Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Ofcom Spectrum Advisory
Board


Annual Report 201
2

-

201
3






Publication date:
16 July 2013




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Contents


Section


Page

1

Message from Ofcom’s Chairman

2

2

Foreword by OSAB’s Chairman

3

3

Introduction

4

4

Topics consi
dered during the year

6


Annex


Page


1

Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board


Terms of
Reference

21

2

Membership of OSAB

23



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Section 1

1

Message from Ofcom’s Chairman

2

OSAB, since its inception in 2004, has played an invaluable role by being able to
looking ahead and widely, ensuring that Ofcom remains well informed about key
trends throughout the sectors we regulate.



3

The

past year has seen progress on, or successful completion of, a number of
Ofcom’s spectrum related activities. These include the award of 4G spectrum and
the further development of our plans to make TV white spaces available for
innovative new services. Ye
t the communications market continues to evolve and we
are already looking ahead to the next set of challenges.

The topics which OSAB has considered over the period covered by this report have
included the delivery of services over both wireless and wired
networks. Subjects
tackled include the evolution of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies,
backhaul options for mobile networks and the provision of reliable in
-
building
coverage.

With its wide range of authoritative members from a diverse range of bac
kgrounds,
OSAB invariably casts new light on the significant challenges that face us in the
years ahead, as well as alerting us to new issues and opportunities that will
emerge.


OSAB meetings are always well attended; and the lively discussions are
charac
teristic of the personal enthusiasm of the members.



As always, I’d like to record my gratitude to all members of OSAB who provide their time and
experience. Yet again, in reading their annual report, I’m struck both by the breadth of issues
they have co
vered and the diversity of advice they have provided


advice that, as ever,
continues to be taken very seriously within Ofcom




Colette Bowe

Chairman of Ofcom

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Section 2

4

Foreword by OSAB’s Chairman

5

The Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board (OSAB) is pleased to
present its ninth annual report
and my third as its Chairman.

6

In this last year OSAB has offered insight and advice to Ofcom on a number of issues,
including helping the regulat
or

understand how the evolution of technology will lead to the
better delivery
of services over wired and wireless networks, the challenges in delivering
reliable in
-
building coverage and technologies enabling the delivery of new mobile services
and meeting the future demand for wireless and mobile data.

I hope

that this report conve
ys
a strong sense of the richness of the
discussions
during
OSAB meetings and between OSAB and Ofcom.

In addition to appointing two ex
-
officio
members of the Committee to provide a regulator perspective on issues, OSAB’s meetings
are always attended by s
enior members of Ofcom who actively participate in our debates. I
am particularly grateful for the presence and support at OSAB meetings of H Nwana, who in
April 2013 stepped down as the Director of Ofcom’s Spectrum Policy Group. We are looking
forward
to equally stimulating debates with H’s successor.

OSAB’s productivity, measured by the spread of issues addressed and the quality of the
advice offered, has continued to benefit from the diverse knowledge and the passion for their
subject which its member
s bring to its meetings. I am grateful to all of them for having made
the Ch
airman’s job so easy.

7




David Meyer

Chairman, Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board

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Section 3

8

Introduction

Background

8.1

The Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board (OSAB) was established on 19 May 20
04 to
provide independent advice to Ofcom on strategic spectrum management issues.
OSAB provides Ofcom with:



A rapid way to test new ideas

across a wide range of experts;



A means of identifying issues that are beyond
Ofcom’s regulatory “headlights”;



A demo
nstration of Ofcom’s commitment to consult in an open and collabora
tive
manner; and



A mechanism to help reach an agreed industry view of difficult and contentious
issues through the hosting of open fora.

Annual report

8.2

This document reports on OSAB’s
ninth

year. It is intended to summarise selected
discussions throughout the year and its content is based on published minutes of
OSAB meetings.

Terms of reference

8.3

In 2008 the terms of reference for OSAB were revisited. Ofcom and OSAB agreed
that although OSAB’s initial role had been to provide advice to Ofcom on spectrum
-
related matters; it was increasingly difficult to consider spectrum
-
related matters in
isolation

in a converging world.

8.4

Hence it was decided that OSAB’s remit should be broadened to include all future
communication architectures, access methods, physical layer technologies, spectrum
issues, services and applications. OSAB would be responsible for hi
gh level and
longer term vision and not for detailed assessment of different approaches, standard
setting or consensus building amongst industry. However, it would not involve itself
with content matters.

Membership

8.5

The membership of OSAB is reviewed on an

annual basis
.

This year it was decided
that there was no need to make any changes to the membership of the Committee.

8.6

Details of OSAB membership including the length of tenure are at
Annex 2.

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Work Programme

8.7

OSAB is responsible for agreeing its own work
programme.
During this year

a range
of topics was discussed, predominantly related to
use and management of spectrum
.
We have organised the topics into
three

broad categories
:



Network evolution
;



Delivering wireless and mobile services
;

and



Meeting future
demand for wireless and mobile data
.

8.8

OSAB meets 5
-
6 times a year and holds an annual workshop where a whole day is
devoted to a particular issue.

The Year Ahead

8.9

OSAB sets its agenda from meeting to meeting depending on progress made in
particular areas, t
ime available and topics arising. It deliberately does not plan a year
ahead to allow for flexibility and responsiveness.

Further Information

8.10

For further information on the work of the Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board, please
contact the OSAB Secretary:

Mr Pa
ul Rogers

Ofcom

Riverside House

2a Southwark Bridge Road

London SE1 9HA

Tel: 020 7783 4031

E
-
mail:
paul.rogers@ofcom.org.uk


Or visit the OSAB website at
www.osab.org.uk

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Section 4

9

Topics considered during the year

9.1

During this year

a range of topics was discussed

by OSAB
, predominantly related to
use and management of spectrum
. We have organised the topics into
three

broad
categories:



Network evolution
:

understanding
how
the evolution of technologies will lead to the
better delivery of services over wired and wireless networks
;



Delivering wireless and mobile services
:

covering the challenges in delivering
reliable in
-
building coverage and technologies enabling the deliver
y of new mobile
services;



Meeting future demand for wireless and mobile data
:

continuing a longstandin
g
theme of OSAB, which addresses the steps required to
meet the growing demand for

wireless and mobile data services in the medium to long term.

9.2

We addres
s each of these topics in turn in the sections

below
.

9.3

Throughout the year, OSAB also discussed a number of topics that, for the sake of
brevity, are not summarised here. These include
an exploration of barriers to
realising a fully functioning spectrum mar
ket to the benefit of citizens and consumers,
including case studies of the 700MHz, 1.4GHz and 2.3GHz bands. OSAB also was
kept informed of progress of activities on which they had provided input in the
previous year, such as the implementation of Ofcom’s
UHF Strategy.

