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Chapter 01



1.1.
Introduction

Pakistan is blessed with enormous agri
-
resources, which may give competitive
position, if adequately utilized. The dairy industry of Pakistan has experienced
tremendous growth in last few years. The culture in dairy farming i
s improved due to
new entrants of corporate players, new dairy products and latest technology
installation. In this stage of agri
-
sector up
-
gradation, the policy makers have to better
formulate the strategies and devise policies in the best interest of Pak
istan economy.


The literature across the world has taken a priority shift from land, labor and capital to
human intellect, expertise and skills for better economic results. The continuous rising
scarcity of resource and highly competitive market demand ex
traordinary human
skills to efficiently utilize the resources.
1
Prof Dr. Shahana Urooj Kazmi, Member
Animal Sciences Division Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad,
speaking on “Future of Livestock in Pakistan”, raised the following challenges f
or
Pakistan livestock as:


1)

Poor genetic & reproductive efficiency

2)

Epidemics of infectious diseases

3)

Lack of organized marketing

4)

Small holders’ production system

5)

Shortage (by 30%) of feed resources in quantity & quality

6)

Unavailability of cheep credit to the

livestock farmers


Pakistan is rich in dairy sector, blessed with enormous dairy resources like good breed
of milking animal, agriculture base, massive population and increasingly growing
market. Pakistan is located at very strategic geographical place,
and can exploit the
mammoth export potential. Highly trained dairy professionals of dairy development
department through their best HR practices can impact farmers, milk processors and
performance of their own department. The wills of public sector for bes
t HR services



1

Economic Survey of Pakistan 2006
-
2007


also positively signal to private sector and enable dairy development department to
play pivotal role in the prosperity and growth of private sector. The effective HR
planning can help the dairy officers to increase performance of private and

public
sector dairy industry and may contribute in overall economic and social goals of the
country.


Human resources in dairy sector, particularly on dairy farms of Punjab are non
-
substitutable resources. The entire sector employs both fulltime and part

time
employees because of less mechanization in the dairy farming. Even on sufficiently
mechanized farms, competent and specialized human resource is highly needed, such
as health management, vaccination, treatment, and assistance to calving cows. The
pas
sage of time and extensive developments in contemporary technologies make the
machinery obsolete and demands drastic renovation. The study found that capable
human resources keep the progress moving ahead, if they are regularly trained and
continually ed
ucated.


Progressive dairy managers often find themselves managing people as much or more
than they manage animals and equipment. This dramatic change for dairy managers is
very challenging, because most have little experience and no education in the
manag
ement of critical human resources.


This research is commissioned by Planning and Evaluation Department, Livestock
and Dairy Development, Government of the Punjab to study the Human Resource
Status and Practices in Public and Private Dairy Sector of Punjab
. This research has
been designed after a very detailed pilot
-
testing and thorough consultation with the
stakeholders. Numbers of methodologies are opted including, focus group
discussions, interviews, opinion surveys and field observations to comprehensiv
ely
document the intended information. All the stakeholders, including farmers,
professionals of dairy farms, professionals in dairy processing sector, L&DD officers,
managers at planning level and policy makers of the dairy sector has actively
participate
d in the entire process of the study. The five districts of the Punjab are
covered in the research and field work as seemed priority areas by L&DD,
Government of the Punjab. Both open
-
ended and close ended variables are used on
self
-
constructed research i
nstruments to capture the existing realities and meet the
research objectives.


The study proceeds with developing a strong rational for employing best HR practices
in dairy sector of Punjab, highlighting the need and cause of such drastic initiatives.
The research report offers extensive literary conversation of various authors of
developing and developed world on HRM practices and organizational performance
in dairy sector. This literature review shields light on the current situations of both
part of
the world, outline academic debate on the subject and critically examine the
findings of different studies conducted in different point of regions.



Finally, this research report develops and recommends policy guidelines for policy
makers’ alongwith mana
gerial implications and proposes future avenues of research.
The study makes a significant contribution in the available literature and source of
insights for the world of practices in dairy sector of Punjab.




1.2.
The problem statement



Due to less aw
areness of best human resource practices, the dairy sector of Punjab,
Pakistan has been underutilized and uncompetitive in the world market. What are the
best HR practices can improve the situation in public and private dairy sector, is the
question, deman
ds comprehensive research for answer.




1.3.
The research



The dairy sector is a labor intensive market, where human role is pivotal in all the
centers of production and processes. The best HR practices, if introduced and
implemented can make this sector

highly productive, resource efficient and
internationally competitive. The identification of current HR statues, best HR
practices, gap with current practices and need for further planning related initiative
raises the need of a comprehensive research.




The research has tried to address the following issues:


1.

What are HR policies, job descriptions and job specifications at various tiers
of staffs in public private sector of Punjab?

2.

What is the effectiveness and relevancy of HR policies?

3.

What are the is
sues/limitations of HR practices and their overall impact on
performance of dairy sector?

4.

What are specific HR practices of dairy farmers, livestock professionals and
milk processors?

5.

What could be the benchmark model for best HR practices in dairy sector
of
Punjab?

6.

What is the gap between in place and best HR practices?

7.

What are the guidelines for TNA and performance appraisal system for HR
practices?

8.

What are the policy recommendations for making HR practices effective and
efficient in public and private
sector?




1.4.
Significance of the
r
esearch


Government of the Punjab, Pakistan with the support of international agencies and
local stake holders invest massive amount of money to develop the dairy sector.
Livestock & Dairy Development Department of Punjab

make tremendous efforts to
improve the economic condition of this sector and bring prosperity to the
stakeholders. Only developed human resource can ensure the valued outcome of these
efforts. The analysis of the best HR practices and guidelines of implem
entation can
help to gain the desired results. The research findings may help the policy makers to
prioritize the areas of immediate concern and invest public resources in line with the
local needs. The research may help the private public sector to make
the dairy sector
a sustainable, competitive and high growth sector by employing best HR practices.







