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CHAPTER 7


LATE BAROQUE MUSIC:

BACH AND HANDEL








1

CHAPTER OUTLINE


I. General Observations on Late Baroque Music

A. Refinement and Culmination of Style

B. Theatrical Quality of Baroque Art

C. Aspects of Late Baroque Musical Style

1. Treatment of Musical Elements

2. The Late Baroque Orchestra

II. Jo
hann Sebastian Bach

A. Fugue

B. Orchestral Music

C. The Cantata

III. George Frideric Handel

A. Orchestral Dance Suite

B. The Oratorio


CHAPTER SUMMARY


The last decades of the Baroque era (1710
-
1750) were characterized, not by the vigorous
spirit of
innovation that so energized the previous century, but by a refinement that sought to
perfect earlier ideas, forms, and techniques. Two composers whose music exemplified this
attitude were Bach and Handel. They epitomized the Baroque ideal of the compose
r as
craftsman: an individual whose vocation furnished a product necessary to a well
-
ordered and
2

LISTENING TO MUSIC

civilized society. Just as Bernini, the sculptor of a magnificent statue of David (Fig. 6
-
7) and
the architect of St. Peter’s Square in Rome (Fig. 6
-
2), could

turn the functional salt cellar into
a stunning work of art, so Bach’s occasional music, composed for performance in the Leipzig
equivalent of a Starbucks coffee house, and Handel’s party music are some of the greatest
treasures of western musical traditi
on.


One important principle in Baroque art and music is the dramatic juxtaposition of conflict and
unity within a single artistic expression. This ideal is exemplified in music by using a
movement’s formal structure to balance and limit opposing timbre
s and textures. Within a
multi
-
movement composition, dramatic contrasts in melodic and rhythmic styles occurred
between successive movements. Late Baroque musicians refined rather than repudiated the
musical characteristics of the seventeenth century. M
elodies continue to be extended through
sequential development, but phrases are longer and composed in a more instrumentally
idiomatic style. The driving pulse and rhythmic energy of Baroque music make its rhythmic
structure the most consistent and easily

perceptible style in western art music. Part of this
vigorous regularity results from the constant pattern of chord changes that give order and
purpose to the harmony. The music of this period also returns to the contrapuntal complexity
that characteriz
ed Renaissance compositions. Finally, the modern symphony orchestra traces
its beginnings to this period. While the core of the ensemble consisted of strings and basso
continuo, a couple of woodwind or brass instruments could be included to add color. T
he
Baroque orchestra was rarely larger, and frequently smaller, than twenty
-
five instruments.


When it comes to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685
-
1750), musicians speak only in
superlatives. His music combines technical virtuosity, structural purit
y, and emotional
expression in a manner that challenges and delights performers and listeners alike. It rewards
careful study and never becomes cloying. Yet during his lifetime, Bach’s neighbors and
contemporaries regarded him as a famous organist, but n
ot as a composer, much less as one of
the greatest musicians who ever walked on the face of the earth. Today, his compositions
stand among the finest achievements of western civilization. His nearly one hundred fugues,
imitative compositions in which a s
ingle theme alternates with passages of free counterpoint,
demonstrate every known contrapuntal technique and demonstrate not only his creativity, but
also his musical and intellectual discipline. The set of six Brandenburg Concertos represent
an antholog
y of Baroque instrumental groups; the varying concertino groupings in the
concertos provided an opportunity for Bach to write challenging music that was idiomatically
appropriate to each instrument. The ritornello forms in these works are more intricate a
nd
musically unified than those by Vivaldi. The fifth Brandenburg Concerto lifts the harpsichord
from its role as a member of the basso continuo, treating it, for the first time, as a solo
instrument; some consider it the progenitor of the nineteenth
-
cent
ury piano concerto. Bach’s
church cantatas are the pinnacle of the genre. Composed for performance during church
services, these sermons in music consist of several movements that alternate between
recitatives, arias, and choruses. In
Awake, A Voice Is
Calling
, the polyphony is not only
complex, but also expresses the text’s illustrative and theological implications.




LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

3

The musical contributions of that other pillar of Baroque music, George Frideric Handel
(1685
-
1759), are no less impressive, although dis
tinctly different. Audiences find Handel’s
music stirring and exciting, not because of its contrapuntal complexity, but because it is so
dramatic, a style he assimilated from his operatic works. This direct, emotive spirit infuses
even his instrumental w
orks.
Water Music
, composed for a royal entertainment, combines
engaging rhythms and themes with simple, clearly stated textures and forms. Handel’s
oratorios also exhibit theatrical roots, being in effect “sacred operas.” The oratorios have all
the mus
ical components of opera: an orchestral overture and soloists singing recitatives and
arias. However, its unique quality stems from the chorus, which plays a prominent role,
commenting and moralizing on the story as well as providing a dramatic and musica
l climax.
His oratorio,
Messiah
, has become one of the great musical icons of western art. LikeRodin’s
“The Thinker” or Michelangelo’s ubiquitous “David,” it still stirs the human spirit in spite of
its familiarity.