9.4

More broadly, OSAB often discusses topics which explore how Ofcom’s overall
approach to spectrum
could best address economic and wider social goals. These
are recurring themes, to which OSAB will return in the future.

Network evolution

9.5

During

the year, OSAB discussed a number of

topics
covering how technology
developments and architectural changes are contributing

to
the evolution of both
wired and wireless networks. Two such topics
are summarised below.

Topic

1
:
The evolution of fibre NGA net
works

9.6

The proliferation of internet
-
capable devices, such as smart phones, tablets, and
connected TVs, is driving the consumption of
data in the home. C
onsumer behaviour

is changing, with a growing

appetite for data hungry applications such as
the
BBC
iPlayer,

Netflix

and YouTube
. Furthermore, the

advent of
cloud
-
based applications is

driving the capacity
requirements
of access networks
, both to the home and business
premises
.

9.7

Fibre
-
based N
ext Generation Access
(NGA)
networks
will

play a vital role in
meeting
this demand for data services
.

OSAB received a presentation which outlined the
evolution of technologies for NGA networks and noted that:

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9.7.1

Fibre efficiency, scalable bandwidth,
secure connectivity, long reach

and
costs efficient operations are hig
hl
y critical to future fool
proof
,

high capacity
access networks.

9.7.2

Two architectural choices for fibre deployment are: Point to Point
(PtP)
and
Passive Optical Networks (PON
s
). PON
s

share a single laser across 32
-
64
users so less fibre
is required
between
the
exchange and
optical splitter

(i.e. the point

in the network

where multiple premises are connected)
,

thus
reducing capex by 8
-
30%

compared to a PtP deployment
. Furthermore,
there is
less fibre to re
-
splice if a cable is
accidentally
cut. Therefore,
PON
is
a
suitable

topology for IPTV multicast or
a cable network radio frequency

overlay.

9.7.3

A
v
ariant of PON, WDM
-
PON
(wavelength division multiplexing PON)
offers
a single access architecture for all markets. Unbundling of WDM
-
PON
allows
communications providers

to provide
a specific

bandwidth via
a
dedicated

wavelength
. It is also possible to

mix consumer, business and
infrastructure traffic
, which offers

the following advantages
to

the
infrastructure provider
:

o

N
o field operations

are

required to commission the
communications
provider’s

end
-
users or switch users between
providers;

o

It is
possible to

retro
-
fit wavelength unbundling to initial PON fibre
infrastructure as standards mature
; and

o

There is the potential for g
reater re
-
use of existing
passive
infrastructu
re, such as
ducts
.

9.8

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

9.8.1

With respect to future proofing, this would depend upon the ease with
which architecture
modifications
could be introduc
ed when circumstances
changed.

9.8.2

OSAB noted that incumbents woul
d be less inter
ested in opening up new
markets. Existing providers would be deterred from making significant
investments in fibre networks if new entrants would be able to access it.
Regulatory intervention may be needed to ensure equality of access;

9.8.3

Simi
larly, regulators would need to ensure that there were no barriers of
entry for new entrants;

9.8.4

New technologies would need to be made available across Europe and not
be country
-
specific;

9.8.5

In the UK, there would be distinctive differences between networks in
urban
and rural areas
.

WDM
-
PON technology
will likely
be limited to urban areas,
given the costs in deploying fibre to rural areas
;

9.8.6

The regulator would need to understand the market and avoid easy
solutions in order to avoid monopolies arising; and

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9.8.7

Consume
rs needed to have an awareness of what the technologies could
deliver to influence providers to develop markets.

Topic

2:
The evolution of mobile backhaul networks

9.9

Currently, the majority of mobile backhaul capacity is served using copper and
microwave fix
ed links, with between 3 and 6 E1 (i.e. 2Mbps) connections required
per base station.
Increasing demand for
mobile services
is driving

backhaul
bandwidth
requirements
to levels where fibre becomes a necessity.
Mobile operators
are beginning to upgrade thei
r macro basestations to Ethernet, with data rates of at
least 100Mbps. An understanding of the evolution of mobile backhaul technology is,
therefore, important to assess future delivery of services.

9.10

OSAB received a presentation on the evolution of backhaul

for mobile networks and
noted that:

9.10.1

By 2016, 79% of UK mobile users (46 million people) will belong to the

Gigabyte Club

, generating more than one gigabyte of

mobile data traffic
per month;

9.10.2

Backhaul technologies have evolved from time division multiplex
ing
technologies (TDM) for
2G, to asynchronous transfer mode technologies
(
ATM
)

for 3G and

to Ethernet
for
4G

mobile services
.

Ethernet over
fibre

and microwave
are
dominating

new mobile backhaul

links;

9.10.3

Fibre
,
m
icrowave and
non line of sight (
NLOS
)

radio

backhaul will be
increasingly required

to handle the capacity of the various 4G cell site
interfaces
.

NGA technologies
will play an important role for both 4G
backhaul and
fronthaul

(i.e. interconnection between neighbouring
basestations);

9.10.4

4G significantl
y changes the
a
ccess and
m
etro
area
architecture
s
, including
multi
-
core connectivity; following RAN splitting, mobile backhau
l is moving
towards a new front
haul segment plus a backhaul aggregation segment
;

9.10.5

Small cells provide extra capacity where needed, t
herefore becoming
increasingly important as small cells offload traffic from
macro
cell
s
.
However,
s
mall cells need to be properly integrated into the MNO network
to ensure a transparent end
-
user
quality of experience; and

9.10.6

Mobile operators and consume
rs ar
e increasingly using femto
cells

(in the
home or office)
, home WiFi or WiFi hotspots to offload data from the macro
network.

9.11

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

9.11.1

It is necessary to look at demand to anticipate changes;

9.11.2

The impact of small c
ells on backhaul should be considered.

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9.11.3

A particular uptake of NGA services is required to offset investment costs
.

In areas where there is limited demand for
NGA
-
based backhaul services,

t
here
will

still be a need for wireless
backhaul
.

Delivering wireless

and mobile services

9.12

Spectrum underpins a growing range of services that are relied upon by citizens,
consumers and businesses. Many such services have become vital components of
the UK’s communications landscape.

In addition to topics on the demand for or
supply of spectrum, OSAB also frequently considers topics

addressing how services
are built or delivered using spectrum.
During the year, two
such

topics were
discussed by OSAB.

Topic

1
:
In
-
building coverage of m
obile services

9.13

A significant proportion of mobile use takes place indoors, either at home or in the
office. However, providing reliable in
-
building coverage is challenging, due to the
building materials used.

