Online Safety 3.0

VISecurity

Oct 6, 2011 (6 years and 18 days ago)

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Larry Magid, Ed.D Co-director ConnectSafely.org Founder SafeKids.com Education Committee Chair: Obama Admin’s Online Safety Technology Working Group

Online Safety 3.0

Larry
Magid,
Ed.D

Co
-
director

ConnectSafely.org

Founder

SafeKids.com

Education Committee Chair:

Obama Admin’s Online Safety Technology Working Group


Other Generations

Have Worried about Youth

Kids! I
don't know what's wrong with these
kids today
!


Kids! Who
can understand anything they
say
?


Kids! They
a disobedient, disrespectful oafs!

Noisy, crazy, dirty, lazy, loafers!


While
we're on the subject
:


Kids! You
can talk and talk till your face is
blue
!


Kids! But
they still just do what they want
to do!


Why can't they be like we were,

Perfect in every way?


What's the matter with kids today?

Kids

from
Bye Bye Birdie
,
1963. Lyrics by Lee Adams

Kids and Media


Kids today spend an average of 7 hours and 38
minutes a day consuming
“Entertainment
media."
*


If
you consider that kids are multi
-
tasking, it's
actually closer to 11
hours*


But before you react, consider how the are
actually using it

*Source
: Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8
-

to
18
-
Year
-
Olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010

Evolution of Online Safety

Children as victims:

1.0 (most of the 90’s)
Pornography & predators:
Protecting children from bad adults
. Children as
consumers of information, not as creators and
based on assumptions of risk, not actual research


2.0

(around 2007
)
Protecting children from peers
.
Recognizing that kids can create content harm other
kids and themselves.
C
yberbullying & posting
inappropriate or dangerous content

An Empowering Approach


Research
-
based
, not fear
-
based, so
relevant


Flexible, layered


not
one
-
size
-
fits
-
all


Respectful
of youth agency


stakeholders
in positive outcomes, not just potential
victims


Positive
: Not just safety
from

(bad
outcomes) but safety
for

good outcomes


Comprehensive =
Incorporates safety,
security, citizenship, and
research/information literacy

4 Types
of Online Safety


Physical safety



freedom from physical harm


Psychological safety



freedom from cruelty,
harassment, and exposure to potentially disturbing
material


Reputational and legal safety



freedom from
unwanted social, academic, professional, and legal
consequences that could affect you for a lifetime


Identity, property, and community safety



freedom


from theft of identity & property


The ‘
Net

effect’


For the most part, online issues are a reflection of offline life, however,
the Internet does change things a bit


Persistence & searchability:
Net as permanent searchable
archive


Replicability
: ability to copy and paste from anywhere, to
anywhere


Scalability:
high potential visibility


Invisible audiences:
you never know who’s watching


Blurring of public and private:
boundaries not clear






AND


Disinhibition:
Lack of visual cues reduces empathy



Source: danah boyd:
Taken out of
Context, 2008

What adults worry about


Predation


Viewing inappropriate content


Posting/
s
ending
inappropriate content


Cyberbullying & harassment


Privacy and Reputation


Online addiction


Online contributing to destructive, illegal or
inappropriate behavior


Device
security & social engineering




Predation




Question
:

What proportion of American
teens have been approached online
by a predator?

A.
1 in 20

B.
1 in 10

C.
1 in 7

D.
1 in 5

E.
Almost half

It’s a trick question

You’ve seen the headlines

Source: Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008: Finkelhor, Jones and Shattuck: Crimes Against
Children Research Center


51% Decline
(
during
the period of the
Web

猠e硩xt敮捥e

The rise of the web has not resulted in increased
victimization of children

Blue line represents 58% decline in child sex abuse from
1992 to 2008

Inappropriate content

Seems Almost Quaint

Playboy’s

first cover, 1953

Today’s Internet Porn



Easy to find


Easy to “hide”


Hard core porn is easier to find than soft
-
core erotica


Some images and videos depict things that are not
appropriate


even for adults



But it’s important to understand the difference between:


Occasional exposure


Frequent exposure


Excessive exposure


Obsessive use

Parental controls like fences around
swimming pools….

To keep them safe around
all

water, we teach kids to swim

Ultimately, the best filter runs
between the child’s ears, not
on a device

Protection that
lasts
a lifetime

Training wheels for young kids

Sexting

Ill
-
advised and often illegal

‘Sexting’



Nude or sexually explicit photo
-
sharing or
text messages



Usually via cellphones, but possible via
other devices and Web



Illegal when involving minors



A few prosecutors have charged teens
with production, possession, distribution of
child porn



How Common is Sexting?

An early survey found that 20% of teens sent a ‘sext’

Which led to stories like this:

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project: Dec. 2009


4% sent a “
sext




15% received a “
sext



But a more recent Pew Study
Found

Why do kids send ‘sext’ messages?