KEY WORDS


a.
Art of Fugue

i. figur
ed bass

b. cadenza

j. fugue

c. cantata

k.
opera seria

d. chorale

l. oratorio

e.
da capo

aria

m. pedal point

f. dance suite

n. prelude

g. episode

o. subject

h. exposition

p.
The Well
-
Tempered Clavier



____

1.
Each movement
in

this
mu
lti
-
movement
genre is normally
composed in binary
form.

____

2. The composition by Bach containing two sets of twenty
-
four preludes and
fugues.

____

3. A vocal composition that originated in Italy, it could
serve
either sacred or
secular purposes
, depe
nding upon the text
.

____

4.
It was a n
umerical system
by
which Baroque composers indicated the sequence
of chords
that musicians were
to play on either the harpsichord or organ.

____

5.
What is the term for the primary melody of a fugue?

____

6. Ita
lian term for a serious rather than comic opera.

____

7.
It is a

spiritual melody or religious folksong of the German Lutheran church.

____

8. This composition provides an encyclopedic treatment of all known contrapuntal
procedures.

____

9. When this

genre of composition first emerged in Italy, it was a setting of a sacred
text, intended for spiritual edification, and performed in a special chapel or
church hall.

____

10. Although
composers only wrote out
two sections
of music (A and B) for this
voc
al form
, the repetition of A results in a ternary structure (ABA).

____

11. It is the central musical event in the German Protestant church service.

4

LISTENING TO MUSIC

____

12. Term for the section of a fugue
during

which
each voice introduces the melody
in turn.

____

1
3. A showy passage for soloist alone toward the end of a movement in a concerto
is called:

____

14.
It is equivalent to a hymn.

____

15. This term describes the freer sections of a fugue where the theme is not present
in its entirety.

____

16. An in
strumental composition that consists of movements associated by key, but
differentiated by distinctive rhythmic patterns.

____

17. The final fugue in this collection of nineteen canons and fugues was unfinished
when Bach died.

____

18. The vocal form f
requently heard in Baroque opera
s,

oratorio
s, and cantatas
.

____

19. A note, usually in the bass, that is sustained or continually repeated for a
period

of time
while the harmonies change around it.

____

20.
This
brief movement
often

precedes

a fugue.

____

21. This genre is essentially an opera based on a religious subject, although
performed without staging or scenery.

____

22. A composition with three to five contrapuntal lines (vocal or instrumental)
based on one melody.


COMPOSER OUTLINE


JOHAN
N SEBASTIAN BACH

(1685
-
1750)


1. Family and education



Ancestors had been musicians in small towns throughout central Germany for nearly two
hundred years



He was the most talented of the Bach clan



Had four sons who achieved international fame



Provided with

an excellent education in the humanities



Largely a self
-
taught musician



Studied, copied, and arranged compositions by Corelli, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, and
Palestrina



Became the most renowned organ virtuoso in Germany



Part of his skill derived from emulating t
he technique of others



Walked
four

hundred miles to hear a great performer



Legendary skill in the art of organ improvisation



A devoted husband, loving father to twenty children, and respected citizen


2. Career

a. Weimar (1708
-
1717)



First position of im
portance



Organist to the ducal court



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

5



Composed many of his finest works for organ during this period, including the Organ
Fugue in G Minor (ca. 1710)



The duke of Weimar, displeased that Bach had found another position,
jailed his organist
for a month before

allowing him to depart


b. Cöthen (1717
-
1723)



Served as
court composer and
conductor
for the prince of Cöthen



Led a s
mall
“all
-
star”
orchestra



Wrote

more than a dozen concertos and other orchestral works



Completed the Brandenburg Concertos



Began work on
the
Well
-
Tempered Clavier



Maria Barbara, Bach’s first wife, died suddenly in 1720



Married Anna Magdalena in 1722


c. Leipzig (1723
-
1750)



Cantor of St. Thomas’s Church and choir school



An employee of the town council, not the church



Responsible for the lit
urgical music of the four principal churches in the city



Played organ for all funerals



Provided new music for the church each Sunday and religious holiday



Composed almost three hundred cantatas (enough for five years), but only two
-
thirds
survive



Cantatas
were sung every Sunday and were considered as sermons in music, not
concert works



His family members and students had to copy out by hand the music for each
singer and instrumentalist



Conducted the choir and orchestra, beating time with a roll of paper



Ta
ught Latin grammar to the boys at the choir school



Composed music for university ceremonies



In 1729 he became the director of the Collegium Musicum



A voluntary organization of university students and town musicians



Gave weekly concerts in a local coffeehou
se



Ensemble primarily performed secular instrumental music



Finished
The Well
-
Tempered Clavier

in 1742



Composed the Art of Fugue between 1742
-
1750



A virtual encyclopedia of all contrapuntal procedures



The final fugue in the collection of nineteen works (div
ided between canons and
fugues) was unfinished at the time of his death