OSAB received a presentation which sought to as
sess
whether technology, service or market developments could have the effect of
significantly increasing in
-
building coverage.

OSAB noted that:

9.13.1

The traditional network view was for ‘outside
-
in always wins’ but now indoor
usage has increased by 70
-
90%, and

the indoor locations of relevance are
predominately just two
per person (
my

home,
my

office);

9.13.2

Macrocells (i.e. outside
-
in) serve (nearly) all buildings with a single
investment. But b
uilding penetration losses are high and getting higher due
to routine
use of metalized glass with good thermal insulation properties
;

9.13.3

Smartphones have poorer sensitivity than traditional phones
;

9.13.4

L
ow frequencies help with range and depth


but at the cost of capacity,
which is usually limited in low frequencies and
can give r
ise to

contention
;

9.13.5

Outdoor small cells can be more cost
-
effective than indoor Wi
-
Fi or
femtocell offload but there is a problem with angles (i.e. signals hitting the
building at an angle and not penetrating cleanly);

9.13.6

Inside
-
out solutions
, such as distribut
ed antenna systems (DAS) are

well
-
suited to public venues but may reach capacity in coming years and
attempts to introduce DAS in smaller locations have floundered on grounds
of project cost.

9.13.7

Femtocells provide low
-
power domestic and small/home office cove
rage.
There are standards for 3G and LTE, open interfaces, custom chips and a
wide range of products from small and large

vendors
. But there is
generally low awareness

of the product;

operators have targeted them
more for churn reduction (rather than acqu
isition) and have issues over
brand (some consumers are reluctant to pay due to the perception that they
are already paying for the network to work effectively);

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9.13.8

Repeaters, although not permitted for use by consumers in the UK, are
band and operator specif
ic and could be a useful tool for ‘extreme’
coverage situations and limited in deployment density

9.14

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

9.14.1

There is synergy for femtocells and WiFi to be developed together. W
iFi
could be used to handle off
load
capacity but this would be subject to the
agreement of the network


and that Ofcom would have a role in securing
such agreement
;

9.14.2

T
here
is

emerging
evidence that consumers
were

willing to pay for extra
service
s;

9.14.3

Spectrum should not be considered a key
barrier as lots of spectrum
availability was supported by mobile devices and could be used by local
operators
;

9.14.4

Operators needed to recogni
s
e that a
capacity or coverage
problem existed
and that they were part of the solution
; and

9.14.5

There is a n
eed for operat
ors and architects to recogni
s
e that the capacity
for multiple access should be designed into buildings to avoid future
problems.

Topic

2
:
The impact of reprogrammable SIMs on delivering mobile services

9.15

Over the years, the size of subscriber identity modul
es (SIMs) in mobile phones and
tablets has decreased, primarily as more hardware is densely packed into form
factors acceptable to consumers. One
possible
conclusion is that removable SIMs
will eventually be replaced with smaller, embedded SIMs, or perhaps

replaced by a
software module entirely.

9.16

This suggests the need for SIMs to become programmable, so that their data and
functions could be modified
in situ
.
Some uses, such as emerging machine to
machine applications, are driving the development of reprogr
ammable SIMs.

9.17

OSAB received a presentation on reprogrammable SIMs
, to stimulate discussion on
how this technology development might change the way mobile services are
delivered
.
The members noted that:

9.17.1

Reprogrammable SIMs

are

increasingly becoming necessar
y due to
continuing size reductions in SIMs, and the use of
embedded SIMs, in
devices such as

smart meters, e
-
book readers, health monitors and
vehicles
;

9.17.2

Reprogrammable

SIM
s

have the

potential to facilitate easier
s
witching
between network operators,
elimi
nating
the need for a physical SIM swap;

9.17.3

The key drivers towards reprogrammable SIMs are handset manufacturers’
preference towards smaller form factors, data offload requirements that will
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require integration with alternative network providers and roaming
(national
and international);

9.17.4

The implications of reprogrammable SIMs are that the mobile operator
handset subsidy will likely reduce in
favour

of new models from handset
providers, and there would be a reduced incentive for extension of mobile
coverage as reprogrammable SIMs make it easier to access other access
networks; and

9.17.5

Furthermore, reprogrammable SIMs can break the existing reliance on
ho
me networks for providing international roaming services.

9.18

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

9.18.1

Whilst a fully reprogrammable SIM has significant advantages over an
embedded SIM there remained serious security issues;

9.18.2

Reprogrammable SIMs
would allow phones to be tracked even when it was
outside the country and “off the grid”;

9.18.3

The success of embedded SIM would be in the hands of the handset
manufacturers rather than the network operators.
Their arrival on the
market could provide a competit
ive dynamic, as well as improve consumer
switching.
Some phone manufacturers offered subsidies whilst some did
not and this could lead to consumers finding it difficult to switch devices.
This made it an imperative to address the security issues;

9.18.4

Current m
obile contracts had a physical value (either the phone or the SIM
card) and most handsets were locked to one network. OSAB noted that the
arrangements for international roaming were changing and that, by around
2014, operators must allow
access to
local
d
ata services; and

9.18.5

That there were billing issues to be addressed when consumers moved
between networks.

Meeting future demand for wireless and mobile data

9.19

OSAB members noted that o
ver the past five years, the demand for mobile data has
grown significantly
and it is expected to continue to grow strongly over the coming
ten years and beyond. There are a number of approaches to meeting this growth,
including
the deployment of more efficient technologies or
alternative
network
architecture
s
.
An option for a reg
ulator is the release to market of new spectrum;
however, this process can take a significant amount of time to complete. It is
important, therefore, to regularly review medium
-

to long
-
term estimates for the
growth in demand for mobile data
and examine ne
w management approaches which
could be used to meet that demand
.

Topic 1: The current and potential future use of Wi
-
Fi

9.20

Wi
-
Fi has become an integral part of the UK’s communications infrastructure, with
many consumers and businesses relying on Wi
-
Fi devices

to provide them with cost
-
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effective and quick access to internet services.

However, Wi
-
Fi devices do not use
dedicated spectrum and must share
access
with other Wi
-
Fi devices and a range of
other services.

It is, therefore, important to develop a view on
whether Wi
-
Fi devices
have access to sufficient spectrum to meet current and likely future demand.

