

Because

of

high

electrical

conductivity,

graphite

is

used

for

making

electrodes

of

battery

and

arcs
.

4
.

It

is

a

transparent

substance

with

high

refractive

index
.

Therefore,

it

is

used

for

making

gemstones

and

jewellery
.

4.

It
is
an
opaque grayish
black

substance.

Simplest compounds
of
carbon are
HYDROCARBONS
(compounds having atoms
of
carbon
and
hydrogen

only)

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HYDROCARBONS

S
aturated

U
n
s
aturated

ALKENE

(Suffix


ENE)
General

formula
C
n
H
2n

ALKYNE

(Suffix


YNE)
General

formula
C
n
H
2n


2

ALKANE

(Suffix


ANE)
General

formula
C
n
H
2n
+

2

Single
bond

between
carbon

atoms

Double
bond
between

C
-
atoms

Triple
bond
between

C
-
atoms

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Organic compounds:
Hydrocarbons and
their derivatives are organic
compounds.
(Organic chemical substances
of
animal
or
plant

origin).


Hydrocarbons:
Compounds
made of
carbon
and hydrogen are
known
as
hydrocarbons.

Formula of
functional

group

Name of
functional

group

Formula of

compound
containing

group

Name of
compound



OH

Alcohol

C
2
H
5
OH

Ethanol



CHO

Aldehyde

HCHO

Methanal



COOH

Carboxylic

acid

CH
3
COOH

Ethanoic acid

> C = 0

Ketone

H
3
C CO

CH
3

Propanone



X (a

halogen)

Halogen

CH
3


Cl

Chloromethane



NH
2

Amino

CH
3

NH
2

Methanamine



NH
2

Nitro

CH
3

NO
2

Nitromethane

Catenation
:

It

is

a

unique

property

found

in

some

elements

as

in

carbon

in

which

carbon

atoms

have

the

ability

of

combining

with

themselves

to

form

numerous

compounds

in

different

ways
.

Organic

chemistry
:

Study

of

hydrocarbons

and

their

derivatives

is

called

organic

chemistry
.

Aromatic

compounds
:

Organic

compounds

in

which

carbon

atoms

are

arranged

in

a

six

membered

ring

having

characteristic

properties

(Aroma/smell)

(Ring

or

closed

chain

compounds)
.

Aliphatic compounds:
Compounds
in which carbon atoms are arranged
one
after
another
in
a
chain like fashion (Open
or
straight chain

compounds).

Saturated
compounds:
Compounds in which
all
the bonds
between
the
atoms are
single
bonds.

Unsaturated
compounds:
Compounds, which contain
a
carbon
-
carbon double
bond
or a carbon
-
carbon
triple

bond.

Functional Group:
A
characteristic group present in
an
organic
compound.
(Eg.
aldehyde, alcohol, acid

etc.)

Isomerism:

The

phenomenon

in

which

different

compounds

have

different

structural

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formulae
but
same molecular formula.

Molecular formula:
Gives
the
exact number
of
atoms
of
various elements present in
a

compound.

Combustion:
Burning
an
organic compound in air
or
oxygen.
Carbon dioxide
and
water are
the
products
of
combustion
of
any carbon

compound.

Molasses:
The
mother liquor left after
the
crystallization
of cane

sugar.

Rectified sprit:
95.6% pure

alcohol.

Esterification:
Formation
of an
ester
by the
combination
of
an
acid
with
an

alcohol.

IUPAC

SYSTEM

OF

NOMENCLATURE

The

longest

chain

of

carbon

atoms

in

the

structure

of

the

compound

(to

be

named)

is

found

first
.

The

compound

is

then

named

as

a

derivative

of

the

alkane

hydrocarbon

which

corresponds

to

the

longest

chain

of

carbon

atoms

(This

is

called

parent

hydrocarbon)
.

The

alkyl

groups

present

as

side

chains

(branches)

are

considered

as

substituents

and

named

separately

as

methyl

(CH
3

)

or

ethyl

(C
2
H
5

)

groups
.

The

carbon

atoms

of

the

longest

carbon

chain

are

numbered

in

such

a

way

that

the

alkyl

groups

(substituents)

get

the

lowest

possible

number

(smallest

possible

number)
.

The

position

of

alkyl

group

is

indicated

by

writing

the

number

of

carbon

atom

to

which

it

is

attached
.

