DNA - Questions to Consider

viewkickapooBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Questions to Consider:



1.

Know the general work and findings of the following scientists:

a.

Gregor Mendal


Considered the father of human gentics and studied the inheritance of certain traits.

b.

Edward Jenner
-

Developed the first vaccine (smallpox)

c.

Watson and Crick
-

Discovered DNA structure

d.

Cohen and Boyer
-

These men were pioneers in genetic engineering and created the process of
transferring recombinant DNA.

e.

Erwin Chargoff
-

Discovered the relationship between AT’s and CG’s in base pairs.

f.

Rosalind Fr
anklin
-

Her work of x
-
ray diffraction led to the discovery of the DNA double helix structure

g.

Craig Ventner
-

Found of the Human Genome Project


2.

What are three main parts of a DNA nucleotide?
Phosphate group, Sugar, Nitrogenous Base

3.

What are the three bases

found within DNA?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine


4.

What are the DNA base pair rules?
A
-
T, C
-
G

5.

If one side of a DNA helix reads AAATCG what does its complimentary strand read?
TTTAGC

6.

How does a DNA double helix, chromosomes and genes relate to one anot
her?
Strands of DNA code for
different genes. These stands of DNA are tightly wrapped and coiled around each other to form chromosomes

7.

How do DNA and proteins relate to one another?
DNA codes for the creation of specific proteins.

8.

What is the overall charg
e of a strand of DNA?
Negative

9.

How does DNAs charge help in electrophoresis?
DNA is attracted to the other side of the device because the
other side has a positive charge. The negative DNA attracts to the positive side of the gel and leaves a trace of
each

DNA sample.

10.

What is the goal of DNA electrophoresis?
To separate strands of cut DNA by size.

11.

What is BLAST and what does it do?
It’s a program that analyzes sequences of DNA and compares them to a
database of DNA sequences which.

12.

What are restriction enzy
mes and how are they used in genetic engineering?
Restriction enzymes cut the DNA
by looking for genetic palindromes. They are used to isolate genes and to separate parts of strands of DNA.

13.

What are “sticky ends” and how do they relate to restriction enzym
es.
Restriction enzymes create sticky ends
when they cut DNA and these ends are what strands with complimentary sticky ends attach to.

14.

What is bioinformatics and how does it relate to the human genome project?
Bioinformatics is the collection
and
generation of DNA sequencing research. This relates to the genome project whose purpose is to identify all
of the genes in the human body and to determine the sequences of the 3 billion base pairs.

15.

What basic characteristics are used to identify different
fingerprints?
Whorl, loop, arch, ridge ending,
bifurcation, short ridge

16.

What is the difference between a latent and patent fingerprint?
Latent prints are non
-
visible prints that have to
be brought out from a surface. They are not seen by the naked eye. Pat
ent prints are ones that are seen by the
naked eye and are generally seen through blood or other liquids that dry and leave the print.


Be able to:

1.

Describe the process of gene splicing to create recombinant DNA.

2.

Identify fingerprints.

3.

Read a DNA electroph
oresis gel.

4.

Describe the process of DNA electrophoresis.


Vocabulary


Amino Acid

a) The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing
a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side
chain (R
-

of a number of different kinds
) attached to an alpha
carbon atom. b)The fundamental building blocks of a protein
molecule.

Angstrom

A unit of length equal to one ten
-
thousandth of a micron (10
-
4
micron) or 10
-
10 of a meter with adenine.

Bioinformatics

a) Refers to the generation or
creation, collection, storage (in
databases), and efficient utilization of data or information from
genomics, combinatorial chemistry, proteomics, and DNA
sequencing research. b) Examples of the data or information that is
manipulated and stored include ge
ne sequences, biological activity
or function, pharmacological activity, biological structure, molecular
structure, protein
-
protein interactions, and gene expression products
or amounts.

Bioluminescence

The emission of visible light by living organisms su
ch as the firefly
and various fish, fungi, and bacteria.

Biopharmaceutical

A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of
living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and
monoclonalantibodies, peptides, and other molecules
that are not
chemically synthesized, along with gene therapies, cell therapies,
and engineered tissues.

Bioprocessing

Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out
enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products.

Bioreactor

A contain
er used for bioprocessing.

BLAST

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence
comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence
databases for optimal DNA sequence alignments.

CODIS

Combined DNA index system.

DNA Analysis

The
testing of DNA samples that exists on the evidence collected
from a crime scene.

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is an individual's unique sequence of DNA base
pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to
molecular probes.

DNA
Replication

The process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex
(double
-
stranded) DNA, using existing DNA as a template for the
synthesis of new DNA strands.

Double Helix

The normal structural configuration of DNA consisting of two helices
wind
ing about the same axis.

Electroporation

A process utilized to introduce a foreign gene into the genome of an
organism.

Forensics

Involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of evidence to
solve crimes; its purpose is to create doubt as to the
testimony of the
witness.

Forensic Scientist

A professional that analyzes and interprets DNA samples as well as
other forms of evidence collected from a crime scene.

Genetic Engineering

a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct
manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of
removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to
change the information it contains.





Pathogen

Refers to a virus, bacterium, parasitic protozoan, or other
microorgani
sm that causes infectious disease by invading the body
of an organism (e.g., animal, plant, etc.) known as the host.

Plasmid

An autonomous self
-
replicating genetic particle is usually of circular
double
-
stranded DNA.

Protein

A large molecule composed of
one or more chains of amino acids in
a specific order, required for the structure, function, and regulation of
the body's cells, tissues, and organs.

Transformation

The modification of a genome by the external application of DNA
from a cell of different
genotype.