1.5.
Scope of the study


This project aims to conduct a comprehensive research in dairy sector of Punjab. Due
to the multidimensionality of the HR natur
e, the subject covers various
interdisciplinary aspects of HR in private and public sector dairy organizations. In
response to this variety of HR, a multi
-
perspective approach is planned to analyze the
HR practices through various dynamics of dairy sector
of Punjab. The outcome of the
study will serve the multipurpose tasks of implementation and help policy makers to
have holistic view the issue. The research has covered the following areas of concern:

o

Current HR statues

The study highlights the sorts of H
R practices prevail in this sector and kind of forces
are driving to these norms. The analysis of current practice may help in understanding
the existing patterns and overall scenario of human resource management issues in
dairy sector of Punjab.

o

Best pra
ctices

The Punjab dairy sector by following identified best HR practices model, with
essential modifications can bridge the gap between local and internationally accepted
model. The research has brought forward the summary of best HR practices, could be
t
ested in the local environment of dairy sector.

o

Job description and job specification

The best practices can bring valued results, if incorporated in the job description and
job specifications of dairy professional/officers of Punjab. The study has made
this
significant attempt and developed job description and job specifications, which may
help the officers to act on best HR practices.

o

Training
and development



The trainings of dairy professionals consume huge budgets of livestock and dairy
developme
nt department, Government of the Punjab. The spending of such mammoth
amount could be at risk, if training modules are launched without adequate research.
This research made an effort to highlight the exact training needs of dairy
professionals. The resear
ch based training programs will add high values to the
training and intensify its impact on the stakeholders, especially the farmer of the
Punjab.



o

Performance appraisal system

The major aim of training is to improve the performance of human resource wor
king
in dairy sector. The performance appraisal needs to identify different performance
indicators for various dairy professionals working in different capacities. It is
important to develop a yard stick to measure performance of HR working in
organization
al hierarchy. The research has also touched the performance appraisal
systems and proposed effective guidelines to formulate it. This research has proposed
a research based performance management system for dairy sector of Punjab.


Chapter 02




2.1.
Resea
rch Design and Methodology


This is an exploratory research providing in
-
depth analysis of HR practices in the
private and public dairy sector. This design is selected to explore the insights of dairy
sector and propose effective planning. Primary data is
collected through survey
questionnaires, exploring the best HR practices. The study also included in
-
depth
interviews from the management of public sector dairy department, senior officers,
dairy professionals and farmers. Focus group discussions (FGD) wer
e also conducted
for the sake of data collection.




2.2.
Sample
d
esign


Our target population is employees of public and private organizations of dairy sector
of Punjab, at different management levels (higher to lower). Sampling frame
constitutes list of al
l public and private organizations in dairy sector, dairy processors
and small farmers.

Respondents were selected by using two
-
stage cluster sampling. In the first stage an
organization was targeted and then employees from different cadres were selected fo
r
data collection. Data was collected from eight key districts of Punjab, which are rich
in producing the dairy products. Chart given below (also Table P1, Appendix)
represents the distribution of respondents in each district and geographically sampling
co
verage.

There were 110 of the employees were from public sector employees, and 57
respondents who were employees at private sector organizations/dairy processors.

Study also collected from 55 dairy farmers. Chart in the appendix represents the
respondent’s

distribution from both sectors.


Table P2 (appendix) shows that 29.1 % respondents had education till BA/B.Sc level
and 26.4% respondents got education till Masters level. Only 2 % had educated till
PhD Level. So it shows that most of the target responden
ts working in public and
private dairy sector were graduated.


Table P3 (appendix) gives figures, which show that 39.6% of the respondents having
5
-
9 years of experience in their respective field. While 22.1 % of the respondents are
found having 10
-
15 year
s of experience in their respective field. Only 9.1 % had 16
-
20 years experience in their field.


Table P4 (appendix) shows income groups of the respondents. About 14% sampled
dairy professionals earn up to 9,000/month. The largest bracket of 59.5% respond
ents
are earring Rs.10,000 to 29,000 thousands per month, 21.6 % of the respondents are
earning Rs. 30.000 to 49,000 per month. The dairy professionals, who earn about Rs.
50,000 to 79,000 per month, are 4% and only 1.4 % of the respondents were earning
Rs
. 80,000 to 99,000 per month.


Table P5 (appendix) presents the over all age of people participated in the study.
Around 60% of respondents having age range 25
-
36 years. Almost 25.2 % of
respondents belong to 40
-
49 years age bracket and 7.1 % of the respo
ndents were in
the 50
-
60 years of age group. Analysis shows that most of the respondents belong to
25
-
39 years.




2.3.
Research instruments and data collection


Three types of instruments were used for data collection.

o

Survey questionnaire

o

Focus
g
roup discu
ssions

o

Interviews


Data was collected through instruments specifically designed after pilot testing and
thorough consultation. IRP dedicated field teams were allocated for this core
assignment. Separate teams for data collection were trained to conduct su
rveys in
eight districts. IRP quality assurance cell ensured the quality of gathered data through
different instances of time. Focus groups discussions were observed tightly for correct
direction of findings. All of data collection activities were strictly

monitored.



2.4.
Analysis

Questionnaires were coded and data was entered in SPSS version 16. Data was
cleansed and cross checked. Data analysis and tabulation was generated by SPSS. As
per scope of the study cross tables, exploring a sector wise comparison

of facts were
generated and interpreted

Chapter 03




3.1.
Review of Literature
; HRM practices



The concept of human resource management (HRM) has been paid wide attention in
both scholarly and practical world. The last decade has experienced extensive
ex
pansion in the concept of HRM, emerging into many disciplines and covering
numerous dimensions. The HRM literature has put great deal of concern to the HRM
practices, evolved in business organizations. The set of practices (selection, training,
communicati
on, evaluation, compensation, occupational health and safety) that the
managers employ to ensure quality performance is known as human resource
practices (Dessler, 2003).


The academics have also tried to investigate the impact of these HRM practices on th
e
performance of business organizations. Park, et al. (2003) examines the relationship
between human resource management (HRM) practices and firm performance and
their affect on organizational outcomes. The performance of organizations of various
sectors l
ike automobile, petrochemical, banking and diary sector is largely associated
with the best practices of HRM. The impact of HR practices is revealed positive effect
on organizational performance, particularly plays significant role in performance
perceived

by employee (Sajid & Munir, 2008).


The dairy sector performance is contributed by HRM practices, but results vary across
the countries. The developed countries in dairy sector retrieved better results due to
advancement in used technology, better profes
sional qualification, more conducive
working environment and friendly HR policies.



The discussed scenario raises the need of comprehensive research, which may outline
the comparative position of private and public sector dairy organizations. The
associa
tion of competitive edge if found in the private and public sector dairy
businesses may produce fruitful learning to the practitioners of dairy practices. The
proposed research will also attempt to investigate the underline hindrance related to
HRM practic
e, which negatively contribute in the organizational performance of dairy
sector in developing countries like Pakistan. The most challenging areas in Pakistan’s
livestock sector are lack of proper infrastructure, quality assurance, marketing system
& speci
alized human resources (Zia, 2007).




3.2.
HR in Dairy Sector; Research Findings



The comparative situation of role of HRM practices in the organizational
performance of dairy sector across the private and public sector will make a valued
addition in the
performance of Livestock and Dairy Development Department,
Government of the Punjab.

“The last few years have witnessed that increasing complexity in the dairy business
makes it vital to have talented employees in every position to achieve strategic and
t
actical tasks. Although it is important to hire competent, motivated, industrious
employees, but producer often do not place a high priority on HRM practices”
(Brasier, et al. 2006).


