ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS-converted.pptx

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ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS-converted.pptx

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ACIDS, BASES
AND

SALTS

Indicators

Synthetic

Methyl

orange

Phenolphthalein

N
atural

Dyes

(Indicators
of

colour)

Olfactory
Indicators

of
smell

Clove

oil

Red

litmus

Onion
extract
Vanilla

essence


Blue litmus

Indicator

Colour in
acidic

solution

Colour in
basic

solution

Blue litmus solution
Red litmus solution
Phenolphthalein
Methyl

orange

Red

No
colour

change
Colourless

Pink

No
colour

change
Blue

Pink
Y
e
ll
ow

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Physical
properties
of Acids and

Bases:

Acids

Bases



Sour

taste



Turns blue
litmus
to

red



Provides H
+
ions
when

dissociated



pH
less
than

7



strong

acids
HCl,
HNO
3
,
H
2
SO
4



weak

acids

H
2
CO
3
CH
3
C
OOH
H
3
PO
4



Bitter

taste



Turns red
litmus
to

blue



Provides OH


ions
when

dissociated



Bases
dissolve
in
water
to give

alkalies



pH more than 7 upto

14



strong base
NaOH,

KOH



weak

base
NH
4
OH

Chemical
properties
of
Acids and

Bases:

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Type of

Reaction

Acid

Base

1.

Neu
t
r
a
li
z
a
t
i
o
n
reaction

Acid + Base


Salt + H
2
O
Example:

HCl + NaOH


NaCl
+

H
2
O

Acid + Base


Salt + water
Example:

CaO + HCl(aq)


CaCl
2
(aq) + H
2
O

(l)

2.

Reaction

with
metals

Acid + Metal


Metallic
salt
+ H
2
(g)
Example:

Zn(s) + dil H
2
SO
4
(aq)


ZnSO
4
(aq) +
H
2
(g)

Base + Metals


Salt +
H
2
(g)
Example:

NaOH + Zn


Na
2
ZnO
2
+

H
2

Only active metals like
Zn
and Al reacts
with

bases.

3.

Reaction

with
carbonates

Acid + Carbonates


Metallic salt +
CO
2
(g) +

H
2
O

Example:

Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4


Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O +

CO
2

Base + carbonate


No

reaction

4.

Reaction

with
bicarbonates

Acid + Bicarbonates


Metallic salt +
CO
2
(g) +

H
2
O

Example:

NaHCO
3
+
HCl


NaCl
+
H
2
O
+

CO
2

Base + bicarbonate


No

reaction

5.

Reaction

with
oxide

Acid + Metal Oxide


Salt + H
2
O
Example:

CaO + HCl (aq)


CaCl
2
(aq) +

H
2
O

Base + Non
-
metallic oxide


Salt +
water

Example:

Ca(OH)
2
+ CO
2


CaCO
3
+

H
2
O

6.

Dissolution

in
water

Acid gives
H
+
ions in water.
Examples:
HCl
(aq)


H
+
+

Cl


H
2
SO
4
(aq)


2H
+
+

SO
2


4

Bases gives
OH


ions
in
water.
Examples: NaOH (aq)


Na
+
+

OH


Ca(OH)
2
(aq)


Ca
2+
+

2(OH)


Strength of acids &

bases


Strong

Acids

and

strong

bases

when

dissolved

in

water

dissociate

completely

into
(H
+
)
and
(OH

) ions respectively.


Weak
acids
and
weak bases when dissolved in water dissociate partially into
(H
+
)
and
(OH

) ions respectively. Rather
then remain
in molecular

form.

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pH

SCALE

pH

scale
:

A

scale

of

numbers

from

0

to

14

on

which

the

strength

of

an

acid

or

base

is

measured

is

known

as

pH

scale
.

pH

is

defined

as

negative

logarithm

of

[H


]

or

[H
3
O


]

i.e.
pH



l og[H


] or
pH



l og[H
3
O


]

0

7

14


Acidic

Neutral

Basic

Increasing

H
2
O

Decreasing

H
+

ions

CO

H
+
ions
N
2
O

Importance
of
pH in
everyday

life:

(i)
In
digestive system


(i) acidic in
stomach
(ii) basic (alkaline) in

duodenum

(ii)
Tooth decay

(iii)
Nature
of
soil

(iv)
Plants
and
Animals
are
pH

sensitive

(v)
Self
defense by
animals
and plants
through chemical

warfare


SALTS :
They
are the
neutralization products
of
acids
and

bases.

Classification
of
Salts
:
Salts
can
be classified after ‘salt

hydrolysis’.

Type

of
salts

Hydrolysis of

salts

1.

pH =

7

Salts of strong acid and strong

bases

Example:

NaCl,

KCl,

Na
2
SO
4

,

K

2
SO
4

NaCl(s)



H
2
O



NaCl(aq)



Na


(aq)



Cl


(aq)

2.

pH <

7

Salts of strong acids and weak

bases

Example:

NH
4
Cl,CuSO
4





NH
4
Cl(s)



H
2
O



NH
4
Cl ( aq)



NH
4

( aq)



Cl

(aq)





NH
4



H
2
O

NH
4

OH



H



The solution is acidic due
to
the
H


ion produced by the hydrolysis of

NH
4

3.

pH >

7

Salt of weak acid and strong

base

Example:

Na
2
CO
3

,

CH
3
COONa

CH
3
COONa(s)



H
2
O



CH
3
COONa( aq)



CH
3
C O O


(aq)



Na


(aq)

CH
3
COO




H
2

O

CH
3

COOH



OH


The solution is basic due to hydrolysis of
CH
3
COO


(aq)

4.

pH


7

Salt of weak acid & weak

base

Example:

CH
3
COONH
4



CH
3
COONH
4



H
2
O



CH
3
COONH
4

(aq)



CH
3
COO




NH
4



CH
3
COO




H
2

O

CH
3

COOH



OH





NH
4



H
2
O

NH
4

OH



H

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Common
Salt


NaCl


Chemicals obtained from

NaCl

(i)

NaOH (by
chlor
-
alkali

process)

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C
u
rr
e
n
t

NaCl



H
2
O


Ele

ctr

ic



NaOH



Cl
2


H
2

(
ii
)

Bleaching power

(CaOCl
2
)

Ca(OH)
2


Cl
2


Ca OCl
2


H
2

Baki ng
soda
( NaHCO
3
)

N
a
C
l

H
2
O


NH
3


CO
2
 


NaHCO

3
Brine

Washing soda
(Na
2
CO
3


10H
2
O)

NaHCO
3




Na
2
CO
3


H
2
O

(
iii
)

(
i
v)

Other Important

Salts:

2

Plaster
of
Paris (POP)


CaSO
4

1

H
2
O

273

k

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G
y
p
s
u
m

2

POP

CaSO
4

2H
2
O

He

at


CaSO
4

1
H
2
O

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