9.21

OSAB received a presentation which included some early results from a study which
measured Wi
-
Fi usage in the 2.4 and 5GHz bands. The members notes that:

9.21.1

Wi
-
Fi products were now an integral part of connectivity provision. In Q1
2012, 85% of UK homes with broadband used Wi
-
Fi, and there are 16,000
commercial hotspots in UK;

9.21.2

Furthermore, Wi
-
Fi chipsets shipments have increased 4000% in 6 years.
Wi
-
Fi is no longe
r considered solely for businesses but an important and
attractive feature in consumer devices;

9.21.3

Growth of Wi
-
Fi is expected to increase still further, with new and
innovative applications exploiting ever decreasing chipset costs;

9.21.4

Three types of Wi
-
Fi use w
ith differing drivers and factors affecting demand
and supply of spectrum are: in
-
home or office networking, islands of
connectivity in coffee shops, parks etc, and integration of Wi
-
Fi into cellular
networks;

9.21.5

Wi
-
Fi offers better indoor coverage at 2.4GHz
than at 5GHz, although
improving technology is compensating for this;

9.21.6

Outdoor Wi
-
Fi hotspots are becoming an important customer retention tool
for retail players;

9.21.7

Operators are beginning to include Wi
-
Fi in their deployment of small cells;

9.21.8

Spectrum at 2.4
and 5GHz is expected to be used. However is there a
need for spectrum for Wi
-
Fi or small cell data services in other bands
, such
as the Citizen’s Broadband concept in the US
?

9.21.9

If the number of small cells proliferates, what are the options for
backhauling?

There may be a role for license exemption or spectrum
sharing here;

9.21.10

Wi
-
Fi spectrum usage is increasing, but currently congestion is not a
widespread problem; and

9.21.11

Measurements of actual usage of the 2.4 and 5GHz bands at commercial,
large open space, and
i
n
-
home locations have been made
. Initial results
suggest that typical occupancy of the 2.4GHz band is 3%, rising to a
maximum of 16% recorded in one coffee shop, and occupancy of the 5GHz
band is significantly lower at around 0.3%. No correlation has been
observed between utili
s
ation and the number of access points.

9.22

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

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9.22.1

The majority of public Wi
-
Fi usage was in cafes or shops, but not in the
home;

9.22.2

OSAB thought the position was very complex and needed to find

ways of
capturing information which would avoid legal issues (i.e. the unwanted
capture of user information);

9.22.3

Licensing and license exemptions are not poles apart as far as Wi
-
Fi is
concerned and that new access options should be explored; and

9.22.4

There could

be issues with congestion on the network. The issue of
network sensitivity to congestion needs exploration.

Topic 2: Appraisal of additional 5GHz spectrum for Wi
-
Fi

9.23

The majority of Wi
-
Fi equipment currently deployed is operating at 2.4GHz.
Newer
equipmen
t also operates at 5GHz, a band which, as discussed in Topic 1, is
significantly less utilised than the 2.4GHz band. While there is currently no evidence
of congestion in the higher frequency band, some activities have started which are
assessing the case
for additional spectrum at 5GHz. OSAB received a presentation

on this subject and members noted that:

9.23.1

Sales of Wi
-
Fi chipsets have risen dramatically over the past 8 years,
primarily due to the growth of smartphone and tablet sales over the past
three
years;

9.23.2

It is estimated that Wi
-
Fi would account for 60% of internet traffic in
Western Europe by 2016;

9.23.3

5GHz spectrum will be needed to provide more capacity and speed,
potentially doubling the bandwidth available. Furthermore, existing 5GHz
devices such as

smartphones and tablets can use additional spectrum.
However, routers would need upgrading;

9.23.4

However all spectrum may not be fully useful as duplexers are required to
add support for new band. Each duplexer introduces loss of 1dB, or around
10% efficiency
loss (b/s/Hz) along with loss for all bands sharing RF front
end. Therefore as spectrum base grows efficiency losses may offset
spectrum increase;

9.23.5

The quantified benefits of allocating additional spectrum at 5GHz for Wi
-
Fi
include support for faster broadb
and

and resulting cost savings in mobile
network as LTE costs can be avoided
, assuming 10% more offload in 2016,
growing to 25% in 2
025;

9.23.6

Non quantified benefits are “innovation without permission”, faster device
-
to
-
device transfers, benefits due to increas
ed competition between
networks, and potential cost savings in managed networks.

9.24

OSAB made the following comments on the presentation:

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14


9.24.1

Headline speeds for Wi
-
Fi are almost always unachievable due to the
number of users on the network and distance from the
transmitter;

9.24.2

TV manufacturers are now looking at use

Wi
-
Fi connectivity;

9.24.3

There was a tradeoff between efficiency and economy with multi
-
use
devices. Consumers would need to be sufficiently informed with respect to
headline speeds and whether or not the de
vice purchased could support
5GHz
;

9.24.4

By 2017, 80% of mobile data would be
supporting cloud
-
based applications

and that devices were now
being

design
ed

which would not need a
physical connection
;

9.24.5

88% of tablets sold were Wi
-
Fi only and could access Wi
-
Fi hots
pots;
mobiles are also using Wi
-
Fi

more frequently
.

Topic 3: Spectrum for mobile and wireless data


famine or plenty

9.25

Each year, OSAB dedicates a whole day workshop to a more detailed consideration
of a particular issue. This year, OSAB chose to investiga
te the question of whether
new approaches to spectrum management are required to meet future demand for
mobile and wireless data services. The workshop involved contributions from the
European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CE
PT)
and Ofcom subject matter experts.

9.26

Proceedings were kicked off with a presentation outlining the aims for the day. OSAB
members noted that the aim of the workshop would be to explore the various ways in
which capacity could be expanded to meet the expec
ted future growth in demand for
wireless data because:

9.26.1

T
he availability and attractiveness of wireless devices meant that an
increasing proportion of data


served to and around buildings


will be
served over WiFi networks
;

9.26.2

T
he volumes of data served over

mobile networks would also increase,
driven by video and supported by faster 3G and 4G networks
;

9.26.3

P
redictions of the demand for M2M services vary, but all suggest a massive
potential market and imply significant demand for spectrum
;

9.26.4

A
s more devices become
networked together, the shape of the networks
delivering end
-
to
-
end services would change
;

9.26.5

H
owever, WiFi hotspots were being under
-
used, carrying less than 4% of
the amount of data on mobile cells
;

9.26.6

T
he cloud would also increase demand for wireless
; and

9.26.7

T
here were three approaches to spectrum management
: command and
control; market mechanisms and licence exemption.