The skills and knowledge requisite to employment on a dairy farm are div
erse. The
various types of farms and employees should be specialized in different tasks, such as
health care management, milking, feeding etc.


Brasier, et al. (2006
)
suggest HRM practices like

“employees training should focus

on
communication, supervisio
n and employee management, problem
-
solving, and
computer skills

for managers on dairy farms

to improve the productivity. It has been
demonstrated in study that relationships between organizational performance and
HRM practices are complex and not always p
ositive in dairy industry”

(
Stup, et al,
2006).


“There is call for of HRM practices including on
-
farm training, skill development and
career development planning which ultimately lead to more stable, satisfied,
motivated and industrious human resource for

dairy sector”
(Nettle, et al (2000)
.


“The use of continuing training was associated with a difference in the Return on
Equity of dairy farms which is one of organizational performance indicator”

(
Stup, et
al. 2006).


“This has been reflected by study t
hat the HR practices and firm outcomes are
mediated by employee skills, attitudes and behaviors with lot of variation in different
national context and finding qualified and skilled employee, is the most widespread
post
-
expansion HRM issue”.
(Park, et al.

2003; Hadley, et al.2002).


“It has been observed in empirical investigations that differences in HRM practices
exist in organizations operating in different countries but literature on comparison of
a comprehensive list of HRM practices among countries a
re lacking”
(Ahmad &
Schroeder, 2003).


“This is often taken to support the view that it is
challenging for dairy managers to
retain trained human resource, which is only possible through HRM practices
including job security, higher compensation, and benef
it packages, health care
insurance and good interpersonal relationships that lead to their immobility”
(Mugera & Bitsch, 2005).



“Sound human resource management practices such as performance bonuses,
performance reviews and feedback, and standard operati
ng procedures allow farm
managers to improve the human capital, and profitability, on the farm”
(Hyde, Stup
and Holden)


There has been need to carry out empirical investigations to test and quantify
relationship between HR practices and performance of dai
ry industry in both public
and private sector. The above
-
described research findings propose many claims, to be
verified in the case of Punjab dairy sector through this undertaken research.




3.3.
Training in Dairy Sector; Research Findings


The motivatio
n and commitment for high performance is largely associated with
training of dairy officers and farmers. This training varies in terms of lecturing, field
work, on job experience with supervisor and demonstration of best practices. The
training serving the

common objectives of trainee and organization leads to better
work loyalty and dedication.

“Education is defined as systematic schooling or instruction in preparation for life or
some particular task. Vocational education is the systematic instruction as
sociated
with a particular employment, trade, or profession. Training is defined as. The
process of bringing persons to the desired state or standard of efficiency, by
instruction and practice”

(
Crawford, 1987).

Crawford,(1987) has carefully demonstrated
the characteristics of training and
development in dairy sector as;

“Training programs must be carefully prepared for individual requirements but they
will be prepared around one or more of the following: training in knowledge (e.g.,
safety regulations, le
gislation, product knowledge), training in manual skills (e.g.,
machine operating, cheese packaging, laboratory analysis), training in social skills
(e.g., supervisory duties, contact with people such as milk producers), training in
attitudes (e.g., develo
ping an interest in work; developing an awareness of safety and
hygiene requirements), training in systems (e.g., office procedures, production
records)”


The employee working in dairy sector organization deserves competitive status of
care, attention, ca
reer development and growth provided in other
sectors/organizations.

“Employees are the most important asset on dairy farms. Employee management may
represent the greatest challenge on dairy farms. Different skills are needed to
effectively work with empl
oyees compared to overseeing the milking herd or cropping
program. Dairy producers must possess or develop excellent communication skills to
be successful employee managers”.

(Bailey, 2001)

The extension activities in Pakistan are not adequately effective
with less emphasis on
R&D performance at farm level. There is dire need of training for milk producer to
impact the performance of dairy sector of Punjab. (
Wynn, et. All, 2006)






























Chapter 04



Discussion and
Analysis


o

4.1.
Findings;

Current HR status

4.1.1.
Hiring Process

in private and public dairy sector

Table
4.1.
1.


Methods of
Hiring

Sector

Public

Private



Independent HR department

Frequency

0

26

%

0.00%

47.30%



Through owner

Frequency

1

23

%

1.00%

41.80%



Through admin/M
anagement

Frequency

99

5

%

99.00%

9.10%



Through selection board

Frequency

0

1

%

0.00%

1.80%

Total

Frequency

100

55

%

100.00%

100.00%


Table
4.1.1.
gives a picture of revealed insights that an independent HR department
and owner conduct the hiring
process in dairy related private sector. Almost all of the
employees from public sector answered that hiring is done through admin/
Management, while on the other hand in private sector hiring is performed by
independent HR department or through owner (47.
3% and 41.8%).










Table
4.
1.
2.

Channels of recruitment in

private and public dairy sector

Table
4.
1.
2
.


Various c
hannels
in recruitment

Sector

Public

Private



Recruitment agencies

Frequency

2

0

%

2.00%

0.00%



Universities placement offices

Fr
equency

0

8

%

0.00%

15.10%



Newspaper job advertisements

Frequency

94

24

%

94.00%

45.30%



Personal references networking

Frequency

4

19

%

4.00%

35.80%



E_Recruitment

Frequency

0

2

%

0.00%

3.80%

Total

Frequency

100

53

%

100.00%

100.00%


Table
4.
1.2
explains about the recruitment channels in public and private sector.94 %
respondents from public sector replied that newspaper advertisement channel is the
main channels for recruitment while 45.3% respondents from private sector had the
same view. Fu
rther 35.8 % private sector respondents said personal references
networking is another channel for selection, followed by university placement office.
Public departments seem ignoring the importance of relationship with university
offices to attract high
ly potential graduates.


4.1.3.

Job specifications
gap
in

private and public dairy sector

Table

4.
1.
3.

Areas of gaps
in j
ob specifications

Sector

Private



Technical Skills

Frequency

31

%

48%



Professional Skills

Frequency

13

%

20%



Communication Sk
ills

Frequency

6

%

9%



Management Skills

Frequency

14

%

22%



Total

Frequency

64

%

100.00%


As per table
4.1.3.

, the respondents were inquired about identification of major gaps
in the job specification. no respondent from public sector responded
. This lead to the
assumption that public sector has not paid attention towards gaps in job specifications
and staff is highly afraid of logic behind the mentioned areas. Contrarily, 48%
responses from private sector show the gap in technical skills, follo
wed by
management and professional skills. Public sector authorities need to pay attention to
staff’s existing skills and written job specifications.