Teen “romance”


expression of shared intimacy with
partner

Flirting

Showing off (party behavior)

Impulsive risk
-
taking

Peer pressure

Revenge

Bullying or intimidation

Blackmail


Non
-
legal consequences


Emotional or reputational damage


School discipline


Invisible viewership


can be
forwarded to
anyone


Potentially searchable on the
Web, possibly
forever




Legal consequences in US


Potential for child
-
porn production,
distribution, or possession charges


Could be required by state law to
register as a sex offender




Kids and Media


Kids today spend an average of 7 hours and 38
minutes a day consuming
“Entertainment
media."
*


If
you consider that kids are multi
-
tasking, it's
actually closer to 11
hours*


But before you react, consider how the are
actually using it

*Source
: Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8
-

to
18
-
Year
-
Olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010

What’s a Parent to Do



Try to be a good role model


Have dinner together as a family


Encourage a balanced life that includes outdoor activities


Recognize the difference between heavy use &
excessive/obsessive use


Be nearby while they’re doing homework


Consider banning tech devices from bedroom after bedtime


Recognize that obsessive technology use could be a symptom
of other issues


Set limits and consider using parental controls built into game
consoles and PC operating systems


Cyberbullying

Bullying has been around for a
very long time, but cyberbullying…

Illustration: CustumeHum.com (Creative Commons License)


Happens in social networks, chat,
e
-
mail, text messaging and phone
calls


Can often be in both
“real world”
& online


Can follow them home


Can stick around forever


The “Net Effect”

Bullying has been around for a
very long time, but cyberbullying…


Bullies can be invisible
:
(Victims
sometimes do not
know
who the
bully is, or why they are
being targeted)



Viral
: (Hurtful
actions
of
a cyberbully are viral; that is, a large
number
of people (at school, in the
neighborhood
, in the city, in the world!)
can
be
involved in a
cyber
-
attack
on a victim, or
at
least find out about
the incident… The
perception
is that absolutely everyone
is
in on the
joke
.



Easy
: Often
easier to be cruel using
technology
because cyberbullying
can be
done
from a physically distant location, and
the
bully doesn’t
have to see the immediate
response
by the target

Source
:
Overview of Cyberbullying
(
Hinduja

and
Patchin



cyberbullying.us

Cyberbullying: Getting Specific


Weird
or threatening
look


Whispering


Excluding


Blackmailing


Spreading rumors


Threatening


Stealing friends


Damaging
social
relationships


Breaking secrets


Criticizing
clothes &
personalities


Source: Robyn
Treyvaud
: Cyber Safe Kids



Flaming


Harassment


Denigration


Impersonation


Outing


Trickery


Exclusion


Cyberstalking




Source
: Nancy Willard, Center for Safe &
Responsible Use of the Internet


What Kids Should Do


Don't
respond

Don't
retaliate


Talk
to a trusted
adult

Save
the
evidence


Block
the
bully


Be civil


Don't
be a
bully


Be a friend, not a
bystander



What Should Adults Do?


Listen & take child seriously


Make sure child is and feels safe


Don’t overreact


Encourage child not to retaliate


Gather facts & save the evidence


Get the child to help solve the problem


Teach self
-
esteem & resilience


Bring in school officials if there is a “nexus” with
school


Encourage child to reach out to friends


Encourage Courage
: “Be a friend, not a bystander”



What Should Schools Do?


Respond if there is any “nexus” between off
and on campus behavior


Review existing polices to see how they
apply to cyberbullying


Work with students to create anti
-
bullying
campaigns and posters


Be cautious about use of law
-
enforcement
Create a positive school climate


Develop anonymous reporting mechanisms


Offering training workshops for staff


Employ peer mentoring


Emphasize that most kids don’t bully




Source
:
Overview of Cyberbullying
(
Hinduja

and
Patchin



cyberbullying.us

It’s in Youth’s Own
Interest to Treat
others Well


“Youth who engage in online aggressive
behavior by making rude or nasty
comments or frequently embarrassing
others are
more than twice as likely
to
report online interpersonal victimization."

Cyberbullying

Panic!


“85% of 12 and 13 year
-
olds have had
experience with
cyberbullying
,” according to
one claim

Cyberbulllying is a serious problem, but …

Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey

Examples of positive norming

Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social
Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008

Privacy & Reputation Management


It’s About Having a Good Digital Footprint


A online reputation is
better than none at all



One of the best ways to
bury embarrassing search
results is to create with
good ones


What is digital citizenship?


A “citizen” has
responsibilities

and
rights

You have the
responsibility

to:



Be civil & respectful

You have the
right

to:



Be treated respectfully by kids
& adults



Access media and express yourself*


*U.N
. Convention on the Rights of the
Child. Signed
by all countries except
U.S. & Somalia





Source: Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008: Finkelhor, Jones and Shattuck: Crimes Against
Children Research Center


51% Decline
(
during
the period of the
Web

猠e硩xt敮捥e

Online sexual abuse is horrific, but it


on the decline

Blue line represents 58% decline in child sex abuse from
1992 to 2008


Media literacy / Critical
thinking


Digital citizenship


Cornerstones of Online Safety 3.0

Social norms approach


It’s been shown that people emulate how
they
think

their peers behave


If people
think

their friends don’t smoke,
they’re less likely to smoke.


Same is true with over
-
eating, excessive
alcohol use and other negative behaviors,
including bullying*



*Assessing
Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the
Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008

Advice to Youth

“With great power comes great responsibility”

-
Ben Parker, Spiderman


Thank you!


Larry Magid

larry@connectsafely.org


os3.connectsafely.org