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15


9.27

OSAB then received a presentation on demand for wireless data services in a cloud
centric world. The members noted the following points:

9.27.1

That
global IP traffic would increase fourfold during 2011


2016;

9.27.2

By 2016 global IP traffic would have reached an annual rate of 1.3
zettabytes per year;

9.27.3

In the UK
;



IP traffic would g
row three
-
fold from 2011


2016, reaching

4 exabytes per month
in 2016, up fr
om 1.3 exabytes per month in 2011
;



A
verage broadband speed will grow 3.5
-
fold from 2011 to 2016, from 11.5 Mbps
to 40 Mbps
;



96% of broadband connections will be faster than 5Mbps in 2016, up from 61%
today
;



54% of broadband connections will be faster than
10Mbps in 2016, up from 34%
today
; and



Internet video traffic will be 59% of all consumer Internet traffic in 2016, up from
50% in 2011
.

9.27.4

Globally:



4G Traffic will account for 36% of Total Traffic by 2016



non
-
PC devices will account for 31% of Traffic by
2016



smartphones will be the dominant device by 2016

9.27.5

Cloud
-
based applications

accounted for 45% of Mobile Data Traffic in 2011
and will account for 71% of Mobile Data Traffic in 2016
.

9.28

OSAB noted that there would be a shift from household to personal use of

traffic with
high
-
quality video driving use. VOIP would not have a significant impact. The
number of Internet devices per household would increase dramatically by 2016 with a
third of all traffic being 4G. OSAB thought that the distinctions between dev
ices (
e.g.

smartphone, tablets, PC, e
-
readers) would blur and that there would be an
authentication issue for WiFi hotspots which needed to be addressed with mobile
operators.

9.29

The discussion then moved on to the form future networks might take. OSAB
receiv
ed a presentation on the subject and members noted the following points:

9.29.1

That networks were becoming more complicated due to innovations in
technology (e.g. femtocells) and the increasing demand by users for new
technology;

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16


9.29.2

there would be a coincidence of
need between the physical network and
non
-
physical networks allowing for spectrum to be used in more efficient
ways as and when needed;

9.29.3

That a network was a set of diverse private and/or public resources plus a
provider, held together by a ‘glue’, which co
uld be from a variety of sources
rather than a single network provider

9.29.4

The changing demands of users will lead to the creation of new networks


in effect future networks will be
performed

into existence

9.30

The OSAB members discussed the presentation and offe
red the following thoughts:

9.30.1

That there would need to be a
pool

of resources rather than one provider;

9.30.2

That networks would be an irrelevance as people would get involved in
different ways (top
-
down and bottom
-
up), thus driving the shape of the
network. OSA
B thought that a top
-
down and bottom up approach would
not work at the current time but that future networks would need to be more
sensitive because of the potential scale of use;

9.30.3

That the use of spectrum


and other resources

would need to be
opportunist
ic; in effect there would be a bucket of resources to be drawn
upon at need;

9.30.4

That there would be a change in use of WiFi as the design of future
networks would be driven by the popular adoption of new devices rather
than by network planning. Consumers
would become the drivers of
change;

9.30.5

There needed to be more incentives to encourage innovation. Networks
would need to align/co
-
exist with each other and new business models
would need to be developed;

9.30.6

That there had to be greater access to WiFi.

9.30.7

That t
here was sufficient lessons learnt from the past five years or so as to
the impact a popular and innovative device could force network providers to
change the network to facilitate the new devices. Mobile operators would
continue to refine new technologi
es but there would always be scope to
influence network design by consumer demand for new services; and

9.30.8

That averaging of data usage gave misleading results. The growth in
demand for video was not uniform but peaked at periods meaning that
actual demand
at such times was significantly greater than averaged
demand.

9.31

OSAB then received a presentation on approaches to expanding capacity through
policy. The members noted the following points:

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17


9.31.1

Regulators and others could,
inter alia
,

make more spectrum availab
le,
encourage sharing of spectrum, spread the load across multiple networks,
enable small cells and encourage innovation. In turn:

9.31.2

Making more spectrum available:

attempts to do this via markets have
not yielded anything in the UK but there has been some s
uccess in the US.
Clearance of spectrum (e.g. at 800MHz and 2.6GHz) is working, but is a
slow process. There are some future prospects for clearance, e.g. at
700MHz and 5GHz. But regulators have yet to deliver on
calls for 500MHz
to be freed up;

9.31.3

Encourage
licence exempt use and
sharing of spectrum:

There
difficulties in getting white space opened and access rules are looking
problematic. Some players, e.g. Qualcomm, are keen on
authorised/licensed spectrum access, but it is doubtful w
hether operators
would
allow it;

9.31.4

Access to g
overnment spectrum


PCAST Report (US)
:

Reported that
access to spectrum
is
important to economic activity, growth and
innovation, world
-
wide leadership and national security
. S
haring of
spectrum must be accelerated

and bodies

must wor
k with industry to plan
and implement a new architecture and spectrum management system
.
S
pectrum sharing in two Federal bands

is being established and
US
Industry
will

establish leadership through scalable test services
;

9.31.5

S
pread loads across multiple
networks
:

There is a
lready quite a lot of
sharing, but peaks in demand tend to be correlated across all operators
.
Spreading across networks
could be useful in establishing a shared small
cell channel(s)
. This could also e
ncourage closure of 2G and 3G
netw
orks
to make better use of spectrum
;

9.31.6

E
nable small cells
:

This is t
he only way that the predictions of 10x


100x
demand growth can be met
. Mobile operators

are trying
to deploy
but
progress is slow
. But t
here are alread
y ~10 million small cells


namely Wi
-
Fi access points.
Backhaul is the key issue

here.

9.32

OSAB noted that it was the view of the presenter that the most likely solution to
expending capacity would be to enable more small cells but it was recognised that
more radical approaches to regulations an
d Government incentives may be needed.
OSAB offered the following comments on the presentation:

9.32.1

T
hat the focus needed to be on ways to release spectrum to meet t
he
changing needs of the market;

9.32.2

T
hat it was unlikely that incumbents holding large allocatio
ns of spectrum
would release unused capacity. A system needed to be designed to make
sharing of spectrum advantageous to all otherwise there would be a
deadlock
;

9.32.3

T
hat any solution on maximising the use of spectrum resources would take
at least 3 to 5 year
s to implement
;

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18


9.32.4

T
hat WiFi remained an undeveloped resource and an alignment of
incentives was needed to encourage wide scale adoption
; and

9.32.5

T
here was always the possibility that future innovation would find solutions
to the problems identified but it would
be better to focus attention on
exploring a variety of possible solutions

9.33

OSAB’s next presentation, from an external speaker, was on European regulatory
approaches to short range devices

(SRDs)
. The members noted the following points:

9.33.1

EEC Report 189 inclu
ded identification of the objectives/benefits,
assessment of the need for harmonisation as well as proposals for choice
of frequency regulatory framework and frequency options for each
application
;