4.1.4
.
Impact

of recruitment

procedures
on performance

in

private and public
dairy sector

Table

4.
1.
4.

levels of
recruitment
i
mpact
on performance

Sector

Public

Private



Very strong

Frequency

4

5

%

4.00%

9.30%



Strong

Frequency

61

19

%

61.60%

35.20%



No opinion

Frequency

27

30

%

27.30%

55.60%



Weak

Frequency

7

0

%

7.10%

0.00%

Total

Frequency

99

54

%

100.00%

100.00%


Table
4.1.4.
illustrates about perceptions about recruitment impact on their
performance. We can see that 61.6% from public sector perceive the impact of
recruitment procedure on their personal performance. In private sector, less
amount
(35.2%) of the employee view impact of recruitment on performance. Around 27%
from public sector and 56% of private dairy sector employee provided no opinion in
this context, which points out lack of recognition of impact and low interest.


4.1.5.
R
ecruitment selection methods
in

private and public dairy sector


Table

4.
1.
5.

Methods
of
recruitment


Sector


Public

Private

Total



Interview

Frequency

29

49

148

%

54.71%

92%



Test

Frequency

23

4

27

%

43.39%

7.5%



Group discussion

Frequency

0

2

2

%

0.00%

3.8%



Presentation

Frequency

1

0

1

%

1.88%

0.00%



Other

Frequency

0

1

1

%

0.00%

1.88%

Total

Frequency

53

53

153

%

100

100


The statistics of table
4.1.5.

provide evidence of both interview and test as selection
method, used in publ
ic and private sector. However, private dairy sector rely more on
(92%) interviews and public sector dairy departments use mix approach of interview
(55%) and test (43%) as candidate selection method.










4.2.
Findings;
Training and Development


4.2.1
. Status of TNA
in

private and public dairy sector



Table
4.
2.1

Frequency

of TNA

Sector

Total

Public

Private




Options of
responses

Regularly

Frequency

39

37

76

%

39.0%

68.5%

49.4%

off and on

Frequency

44

2

46

%

44.0%

3.7%

29.9%

No

Fre
quency

17

15

32

%

17.0%

27.8%

20.8%

Total

Frequency

100

54

154

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.2.1.
figured out absence of TNA in 20% sampled organization/departments
and around 30% do it off & on. Almost 50% respondents reported regular TNA in
the
ir job palace of diary sector. Table further illustrates the carrying out training need
assessment (TNA) process in both sectors. 68.5% of the private sector respondents
said that TNA is conducted regularly in their organization while 39% of the
respondent
s from public sector revealed the same. It is noteworthy to mention that
44% of the respondents said TNA is conducted on the “off and on” basis, which
shows inconsistency in TNA in public sector dairy department. It is clear from the
above table private se
ctors have more effective and systematic process to conduct
TNA as compared to public sector.







4.2.2.
Methods
, used in conducting
TNA in

private and public dairy sector



Table
4.2.2. Various m
ethod
s

TNA

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response
op
tions



Employees themselves

Frequency

16

8

24

%

16.0%

18.6%

16.8%



Training manager

Frequency

1

6

7

%

1.0%

14.0%

4.9%



Third party assessment

Frequency

18

24

42

%

18.0%

55.8%

29.4%



Other

Frequency

65

5

63

%

65.0%

11.6%

44.1%

Total

Frequenc
y

100

43

143

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.2.2.

is an analysis of method to identify TNA in both private and public
sector. 55.8% of the respondents from private sector express that third party
assessment/evaluation is used in their organization, fol
lowed by employee assessment
(18%) and training manager (14%). While 60% of the respondents from public sector
say that some other methods; non specific are used to identify TNA, followed by
employee own assessment and third party need assessment. Analysis

of the table
shows that most of the dairy sector organizations conduct TNA, but in public sector a
non
-
specific methods is largely used.








4.2.
3
. Methods, used in employee training in private and public dairy sector


Table

4.2.3.

Various t
raining m
ethods

Sector

Public

Private



In house Training

Frequency

37

36

%

50.70%

49.30%



On the Job Training

Frequency

76

15

%

83.50%

16.50%



E
-
Training

Frequency

1

0

%

1 %

0.00%



Simulation/ Role play

Frequency

0

2

%

0.00%

100%



Others

Frequency

17

2

%

89.50%

10.50%

Total

Frequency

100

43


For the Table
4.2.3.


the responses were collected in the favor of on job training out
of which 83.5% employees responded yes from public and only 16.5% responded yes
from private sector. This table shows that ou
t of 73 responses against in
-
house
training both sector respondents responded almost equally (50.7% and 49.3%). In
public sector some of the respondent extracted that other training methods are also
used. The statistics indicate the high rate of on
-
job tra
ining in public sector
organizations in dairy sector.


4.2.4.
Training areas of high need
in employee training in private and public
dairy sector

Table

4.2.4.

Areas of training needs

Sector

Public

Private



Professional Skills

Frequency

59

26

%

69.40%

30.60%



Personality development

Frequency

18

4

%

81.80%

18.20%



Management Skills

Frequency

59

18

%

76.60%

23.40%



Technical Skills

Frequency

74

32

%

69.80%

30.20%



Other

Frequency

12

2

%

85.70%

14.30%

Total

Frequency

100

43


This table
4.2.4.
pr
esents very interesting figures of comparison between public and
private dairy sectors. Private sector dairy professionals demand professionals and
technical skills trainings followed by managerial and personality. High response in
the areas of profession
al skills, Management skills and Technical skills shows that
they are much needed with high response in public sector organizations.


4.2.5. Improvements in trainings in private and public dairy sector

Table
4.2.5.


Areas of improvement in training

Sector

Total

Public

Private






Response

Options

Duration of Training

Frequency

69

7

76

%

90.8%

9.2%


Trainer's Competencies

Frequency

58

12

70

%

82.9%

17.1%


Training contents and
topics

Frequency

90

19

109

%

82.6%

17.4%


Training facilitie
s

Frequency

51

4

55

%

92.7%

7.3%


Other

Frequency

22

4

26

%

84.6%

15.4%


Total

Frequency

100

30

130

Percentages and totals are based on respondents.


a. Dichotomy group tabulated at value 1.



This table
4.2.5
. presents the areas of improvements

in training conducted by dairy
organizations of private and public sector. The majority of respondents recommended
improvements in contents and topics of training, in which public sector emphasis is
significantly higher (82%) as compared to private sector

(18%). The similar trends
has been observed in other response options like duration of Training, Trainer's
Competencies and Training facilities, where public sector employees showed high
concerns and deep interest for the improvement of trainings. Private

sector dairy
professionals only voted for contents and competencies of training, to be improved.