His valedictory statement of his mastery of the fugue and a testament to his stylistic
integrity, grand design, and superhuman craftsmanship



Compositions express his religious faith an
d sincere belief in the reformation traditions of
the German Lutheran Church

6

LISTENING TO MUSIC


3. Reputation



Brought the cantata to the highest point of its development



Musicians consider him the greatest composer of contrapuntal music in the history
of western music



Duri
ng his lifetime he was known more as a performer and improviser on the
organ than as a composer


4. Works

a.
Awake, A Voice is Calling

(1731)



Composed for the Sunday prior to Advent in 1731, the 27
th

Sunday after Trinity



Based on the liturgically proscri
bed Gospel reading, a parable of Christ recorded in the
Gospel of St. Matthew (25:1
-
13)



A chorale cantata



The chorale tune and text, composed in 1597, were well
-
known in the Lutheran church



Tune and text serve as the basis for the first, fourth, and sevent
h movements



Fourth movement was one of Bach’s favorite compositions and the only cantata
movement that he published


b. The Brandenburg Concertos (1715
-
1721)



Gathered together six of his best concertos and sent them to the Margrave of Brandenburg



Hoped to

impress a potential employer in the politically more important city of Berlin



Each concerto features a different concertino group



Demonstrated his ability to write challenging music for any and instruments



The fifth concerto can be considered the first k
eyboard concerto


GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL (1685
-
1759)

1. Family and education



Born in Halle, Germany



It was his father’s intention that he not become a musician, but study law



The boy cultivated his intense musical interest, sometimes secretly
in the attic


2. Career

a. Early years



Traveled throughout Europe during the course of his life



Primary interest was in composing operas for the public theater



First experienced opera at 18 when moved to the city of Hamburg and worked as a
violinist in the public o
pera theater



Traveled to Italy to improve his compositional style and broaden his horizons



Spent four years in Italy



Composed operas in Florence and Venice



In Rome he primarily wrote secular cantatas



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

7



Returned to Germany in 1710



Appointed chapel master to
the elector of Hanover



Given an immediate leave of absence to visit London


b. London



Although employed by the elector of Hanover, he was rarely in Germany



His musical activity was centered in London, where he won fame and fortune



Primary goal was to comp
ose opera for English audiences



Planned to import Italian style opera



Guaranteed a healthy share of the financial profits



Handel played a significant role in the production process



Rented the theater and engaged the highly
-
paid soloists from Italy



Composed

the music and led the rehearsals



Conducted the performance from the harpsichord



Between 1710 and 1728 his operas were financially and artistically successful



His opera company went bankrupt in 1728



Although he continued to compose operas into the 1730s, h
e increasingly turned
his attention to oratorio



Employed in the homes of the aristocracy



The elector became King George I of England in 1714



Frequently commissioned to provide music for royal entertainment and ceremonies



Water Music

(1717) and
Music for th
e Royal Fireworks

(1749) prepared
for gala entertainment



Coronation
Anthems

(1727) has been used at every subsequent English
coronation since that of George II



Became the music tutor to the royal family



Oratorios offered Handel a financially viable alterna
tive to opera



Eliminated the expensive soloists, sets, and costumes



Exploited the English love of choral music



Appealed to the religious attitudes of Puritan and Methodist citizens



Composed around 20 oratorios after 1732



Financially successful during his l
ife



Lived in
a substantial ho
use
in London



Bought paintings, including an excellent Rembran
d
t



His estate was worth twenty thousand pounds at his death



Died in London



Three thousand people attended his funeral



Buried in Westminster Abbey and his grave marke
r is still there today

3. Reputation



Became the most famous composer in Europe and a treasured national institution in
England



Reputation continued to increase after his death

8

LISTENING TO MUSIC



Perhaps the finest composer for chorus who ever lived


4. Works

a.
Water Musi
c

(1717)



A public entertainment (July 17, 1717) for members of Parliament and other members of
London society



Commissioned as part of a public relations move to counter the country’s growing
disaffection for the royal family



The King, his court, and a smal
l navy of boats sailed up the River Thames



Handel’s orchestra consisted of about 50 musicians



An immediate success



The King requested a total of three performances of the work that night



The hour
-
long suite was played twice prior to dinner and once after t
he meal



One of Handel’s most beloved compositions



Example of a dance suite



A collection of three suites for orchestra



Handel performed the suites as a unit, not separately



Individual movements were not intended to accompany dancing, but as concert
music


b
.
Messiah

(1741)