9.33.2

F
ull pan
-
European harmonisation of spectrum was unlikely
o
f the 870
-
876/915
-
921 MHz bands
because of governmental services in all or parts
of the 11 (of 48) countries
;

9.33.3

T
hat
f
requency
m
anagement would focus on technology and application
-
neutral solutions to keep flexibility, avoid spectrum fragmentation and foster

innovation. It was also recognised that some applications would need
predictable sharing environments
;

9.33.4

Smart grids are

almost exclusively on
the
electricity generation side. Whilst
reliable and available there were security issues attached and seen as
i
ncompatible with the SRD concept
;

9.33.5

I
n general
,

the prospects of intra
-
SRD co
-
existence appear to be
reasonable with interference probabilities between 3
-
10%. But lower
powered applications might suffer interference fr
om higher power SRD
neighbours;

and

9.33.6

T
he

5th update of the SRD Decision in 2013 would

streamline existing
regulations by integrating the 169 MHz band for hearing aid, metering and
non
-
specific devices
. It would also
improve the possibilities to set up and
harmonise sophisticated sharing arrangem
ents between different SRDs

and
clarify and strengthen the legal status of such sharing arrangements f
or
SRDs in the internal market.

9.34

OSAB members discussed the presentation and offered the following thoughts:

9.34.1

T
hat there was a timing issue. Opportunities
may not be available (
e.g.

WRC meetings) when the need is identified (OSAB noted that that working
groups at CEPT were considering the issues and it was recognised that
there was a need for regulatory agility in order not to be left behind)
;

9.34.2

W
hy try to sti
mulate demand where service neutrality applies
?

Where was
the requirement for harmonisation across the globe?

9.34.3

T
here was a need to identify ways to create leadership and technological
innovation at the EU level
;

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19


9.34.4

P
redictive cycles of up to five to ten years

ahead should be adopted
;

9.34.5

T
hat ways should be identified to make technologies that work through
sharing

and dynamic spectrum access
; and

9.34.6

T
here was an issue for the UK


does it lead in the development of
innovative ways of using spectrum or would it follow

other nations
?

9.35

Following this presentation, OSAB member split into two parallel sessions; one
considering medium
-
term and the other long
-
term views.

9.36

Members considering the medium
-
term views came to the following conclusions:

9.36.1

That we need to think careful
ly about the role of the regulator
;

9.36.2

There is a move away from exclusive use of spectrum to common use of
spectrum. A network would need to be created from which the hosted
spectrum could be accessed by users. The issue would be to create the
right incent
ives to enable the network to be built and spectrum to be
hosted(it was suggested that Ofcom should consult on the longer term view
of spectrum with the view to using it in the most efficient manner);

9.36.3

Ofcom should, using an evidence based approach, signal
things that could
happen in the longer term, identifying technological trends and signal those
trends at an early stage to encourage innovation;

9.36.4

Ofcom should consider the global picture and encourage the adoption of
common technical standards and infrastru
cture; and

9.36.5

Short term licences could be awarded to allow smaller players access to
markets

9.37

Members considering the long
-
term views came to the following conclusions:

9.37.1

Beyond a 15 year horizon the exclusive use of spectrum would no longer
be needed to provid
e connectivity fit for purpose. Different devices will
have different requirements requiring the adoption of a ‘spectrum
storehouse’ to be drawn upon at need. In order to get there, existing needs
of industry have to be taken into account whilst the tech
nical issues are
worked out;

9.37.2

That 80% of the cost of building a network was engineering and not
spectrum. It was an open question whether an existing network would
have an advantage over a new entrant. It would be better to stick with the
existing market

structure and operators but reserve a portion of spectrum
for new users or to augment existing users. An issue to be addressed
would be how to create the right incentives to make the market work:



Ofcom would have a role to ensure that there were sufficie
nt incentives to
encourage innovative thinking

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20




use of price caps


based on periodic review of operator’s profits over a three
year period with full disclosure by the operator. Operators would be able to
maximise profits by using spectrum efficiently

9.37.3

One
issue would be to design incentives that would encourage innovators
on both the small and large scales.

9.38

In concluding the workshop, members noted the following points:

9.38.1

That the adoption of a
spectrum storehouse
, in which spectrum could
dynamically be
assigned to those operators who need it, could lead to a
proliferation of licences being issued;

9.38.2

Whilst the notion of a spectrum storehouse was interesting, a pricing
structure would need to emerge to control access;

9.38.3

Innovation could be encouraged by offer
ing spectrum at half the spot value
to new entrants;

9.38.4

That spectrum policy is part of a wider network of strategic thinking;

9.38.5

That Ofcom should move to the macro level to see how all the parts of the
market fitted together; and

9.38.6

That Ofcom should develop its
reputation for leadership in spectrum
matters (OSAB noted that, as Ofcom was not a Government department, it
had greater freedom of action).


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21



Annex 1

1

Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board


Terms
of Reference

A1.1

The Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board is to provide indepen
dent, strategic advice to
Ofcom, and where appropriate to Ministers, on matters that directly or indirectly
have a bearing on policy issues to do with future communications architectures,
access methods, physical layer technologies, spectrum, services and
applications.

A1.2

In formulating its advice, OSAB is to consider the future communications landscape
from technological, economic and societal perspectives, consonant with Ofcom’s
statutory duty to further the interests of citizens in relation to communication
s
matters.

A1.3

In particular, OSAB is to advise on:



Ofcom’s spectrum strategy, major UK national allocation decisions, spectrum
management, and the application of spectrum pricing/trading.



Issues that are currently “beyond Ofcom’s headlights” to which Ofcom sh
ould
start to give attention.



New communication technologies.



New means of managing the radio spectrum and their implications for Ofcom.



Whether Ofcom’s current and developing policy stance is appropriate and where
new policy might be needed.

A1.4

For example,
topics that might be considered by the OSAB include:



The extent to which future wireless and fixed communications infrastructure and
services may be complementary or compete with one another.



Novel technologies such as cognitive radio



Ongoing initiatives s
uch as digital TV switchover.



Emerging uses of spectrum in areas such as transport and healthcare.



Ways to measure and assess the effectiveness of spectrum management
policies.



The development of market
-
led initiatives such as SURs.



The balance between lic
ensed and licence
-
exempt spectrum.



The stimulation of innovation through spectrum policy.

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22




Trends in international relations.



Ways that spectrum policy could be used to further the interests of the citizen and
consumer.

A1.5

To avoid any conflict of interest,
members of OSAB will not have access to
confidential information pertaining to Ofcom decisions affecting specific companies.
This does not however preclude the discussion of potential Ofcom policies.