4.2.6. Sources used in trainings in private and public dairy sector


Table
4.2.6.
Training sources

Sector

Total

Public

Private





Response

Options

M
ultiple sources

Frequency

1

16

17

%

1.0%

28.1%


Independent training
department

Frequency

0

7

7

%

.0%

12.3%


through immediate
supervisor

Frequency

75

12

87

%

75.0%

21.1%


Through external training
agencies

Frequency

3

21

24

%

3.0%

36.8%


Through
universities/Institution

Frequency

17

0

17

%

17.0%

.0%


Other

Frequency

4

1

5

%

4.0%

1.8%


Total

Frequency

100

57

157

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.2.6.
explains the different training sources, used for employee trainings within
t
he public and private sector. Training by immediate supervisor is reported, largely by
public sector employees. In private sector, external professional agencies are hired,
followed by multiple sources used for training. Public sector focuses on internal
supervisor or universities as a source of training. It is very clear that most training
sources in the public sector are not very much independent in nature and therefore
affects the effectiveness and quality of training programs.


4.2.7. Frequency of trai
nings held in private and public dairy sector


Table
4.2.7.
Frequency of
t
rainings

Sector

Total

Public

Private




Response

Options

Monthly

Frequency

1

1

2

%

1.0%

2.0%


Quarterly

Frequency

25

20

45

%

25.3%

39.2%


Biannual

Frequency

2

10

12

%

2.0%

19.6%


Annual

Frequency

10

2

12

%

10.1%

3.9%


Not frequently

Frequency

61

18

79

%

61.6%

35.3%


Total

Frequency

99

51

150

%

100.0%

100.0%

100


Table
4.2.7.

explains about the time schedules of training programs conducted in both
publi
c and private sector. About 50% people reported absence of time schedules and
infrequent arrangements of training workshops. However, around 30% participants
reported quarterly schedule of workshop, which again more scored by private sector
as compared to
public sector. Very few people have told about monthly and biannual
workshops. The results show that training culture is yet to be established in both
private and public sector dairy organization, however, private sector is ahead of public
sector in arrang
ing training events for the employee.


4.2.7.
Impact

of training

on
p
erformance in

private and public dairy sector


Table
4.2.7. Levels of training i
mpact

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Very strong

Frequency

63

25

88

%

63.0%

47.2%

57.5%

Strong

Frequency

35

13

48

%

35.0%

24.5%

31.4%

No opinion

Frequency

1

14

15

%

1.0%

26.4%

9.8%

Weak

Frequency

1

1

2

%

1.0%

1.9%

1.3%

Total

Frequency

100

53

153

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.2.7.

shows the analysis for perception
s of respondents towards impact of
trainings from private and public sector. Around 60% people said very strong and
30% said strong impact of trainings. Respondents of public sector are more convinced
with the effectiveness of trainings (63% & 35%) and its

impact on performance of
employee. Private sector dairy employee follow public sector (47% & 24%) in their
reporting of training impact. Public sector dairy staff is more concerned with trainings
due to less other opportunities of personal development and

growth, available in
private sector.








o

4.3.
Findings; Job description and job specification

4.3.1
.

Knowledge

employee about

job description

in

private and public
dairy

sector



Table
4.3.1.
reveals the knowledge of respondents about the formal job description.

All of the respondents in public sector, and 91.1% from private sector have reported
their knowledge about formal job description. The statistics indicate more HR
disciplinary practices in public sector, because of established regularity procedures.


4.
3.2.
Providing

formal job description
to employee in private and public dairy

sector

Table
4.3.2.
Provision
of

job description

Sector

Responses

Public

Private



Yes

Frequency

99

26

%

99.00%

46.40%



Not yet

Frequency

1

26

%

1.00%

46.40%



No

Frequency

0

4

%

0.00%

7.10%



Total

Frequency

100

56

%

100.00%

100.00%

Table
4.3.1.
Levels
of
Knowledge of job
description

Sector

Responses

P
ublic

Private



Yes

Frequency

100

51

%

100.0%

91.1%



To some extent

Frequency

0

2

%

.0%

3.6%



No

Frequency

0

3

%

.0%

5.4%



Total

Frequency

100

56

%

100.0%

100.0%


Almost all of the public sector employees were provided with their formal job
description while on the other hand only 46.4% of the employees from private sector
are provided with their job
description. Same number of respondents from private
sector said that they may get it soon, but so far they are not provided with the formal
job description. The table 02 also presents good picture of HR status in public sector
department of dairy sector.


4.3.
3
.
Revision of JD
s

after recruitment

in private and public dairy

sector

Table
4.3.
3
.
Revision of JD
s

after
recruitment

Sector

Public

Private



Never revised

Frequency

31

30

%

31.30%

56.60%



6 to 12 months ago

Frequency

0

8

%

0.00%

15.10%



1 to 3

year ago

Frequency

34

11

%

34.30%

20.80%



3 to 5 Years ago

Frequency

26

0

%

26.30%

0.00%



More than 5 years

Frequency

8

4

%

8.10%

7.50%



total

Frequency

99

53

%

100.00%

100.00%


Table
4.3.
3
.

shows the frequency of revision in the job descriptio
n after recruitment
of an employee in both public and private sector. 56.6% employees from private
sector revealed that their job description was never revised after their recruitment
while only 31.3% employees from public sector answered the same. This is

worth to
note that most of the employees from public sector admitted that their job description
was revised in last 1 to 3 and 3 to 5 years (34.3% and 26.3%). Above table shows the
frequency of revision in different back time periods for both sectors. Pub
lic sector has
more tendencies of revision but after longer time of average 3 years. Contrarily
private sector in dairy business observe less frequency of revision, but make revisions
in shorter period of time; one year averagely.


4.3.
4
.
Perception of emp
loyee about effectiveness of
JD
s

in private and public
dairy sector


Table
4.3.
4
.
Perception about JD
s
effectiveness

Sector

Public

Private



Very ineffective

Frequency

2

2

%

2.00%

5.00%



Ineffective

Frequency

11

0

%

11.00%

0.00%



No Opinion

Frequenc
y

18

8

%

18.00%

20.00%



Effective

Frequency

65

27

%

65.00%

67.50%



Very effective

Frequency

4

3

%

4.00%

7.50%



total

Frequency

100

40

%

100.00%

100.00%


The table

shows the responses from employees in both sectors. Respondents from
both sector p
rovided with varied experience of their job description. In public sector
about 11% employee perceive their JDs as ineffective, while 0% of the private sector
employee responded to the same option. Almost 8% of private sector people see the
JDs a very eff
ective, and in public sector this rate has dropped to 4%. The public
sector, although practice more culture of JDs, but need drastic efforts to make it very
effective and relevant.





