IPv6  security is in many ways the same as IPv4  security. The basic mechanisms for transporting packets across the network stay mostly unchanged, and the upper-layer protocols that transport the actual application data are mostly unaffected. However, because IPv6 mandates the inclusion of IP Security (IPsec) , it has often been stated that IPv6 is more secure than IPv4. Although this may be true in an ideal environment with well-coded applications, a robust identity infrastructure, and efficient key management, in reality the same problems that plague IPv4 IPsec deployment will affect IPv6 IPsec deployment. Therefore, IPv6 is usually deployed without cryptographic protections of any kind. Additionally, because most security breaches occur at the application level, even the successful deployment of IPsec with IPv6 does not guarantee any additional security for those attacks beyond the valuable ability to determine the source of the attack.