A1.6

With the support of Ofcom staff, reporting shall include

an Annual Report,
publication of key findings on the Ofcom or OSAB website and hosting occasional
Open Forums.

A1.7

Members of OSAB should be drawn from a mix of commercial, academic and
consulting backgrounds, in order to assess topics in a multidisciplinary

manner, and
to advise Ofcom on matters of strategic significance. Membership will include ex
-
officio representation by the Department of Business, Enterprise and Regulatory
Reform (BERR) who will participate fully in discussions but reserve the right to
a
bstain from agreement on substantive matters. Members will not receive
remuneration other than reimbursement of expenses.

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23



Annex 2

2

Membership of OSAB
1

D
avid Meyer (Chairman) [May 2015
]

David Meyer served in the British Army’s Royal Corps of Signals from 1979
-
2010, leaving as
Brigadier and Deputy CIO. During his career he held positions delivering operational
information systems and services; leading units responsible for policy, procure
ment,
operations, signals intelligence and computer network defence; and serving overseas in
Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq and Afghanistan. David
joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office as Chief Information Officer in
December
2010. He holds a Master’s degree in International Studies and is a Fellow of the British
Computer Society and a Chartered IT Professional.

Professor Linda Doyle [May 2015
]

Linda Doyle is a Professor in Trinity College, University of Dublin, Ire
land

in the

School
of

Engineering. Professor Doyle is the Director of CTVR. CTVR is a national research centre
focusing on industry
-
informed research in the telecommunications field. CTVR is
headquartered

in Trinity College and based in six other Irish aca
demic institutions with over
80 active researchers.


Prof Doyle's own area of research is in wireless communications with
a particular focus on cognitive radio, reconfigurable networks, spectrum management and
art & technology. Her group has built an inter
national reputation in experimental cognitive
radio work.


Prof. Doyle has published over 170 peer
-
reviewed papers in the field and has
raised over 30 million in research funding in the last decade.


Prof. Doyle is a Fellow of
Trinity College Dublin. She i
s a Director of Xcelerit, a recent CTVR spin
-
out.


Robin Foster [May 2016
]

Robin Foster has occupied several board
-
level strategy and policy positions in the UK media
and telecommunications sectors and is currently an independent adviser on regulatory,
pol
icy and strategic issues.

He is a founding member of Communications Chambers, a
media and communications consultancy.


Robin was part of the first senior team at the then newly
-
established regulator, Ofcom, as
Partner, Strategy and Market Developments, wh
ere he led the first Ofcom review of public
service broadcasting. His previous senior positions include director of strategy and
regulation at the Independent Television Commission, director of strategy at the BBC, and
director of economic consultants NERA
, where he was responsible for a range of projects on
privatisation, regulation and spectrum management.





1

After each member is given the date that their appointments to OSAB expire.

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24


Since leaving Ofcom, Robin has advised government in two roles: as a member of the UK
Digital Britain Steering Board, which developed proposals for UK

broadband
communications sector policy and regulation and as one of the independent advisers to the
UK Convergence Think Tank. He also ran the Global Communications Consortium research
programme at London Business School until March 2008, and was Research

Fellow at
Bournemouth Media School from 2000 to 2002 where he led a programme of research into
the future of media regulation in the UK ("Future Reflections").

David Harrison [ex
-
officio]

David is Director of Technology Strategy
in

Ofcom. He is responsible for leading Ofcom’s
technical research prog
r
amme and supporting Ofcom policy development across a wide
range of areas including: white space and cognitive radio, unlicensed Wi
-
Fi spectrum, radio
switchover, network neutrality and
next generation broadband access. David
led the UHF
Strategy project, which sought

to identify the how to best balance the competing demands
for UHF spectrum by different services including terrestrial broadcasting and mobile
broadband.
More recently he h
as been leading working on new approaches to spectrum
sharing to increase the future supply of spectrum for mobile broadband and machine to
machine applications.

Before joining Ofcom, David worked for the Independent Television Commission where he
held the

position of Deputy Director of Technology, and before that led the high frequency
research and development activities in Thomson Multimedia based in Rennes.

David has published numerous technical papers on RF and high frequency engineering and
holds 12 p
atents. David has a first class honours degree and PhD in Electrical and
Electronic engineering. He can be contacted at david.mark.harrison@ofcom.org.uk.


David Hendon [ex
-
officio]


David Hendon is a senior advisor at Ofcom, working on spectrum, internatio
nal strategy and
network resilience issues.


He is a member of the Smart Meters Strategic Programme Board
at the Department of Energy & Climate Change and a non
-
executive director of Multiple
Access Communications Ltd

and ContinuumBridge Ltd
.
He is indepen
dent Chairman of the
4G/TV Co
-
existence Oversight Board established by DCMS.
He is
a Visiting Professor at
Surrey University,
deputy
-
chairman of the Radio Communications Foundation and a member
of the IET’s Communications Sector Panel.

From 2002 to 2011,
David was a Director in the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills
where he was responsible for BIS's business
-
facing activities and policy in communications
networks, internet, software and computer services, information and cyber security,
electron
ics, digital content, media, publishing and postal sectors and
,

from 2010
,

the Office
for Life Sciences
.
He was previously Chief Executive of the Radiocommunications Agency,
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25


which managed UK radio spectrum prior to the establishment of Ofcom. His earlier c
areer
included appointments in the Ministry of Defence, the Home Office, Cabinet Office and the
Department of Trade & Industry, all involving electronic communications.


He was Chairman
of the Board of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute fr
om 1996 to 1999
and a council member of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council from
2006 to 2009.

He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.


Phillipa Marks [May 2016
]

Phillipa Marks is a Director of Plum Consulting. She is an
international expert in economic,
regulatory and policy analysis of spectrum management issues and has advised operators,
regulators and governments in Europe, Asia
-
Pacific, Middle East and North America on a
wide range of spectrum management issues.


She
also advises on public policy and
regulatory issues in the media and telecommunications industries. She was educated in New
Zealand and at Oxford University. After a period as a research officer with the New Zealand
Institute of Economic Research, she move
d to the UK working for the Institute of Transport
Studies. She then joined the National Economic Research Associates (NERA) where she
became a director, leading assignments in media, telecommunications and utility sectors. In
2000, she was appointed by th
e Home Office as a member of the Gambling Review
Body.


She is a member of the Irish Electronic Communications Expert Advisory Panel.

Philip Marnick [May 2015
]

Philip is currently CTO of UK Broadband. Philip has spent over twenty years at the forefront
of
the wireless communications industry. Prior to joining UK Broadband, he held senior
operational and strategic executive positions at O2, BT, Orange, J
-
Phone, Japan (now
Softbank mobile), Extreme Mobile and SpinVox.