4.3.5

The need of JD improvement

in private and public dairy sector

T
able
4.3.5

The
levels of need in

JD
improvement

Sector

Public

Private



Very much needed

Frequency

20

4

%

20.20%

9.50%



Needed

Frequency

13

7

%

13.10%

16.70%



No Opinion

Frequency

28

12

%

28.30%

28.60%



Not Needed

Frequency

38

15

%

38.40%

35.70%



Absolutely not needed

Frequency

0

4

%

0.00%

9.50%



total

Frequency

99

42

%

100.00%

100.00%


Table
4.3.5

provides the statistics of felt need about job description in public and
private dairy sector. 20.2 % from public and 13.1% from private sector

respondents
are agree with the understanding that their job description highly need improvements.
The response of regarding JDs improvement as “absolutely not needed” is rated by
0% from public sector and 10% from private sector. These statistics reinforc
e the
early findings that employee of public sector demands more improvements in JDs.


4.3.6

Perception

of JDs impacts on employee's performance

in private and public
dairy sector

Table
4.3.6

Perceived

impacts
JDs on
performance

Sector

Public

Private



Yes

Frequency

87

29

%

87.00%

53.70%



To some extent

Frequency

13

19

%

13.00%

35.20%



No

Frequency

0

6

%

0.00%

11.10%



Total

Frequency

100

54

%

100.00%

100.00%


This table

presents the data about perceived impact of JDs on employee’s overall
perf
ormance. 87% of public sector employees revealed that job description impacts
their performance. The comparison of both sectors shows that 87% employee of
public sector and 53% of private sector agree with the impact of JDs. None of the
public employee res
ponded in “No”, while 11% of private sector showed
disagreement for perceived impact. It reveals that employees performance have
greater impact on public sector employees as compare to private sector.


4.3.
7

Difference between
JDs

and actual duties
in priv
ate and public dairy sector


Table
4.3.7


Level of
Difference between
JDs

and duties

Sector

Public

Private



Big difference

Frequency

3

0

%

3.00%

0.00%



Slight Difference

Frequency

68

2

%

68.00%

4.00%



No opinion

Frequency

5

7

%

5.00%

14.00%



No di
fference

Frequency

24

17

%

24.00%

34.00%



Absolutely no difference

Frequency

0

24

%

0.00%

48.00%



total

Frequency

100

50

%

100.00%

100.00%


According to table
4.3.7
,

employees from both sectors revealed totally different
responses when inquired for

“Difference between formal job description and actual
duties and responsibilities”. Public sector employees responded that there is a
difference while private sector employees were in the favor of the statement that there
is no difference in designed JDs
and assigned duties in actual. This fact clears an
understanding that public sector employees were provided with the formal job
description but they do not follow that when actually performing their duties.


4.3.
8

Providing
formal job specification
s
(JSs)
in private and public dairy sector

Table
4.3.8

Provision of formal
job specification

Sector

Public

Private



Yes

Frequency

85

27

%

85.00%

48.20%



Not yet

Frequency

14

28

%

14.00%

50.00%



No

Frequency

1

1

%

1.00%

1.80%



Table
4.3.8


shows that 85%

of the employees from public sector were provided with
the formal job specification, while in private sector only 48.2% of the employees were
provided with the same. These results show that private sector has lag in their job
specification practices or pa
y less attention to formulization of job specification to
large extent. .


4.3.
9

Revisi
ng
JS
s

after
employee’s
recruitment

in private and public dairy
sector

Table
4.3.9

Revision of JS after
recruitment

Sector

Public

Private



Never revised

Frequency

29

3
0

%

29.30%

56.60%



6 to 12 months

Frequency

1

10

%

1.00%

18.90%



1 to 3 years ago

Frequency

34

7

%

34.30%

13.20%



3 to 5 years

Frequency

25

2

%

25.30%

3.80%



More than 5
years

Frequency

10

4

%

10.10%

7.50%

Total

Frequency

99

53

%

100.00%

100.0
0%



Table
4.3.9


reveals that 56.6 % of respondents from public sector said that JS after
recruitments was never revised while 29.3 % from public sector reported that JS was
never revised.

Respondents from public sector revealed that their job specificat
ion was revised but
most of the employees from private sector revealed about no revision. However,
private sector dairy organizations experience shorter time of revising job
specifications as compared to public sector dairy departments.


4.3.
10

Employees

perception for e
ffectiveness of job specifications

in private and
public dairy sector

Table
4.3.
10

Effectiveness of job
specifications

Sector

Public

Private



Very ineffective

Frequency

1

2

%

1.00%

5.10%



Ineffective

Frequency

16

0

%

16.00%

0.00%



Ef
fective

Frequency

64

23

%

64.00%

59.00%



Very effective

Frequency

6

3

%

6.00%

7.70%

Total

Frequency

100

39

%

100.00%

100.00%



According to statistics of table
4.3.
10
, most of the employees from both sectors
perceive their job specification effecti
ve. The slight difference exists between two
sectors as private sector dairy organizations ensure more effectiveness in their job
specifications as compared to public sector departments.


4.3.1
1

Impact of JSs on employee's performance

in private and publi
c dairy
sector

Table
4.3.11

Level of

impacts

of
JSs on

performance

Sector

Public

Private



Yes

Frequency

86

31

%

86.00%

59.60%



To some extent

Frequency

14

20

%

14.00%

38.50%



No

Frequency

0

1

%

0.00%

1.90%



Total

Frequency

100

52

%

100.00%

100.00
%



Table
4.3.11


reports that all of the respondents from public sector and about 98%
from private sector think that job specification has impact on their performance. But
the intensity of improvement need lies more with employee of private sector as
com
pared to public sector due to greater shown impact.


4.3.1
2

Gap between

formal JS
s

and actual
duties in private and public dairy
sector

Table
4.3.12

Levels of

gap between

formal JS
s

and actual
duties

Sector

Public

Private



Big difference

Frequency

4

2

%

4.00%

3.90%



Slight difference

Frequency

68

4

%

68.00%

7.80%



No difference

Frequency

23

16

%

23.00%

31.40%



Absolutely no
Frequency

0

23

difference

%

0.00%

45.10%



Total

Frequency

100

51

%

100.00%

100.00%



Table
4.3.12


shows that respondents

from public sector were in the favor that their
formal job specification and actual duties are different while most of the private sector
employees responded that formal JS and their actual duties matches and there is no
big difference.


4.3.13

Gap

betwee
n university given skills and job demanded skills

in private
and public dairy sector

Table
4.3.13

Level of gap

between
university skills and job demanded

Sector

Public

Private



Yes

Frequency

79

12

%

79.00%

27.30%



To some extent

Frequency

20

25

%

20
.00%

56.80%



No

Frequency

1

7

%

1.00%

15.90%



Total

Frequency

100

44

%

100.00%

100.00%



Table
4.3.13


(79% + 20%) of the respondents from public sector responded that
university given skills and job demanded skills are different. There is slight diff
erent
in the opinion of private sector, as only 16% employees revealing that there no
difference between the university given skills and job demanded skills. This may be
because in public sector, employees are not working according to their job description

and specifications. The statistics are quite alarming for the university administration
as more 85% people of both sect view quite difference between given skills by
institutions and actual skills demanded in practical life of dairy sector.