Thus,

IUPAC

name

is

given

as

Position

and

name

of

alkyl

group

+

parent

hydrocarbon

If

two

same

alkyl

derivatives

are

present

on

same

carbon

atom,

then

prefix

‘di’

or

‘tri’

can

be

used
.

Lets

understand

with

the

help

of

few

examples
:

Example

1
:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

1

2

3

CH
3

CH

CH
3

CH
3

The

longest

chain

contains

three

C
-
atoms.

The

saturated

hydrocarbon

containing

three
carbon
atoms is

propane.

The

methyl

group

(CH
3


)

is

attached

to

C
-
atom

number

2

(numbering

from

either

side
gives number
2 to the C
-
atom to
which the
methyl group
is

attached).

Thus, the
name
of the
compound
is

2
-
methylpropane.

Example

2:

5

4

3

2

1

CH
3

CH
2

CH
2

CH

CH
3

CH
3

The
longest chain contains five C
-
atoms.
The
saturated hydrocarbon containing five
C
-
atoms is

pentane.

The

numbering

of

C
-
atoms

in

the

longest

chain

is

done

from

the

C
-
atom

that

is

nearest

to the
methyl
group
which
is
present
as the
branched
chain.

Thus,

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CH
3

CH
2

CH
2

CH

CH
3

CH
3

5

4

3

2

1

(correct)

This way
of
numbering is correct, but
the
way
of
numbering
as
shown below is

wrong.

CH
3

CH
2

CH
2

CH

CH
3

CH
3

1

2

3

4

5

(wrong)

Hence,
the
correct
name
will
be 2
-
methylpentane (and
not

4
-
methylpentane).

The
functional
groups
are
summarized
in
the
table below

:

S.

No.

Hetero

atom

F
u
n
c
tio
n
a
l
Group

Formula of

a
Functional
Group

Class
of

Compounds

1.

O

Hydroxyl


OH

Alcohols,

R

OH

2.

O

Aldehydic


CHO

or

O


C

H

Aldehydes,

R

CHO

3.

O

Keto


CO


or

O


C


Ketones,

R

CO

R

4.

O

Carboxyl


COOH

or

O


C


Carboxylic
acids, R


COOH

5.

Cl,

Br

Halo

(chloro,
bromo)


Cl,


Br

Haloalkanes, R

Cl,

R

Br

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Properties
of
carbon

compounds:

(
ii
)

(i)

Combustion:
to
produce
CO
2
,
H
2
O
and
energy.

CH
3
OH

O

2


CO
2


H
2
O


Energy
Oxidation:
to
form other
organic

compounds.

H


C


C


H


Br
2
 


H


C


C


H

Alcohol

Oxid

atio

n


Acid

CH
3
OH


Alk

.

K

Mn

O

4



HCOOH

(iii)
Addition
reaction:
Characteristic property
of unsaturated
hydrocarbons. Reddish
brown colour of bromine
water
gets

decolourised.

H

H

H

H

|

|

|

|

|

|

Br

Br

(iv)
Substitution
reaction:
Characteristic
property
displacement

reaction.

of saturated
compounds



(chloroform)

methane

chloromethane

trichloromethane

CCl
4

tetrachloromethane
(carbon

tetrachloride)

CH
4


Cl
2



CH
3
Cl



Cl
2


CH
2
Cl
2


Cl
2



CHCl
3



Cl
2



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Properties
of

Ethanol
(CH
3
CH
2
OH)

CO
2
+
H
2
O
+

Energy

CH
3
COOH
( Et hanoi c

aci d)

CH
3
CH
2
ONa
( Sodi um
et hoxi de)
CH
3
COOCH
2
CH
3
(Ethyl

et hanoate)

combusti on

oxi dati on
oxi d.
al k.

KMnO
4

or aci d

K
2
Cr
2
O
7

Na


CH
3
COOH

Esterification


conc.

H
2
SO
4

CH
2
=
CH
2

(Et hene)

Dehydrati on

Properties
of
Ethanoi c

Aci d
(CH
3
COOH)

combust i on


Na


NaOH



Na
2
CO
3


CH
3
OH

Est eri f i cat i on

Reduct i on

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CO
2
+ H
2
O +

Energy

CH
3
COONa
+
H
2
(Sodi um

ethanoate)

CH
3
COONa
+
H
2
O
CH
3
COONa
+ CO
2
+

H
2
O


CH
3
COOCH
3
(Met hyl

Et hanoat e)


CH
3
CH
2
OH

(Et hanol )

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