He has been involved with mobile networ
ks from analogue through to the launch of the
world's first GSM 1800 and 900 networks and on to Europe's first 3G network and the
development of international roaming.


Philip was instrumental in driving the development of
mobile data services including th
e launch of the world’s first camera phone and has been
actively involved in the development of the mobile regulatory regime both in the UK and
Europe. He was previously vice
-
chairman of the NICC and chairman of the PNO
-
IG.

Robert Pepper [May 2014]

Robert
Pepper leads Cisco’s Global Technology Policy team in areas such as broadband, IP
enabled services, wireless, security, privacy and ICT development.


He joined Cisco in 2005
from the FCC where he served as Chief of the Office of Plans and Policy and Chief
of Policy
Development beginning in 1989 where he focused on telecommunications regulation,
spectrum policy, and policies promoting the development of the Internet. Before joining
government, he held faculty appointments at the Universities of Pennsylvania,

Iowa and
Indiana, and was a research affiliate at Harvard University. He serves on the board of
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26


directors of the U.S. Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI), advisory boards for
Columbia University and Michigan State University, and is a Communicat
ions Program
Fellow at the Aspen Institute. He is a member of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s
Spectrum Management Advisory Committee and the U.S. Department of State’s Advisory
Committee on International Communications and Information Policy.


Pepper rec
eived his
BA. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin
-
Madison.

Jean
-
Jacques Sahel [May 2016
]

Jean
-
Jacques is currently Director of Policy, EMEA, at Microsoft.


Jean
-
Jacques joined
Skype from the British Government where he served UK interests in many te
lecoms and IT
negotiations and forums.


He was a Vice Chair of the OECD anti
-
spam task force and
Chairman of the OECD working party on the information economy.


Jean
-
Jacques was the
UK signatory of the 2006 UN ITU Convention and Constitution and has chaire
d the UK
Chapter of the International Institute of Communications since 2009. He is also a Vice
-
Chair
of the OECD Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) for ICT issues. He joined
Microsoft’s EMEA Policy team following Skype’s acquisition in 2011.


Professor Simon Saunders [May 2014]

Professor Simon Saunders

is an independent specialist in wireless communications, with a
technical and commercial background in both industry

and academia. He is founder of the
Real Wireless consultancy and founding
chairman of the Small Cell Forum (formerly Femto
Forum). He has more than 25 years' experience to CTO and CEO level in industry and as an
academic for seven years. Simon has invented

several novel wireless technologies and is
the author of over 150 article
s and books, including authoritative books on antennas,
propagation and on femtocells, and is a regular speaker at industry conferences.

He is a
Visiting Professor to the University of Surrey.

Simon Towler [ex
-
officio]


Simon Towler is Head of Telecommunica
tions Policy in the Department of Culture Media
and Sport, with responsibility for telecoms regulation, spectrum and broadband
policy.


Simon joined the Department of Trade and Industry in 1992.


He has held policy
posts in civil aerospace, international t
rade policy, nuclear issues, telecommunications policy
and better regulation as well as a secondment to the British Embassy in Washington
DC.


Simon joined the DCMS in January 2011 together with other colleagues responsible for
telecommunications policy an
d relations with the sector.


He was appointed to his current
post in June 2011.

Mike W
alker [May 2016
]


Mike is Head of School for Natural and Mathematical Sciences at King’s College London.
Until his retirement in September 2009, he was the Group Research

and Development
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-

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27


Director for the Vodafone Group of companies, with the responsibility for the Group’s
research activities, intellectual property and technology standards worldwide.
He is a
Vodafone Fellow and an Executive Technical Advisor to Vodafone.

H
e is a member of the
Board of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, having been chairman for
the 2008
-
2011 Board period.
Mike is a non
-
executive director of Avanti and is a director of
the Alacrity Foundation.

He

holds the Vodafone Chair in
Telecommunications at Royal
Holloway, University of London. He is a Fellow of the Wireless World Research Forum.

Mike
is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, and until June 2011 served as a member
of Council of the Academy. He was the President o
f the Institute of Mathematics and its
Applications for the Presidential term 2010
-
2011. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of
Technology from the University of Plymouth in 2011. He was appointed an OBE in June
2009 for his services to the telecommunicat
ions industry.

Professor William Webb [May 2014]

William is one of the founding directors of Neul, a company developing machine
-
to
-
machine
technologies and networks, which was formed at the start of 2011.

He is also CEO of the
Weightless Standards body.

Pr
ior to this William was a Director at Ofcom where he managed a team providing technical
advice and performing research across all areas of Ofcom’s regulatory remit. He also led
some of the major reviews conducted by Ofcom including the Spectrum Framework R
eview,
the development of Spectrum Usage Rights and most recently cognitive or white space
policy. Previously, William worked for a range of communications consultancies in the UK in
the fields of hardware design, computer simulation, propagation modelling
, spectrum
management and strategy development. William also spent three years providing strategic
management across Motorola’s entire communications portfolio, based in Chicago.

William has published 12 books,
over 100

papers, and 18 patents. He is a Visi
ting Professor
at Surrey University and a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, the IEEE and the
IET where he is a
Deputy

President. His biography is included in multiple “Who’s Who”
publications around the world. William has a first class honours de
gree in electronics, a PhD
and an MBA. He can be contacted at william.webb@neul.com.

Gavin Young [May 2015
]

Gavin’s current role is as Head of Strategy & Planning within Cable & Wireless Worldwide.
He leads a team of architects responsible for the architec
ture and strategy for C&W
Worldwide’s technology platforms (Data, Internet, Voice, Mobile, Cloud/Hosting, Optical
Transport, Access, Call Centre Solutions etc.).

Following a range of Access technology leadership roles within BT, Gavin joined AdEvia in
2000

where as CTO he led the design of pan
-
European broadband networks. He then
moved to Bulldog Communications (later acquired by C&W Worldwide) where he held a
variety of responsibilities from product development through to network operations and CTO.
As C
&W’s Chief Architect for Access, Gavin was focused on the design and architecture of
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28


the national broadband network and the associated network products. He has also been
heavily involved in regulatory aspects of broadband access and spectrum.

Gavin was a

founding director of the Broadband Forum (formerly DSL Forum) was overall
Technical Chairman for twelve years. In addition he has been co
-
chair of the UK21CN
consultation’s Broadband Group, chair of the UK NICC’s DSL Task Group and also vice
-
chair of th
e NICC Ethernet Access Task Group. Gavin also serves on the Ofcom Spectrum
Advisory Board (OSAB) which provides strategic advice to Ofcom and ministers.