4.4.
Performa
nce appraisal and management


4.4.1
Availability

of
Performance Appraisal and Management
in private and
public dairy sector


Table
4.4.1
Availability of
Performance Appraisal
system

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Yes

Frequency

83

38

121

%

83.0%

71.7%

79.1%

To some extent

Frequency

17

11

28

%

17.0%

20.8%

18.3%

No

Frequency

0

4

4

%

.0%

7.5%

2.6%

Total

Frequency

100

53

153

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.4.1

explains about the in practice performance appraisal and perfo
rmance
management system in both public and private sector. It is very clear from the table
that majority of respondents from both public and private sector replied that they have
performance appraisal and management system. Only 29% people reported that t
hey
do not find fully implemented performance appraisal and management systems in
their organizations.


4.4.
2

People responsible for p
erformance
a
ppraisal
in private and public dairy
sector


Table
4.4.2
Authorities of performance appraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Immediate supervisors

Frequency

100

34

134

%

100.0%

77.3%

93.1%

Peer appraisal

Frequency

0

2

2

%

.0%

4.5%

1.4%

Rating committee

Frequency

0

1

1

%

.0%

2.3%

.7%

Self rating

Frequency

0

7

7

%

.0%

15.9%

4
.9%

Total

Frequency

100

44

144

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table

4.4.2
describes appraising authority in both public and private sector dairy
organizations. A very clear analysis shows that respondents from both public and
private sector agreed on their im
mediate supervisors as responsible for performance
appraisal and performance management. Private sector reported slight incline towards
other practices such as peer appraisal, rating committee and self
-
rating. The planning
managers should urge both sectors

to introduce other approaches to incorporate
opinions of other authorities in employee’s performance appraisal. Employee also be
given right to report his appraisal, which could be cross
-
checked by other colleagues.


4.4.
3

Methods for
p
erformance appraisa
l

in private and public dairy sector


Table
4.4.3
Different Methods for
Performance Appraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Annual Confidential
Report

Frequency

100

1

101

%

100.0%

2.4%

71.1%

Performance
appraisal

Frequency

0

34

34

%

.0%

81.0%

23.9%

Self appraisal

Frequency

0

6

6

%

.0%

14.3%

4.2%

Others

Frequency

0

1

1

%

.0%

2.4%

.7%

Total

Frequency

100

42

142

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.4.3

reports different methods, used in for performance appraisal and
p
erformance management in both public and private sector.100 % public sector
respondents revealed that their department uses ACR method for employee
appraising. There is no other method of HR practices used in performance appraisal of
dairy sector staff of
public sector. Contrarily, 81% of respondents from private sector
reported use of performance appraisal and 14% told about self appraisal as instrument
of performance management and appraisal. Public sector departments are advised to
think about other opti
ons of this area to correspond to the changing needs of dairy
sector of Pakistan.



4.4.4
Departments, assigned for

p
erformance appraisal

in private and public
dairy sector



Table

4.4.4

Department for Performance
Appraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private


Response

Options

HR department

Frequency

0

21

21

%

.0%

42.0%

14.0%

Owner

Frequency

0

23

23

%

.0%

46.0%

15.3%

Admin

Frequency

100

6

106

%

100.0%

12.0%

70.7%


Total

Frequency

100

50

150

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.4.4

identifies the key operational departments, assigned for performance
appraising in public and private sector dairy organizations. All of the respondents
from the public sector reported that their admin departments/admin managers only
conduct performance a
ppraisals for them. 46 % respondents of private sector said that
their owner conduct the performance appraisal while 42 % said that their HR
department conducts the performance appraisal. The statistics clearly indicate absence
of HR systems and procedures

in public sector departments and organizations, owned
by sole proprietors. The performance appraisal as one of the key areas in employee
motivation and must be handled by HR professionals.


4.4.5
Involvement of employees
in
performance appraisal

in priva
te and public
dairy sector


Table
4.4.5

Level of
involvement
of
employees performance appraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Involved

Frequency

0

16

16

%

.0%

34.8%

11.0%

Sometime involved

Frequency

4

13

17

%

4.0%

28.3%

11.
7%

Never involved

Frequency

95

16

111

%

96.0%

34.8%

76.6%

Total

Frequency

99

46

145

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.4.5

describes the level of involvement of employees at the time of their
performance appraisal. Almost all of the respondents fro
m the public sector said that
their department never involves them in their performance appraisal. A large number
of respondents (34%) from private sector also share the same culture. Almost 34%
people reported their complete involvement while 28% showed p
artially involvement
in their performance appraisal procedures. Private sector has adopted the mixed
approach, which leads to further improvements and better performance in results.
Public sector dairy department should revisit their strategies and give du
e rights of
involvement to dairy staff.


4.4.
6

Satisfaction with performance appraisal method

in private and public dairy
sector


Table

4.4.6

Level of s
atisfaction with performance
appraisal method

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

High
ly satisfied

Frequency

12

11

23

%

12.0%

19.6%

14.7%

Satisfied

Frequency

65

23

88

%

65.0%

41.1%

56.4%

Neutral

Frequency

7

19

26

%

7.0%

33.9%

16.7%

Not satisfied

Frequency

16

3

19

%

16.0%

5.4%

12.2%

Total

Frequency

100

56

156

%

100.0%

10
0.0%

100.0%


Table
4.4.6


analyzes the satisfaction level of respondents for performance appraisal
method. Only 14% people are seen highly satisfied, while majority of them 56% are
reasonably satisfied. 16% people avoided response and checked neutral whi
le 12%
participants are not satisfied. Public sector dairy professionals seem more satisfied
while private sector dairy professionals inclined towards neutral response.

4.4.7
Review
schedule of
performance appraisal method

in private and public
dairy secto
r


Table
4.4.7
Performance

appraisal review

Sector

Total

Public

Private




Response

Options

Monthly

Frequency

1

2

3

%

1.0%

4.3%


Quarterly

Frequency

1

0

1

%

1.0%

.0%


Biannual

Frequency

0

4

4

%

.0%

8.5%


Annual

Frequency

98

28

126

%

98.0%

59.6%


Not frequently

Frequency

0

13

13

%

.0%

27.7%



Total

Frequency

100

47

147

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.4.7

describes about the performance appraisal review system in public and
private sector. Around 98 % of respondents fr
om public sector confirmed that there is
an annual appraisal system in place in the departments. 59.6% respondents from
private sector responded that their organization had annual performance appraisal
system, while rest (28%) reported no
-
regular review me
chanism of their performance
appraisal.

4.4.8
Effectiveness of
p
erformance
a
ppraisal

in private and public dairy sector



Table
4.4.8

Levels of e
ffectiveness of
p
erformance
a
ppraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

In effective

Freque
ncy

14

0

14

%

14.0%

.0%


No opinion

Frequency

5

17

22

%

5.0%

36.2%


Effective

Frequency

74

29

103

%

74.0%

61.7%


Very effective

Frequency

7

1

8

%

7.0%

2.1%


Total

Frequency

100

47

147

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.4.8
presents respo
ndents’ perceptions about effectiveness of performance
appraisal system in public and private sector dairy organizations. Majority of the both
sector see their performance appraisal effective as 74% from public sector and 61%
from private sector given simi
lar responses. Number of employee of private sector
checked “no opinion” option, which may indicate the less clearance of system
effectiveness. Very few participants have reported current appraisal system as highly
effective in both public and private dai
ry organizations/departments.


4.4.9
Need of i
mprovement in performance appraisal practices

in private and
public dairy sector



Table
4.4.9
extent of i
mprovement
need

in
performance appraisal

Sector

Total

Public

Private




Response

Options

Very muc
h
needed

Frequency

23

0

23

%

23.0%

.0%


Needed

Frequency

59

14

73

%

59.0%

28.6%


No opinion

Frequency

4

17

21

%

4.0%

34.7%


Not needed

Frequency

14

17

31

%

14.0%

34.7%


Absolutely not
needed

Frequency

0

1

1

%

.0%

2.0%





Total

Frequency

100

49

149

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%




Table
4.4.9
clarifies respondent’s perceptions regarding need of improvement in
appraisal practices in private and public sector. A majority of respondents from the
public sector said (23% very
much needed & 60% needed) that appraisal system
needs improvements. Employees of private sector seem satisfied with their current
systems as only 28% reported the need of improvements. Around 35% respondents
had no clear perceptions about the need of impro
vements in performance appraisal
and 34% share no need of change in private sector.




4.5.
Compensation
Planning

& Benefits

4.
5
.
1
.

Modes of payments, available in
private and public dairy sector


Table
4.5.1.
Availability
of pay
options

Sector

Total

P
ublic

Private


Response

Options

Fixed pay ( Basic pay
Scale System )

Frequency

99

46

145

%

99.0%

85.2%


Pay for performance

Frequency

1

6

7

%

1.0%

11.1%


Others

Frequency

0

2

2

%

.0%

3.7%




Total

Frequency

100

54

154

%

100.0%

100.0%



Table 01 table clearly shows availability of pay option
s

in public and private sector of
Punjab.99% respondents from public and 85.2% from private sector have told that
they get fixed pay (basic pay scale system) in their departments/organizatio
ns. Few
employee of private sector have reported existence of performance
-

based component
in their pay structure. Analysis shows that fixed pay system is dominant and there is
need to add more performance based features in pay design







4.5.2.
Providi
ng incentives to employees

in private and public dairy sector


Table

4.5.2.
Provision of incentives to
employees

Sector

Total

Public

Private


Response

Options

Yes

Frequency

2

17

19

%

2.0%

31.5%


To some extent

Frequency

17

33

50

%

17.0%

61.1%


No

Frequency

81

4

85

%

81.0%

7.4%




Total

Frequency

100

54

154

%

100.0%

100.0%




Table
4.5.2
provides an analysis of regular incentives, given to employees in public
and private sector. A majority of respondents 81% from public sector

say that their
departments do not provide incentives. Almost 17% indicated some irregular
incentives on special occasions of high performance. Almost 61.1 % respondents
from private sector reply that their organization provides incentives to some extent
a
nd 31% reported in absolute yes. Public sector has to change their policies and
incorporate regular incentive scheme.


4.5.3.
Satisfaction with current compensation system

in private and public dairy

sector


Table

4.5.3.
Level of s
atisfaction with
compen
sation system

Sector

Total

Public

Private



Response

Options

Highly satisfied

Frequency

1

11

12

%

1.0%

20.8%


Satisfied

Frequency

16

41

57

%

16.2%

77.4%


Not satisfied

Frequency

78

1

79

%

78.8%

1.9%


Absolutely not
satisfied

Frequency

4

0

4

%

4.0%

.0%


Total

Frequency

99

53

152

%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.5.3
provides an explanation of employee’s perceptions about current
compensations systems in private and public dairy sector.78.8% respondents from
public sector replied that they
are not satisfied with current compensation system and
around 16% reported their satisfaction. Contrarily, 77% from private sector said that
they are satisfied with the current compensation system and 20% reported their high
level of satisfaction over thei
r compensation plans. Over all analysis shows that
private sector employees are more satisfied with the current compensation system as
compared to dairy professionals of public sector dairy departments.


4.5.4.
Provision of medical benefits /allowances

in
private and public dairy
sector


Table
4.5.4.

Provision of medical
benefits /allowances

Sector

Total

Public

Private


Response

Options

Yes

Frequency

70

30

100

%

72.2%

58.8%


To some extent

Frequency

26

19

45

%

26.8%

37.3%


No

Frequency

1

2

3

%

1.0%

3.9%




Total

Frequency

97

51

148

%

100.0%

100.0%



Table
4.5.4.

is the outcome of employee’s perceptions, reported about provision of
medical benefits/allowances in private and public sector dairy organizations.72.2%
respondents fro
m public and 58.8% from private sector revealed that their
organization provide medical benefits/allowances to them. However a large
proportion of participants (37% of public sector & 27% of private sector) have opted
the response option of to some extent,

meant by under services of their expectations.
Analysis shows both public and private sector provides medical benefits/allowances
to their employees, but need much improvements and revision to correspond to
employees’ expectations.


4.5.5.
Payment system
s, prevail in private and public dairy sector


Table
4.5.5.
Mode of p
ayment system

Sector

Total

Public

Private


Response

Options

Hourly
payment

Frequency

0

2

2

%

.0%

4.1%


Monthly
salary

Frequency

93

46

139

%

95.9%

93.9%


Commission
based

Frequency

4

0

4

%

4.1%

.0%


Daily wages

Frequency

0

1

1

%

.0%

2.0%


Total

Frequency

97

49

146

%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%


Table
4.5.5.
depicts picture of monthly payment system in both private and public
sector. About 95.9 % from public and 93.9% r
espondents from private sector said that
their organizations provide monthly base salary. It shows that employees from both
sectors are provided monthly base salary. There is no other reward system such as
commission based, hourly wages and daily wages app
roaches in place.





4.5.5.
Impact of Compensation practices on performance

in private and public
dairy sector



Table
4.5.5.

Level i
mpact of
c
ompensation practices on performance

Sector

Total

Public

Private




Response

Options

Very strong

Frequenc
y

5

3

8

%

5.0%

5.9%


Strong

Frequency

27

21

48

%