Handel’s most famous oratorio



Composed during three and a half weeks during the summer of 1741



First performed in April of 1742



Premiered in Dublin, Ireland as part of a charity benefit



Used a small ensemble of 23 voices and a small orche
stra



Local press was enthusiastic about the composition



In order to increase the number attending the concert and earn more money for the
charity, women were requested not to wear hoop skirts and men asked to leave
their swords at home



London performances



Covent Garden



First London performance



Made some minor alterations to the score



Increased the size of the orchestra to thirty
-
five players



Foundling Hospital (a London orphanage)



1750 performance in the orphanage’s chapel was the first time one of
Handel’s

oratorios was performed in a church rather than a theater or
concert hall



Earned much popular acclaim and profits for the orphanage



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

9



The hospital’s annual repetition of Messiah during Handel’s lifetime and
long afterward helped convince the public that his

oratorios were religious
works that should be performed in church



Tells the story of the life of Christ in a general way



Divided into three parts



The prophecy of His coming and His Incarnation



His Passion and Resurrection, and the triumph of the Gospel



Re
flections of the Christian victory over death



Dramatic confrontation and narrative replaced by mood of lyrical meditation and
exaltation



The nineteen choruses are the glory of the composition



“Hallelujah” Chorus



Concludes the second part of the oratorio



A
variety of musical styles are displayed in quick succession



Believed that King George II was so moved by the opening of the chorus that he
rose to his feet in admiration



Subsequent performances in the next century swelled to a chorus of four thousand
singe
rs and a massive orchestra of five hundred players


RECOMMENDED COMPOSER WEB SITES


BACH


http://www.jsbach.org

This is one of the most outstanding sites available for any composer and an excellent source
for high quali
ty information. Of special interest is the “Tourist Guide” in the biography
section. Photographs and accompanying commentary provide an interesting glimpse of where
Bach lived and worked. The “Recommended Recordings” is another helpful section. While
th
e reviews tend to be positive and only offer occasionally mild criticism, the reader soon gets
a sense of the important performance characteristics and distinctions of each recording. The
site also offers a varying selection of recommended recordings and
the links section can send
an interested seeker into extensive labyrinths of material. This one is really worth checking
out!


HANDEL


http://www.gfhandel.org


Two Handelians, Brad Leissa and David Vickers, created

t
he
G. F. Handel Home Page.
Highlights include numerous record reviews that are intelligent and informative
; they do not
hesitate to pan a recording when necessary
. The Anecdotes section is quite entertaining and
the section devoted to
Messiah

offers a
good history

as well as a list of recommended
recordings and an

annotated bibliography.

10

LISTENING TO MUSIC


http://handelhouse.org


This site is the home page for the new Handel House Museum in London. Handel resided in
this house for

a number of years, and it is now in the process of restoration. While the
information provided on the page is interesting, if not extensive, the excellent photographs of
various rooms and furnishings
make it a

worth
while

effort to look at every page
.


MU
SIC REVIEW


MUSICAL ELEMENTS


1. Melody: What effect did the use of sequential repetition have on melodic style in general

and phrase structure in particular?


Listen to the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (6CD
0
/
00
) and
observe the

sequential passage (beginning at 3:21) noted in the Listening Guide (page
000
).


Find passages of sequential melody in the aria "Rejoice Greatly, O Daughter of Zion"
from Handel's
Messiah

(6CD
0
/
0
). Do these patterns tend to occur during rapid
melismas

or slower, lyrical passages? What emotional quality do you think the aria is
intending to evoke? How did Handel use word painting to illustrate the words
"rejoice," "shout," and "peace"?


2. What technique give
s

Baroque rhythm its "optimism and vitalit
y"? What effect did this

have on metrical structure? Observe th
is

characteristic rhythmic
style

in Brandenburg
Concerto
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (6CD 0/0) or the aria "Rejoice Greatly, O
Daughter of Zion" (6CD 0/0
).


3. What subtle change occurred in

the harmonic style between the early and late Baroque

period? Listen to the seventh movement of Bach's Cantata 140,
Awake, a Voice is
Calling

(6CD
0
/
00
). Do the chords change every beat, two beats, once per measure, or
in an irregular pattern?


4. Exa
mine the definition of "counterpoint" in the Glossary of the text. What is meant by the

term "imitative counterpoint"? How was late Baroque contrapuntal technique
different from
the texture favored by

early Baroque

composers
? Listen to the first
moveme
nt of Cantata 140 (6CD
0
/
00
; 2CD
0
/
0
) or the "Hallelujah" chorus from
Messiah

(Intro CD
00
) and note the contrapuntal equality of the inner voices.


5. Which family of instruments formed the core of the Baroque orchestra? Identify the two

principal bras
s instruments and the three woodwinds. What was the average size of an
orchestra during this period?



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

11


CANTATA


1. Note the three
kinds of
vocal
solos used

in the cantata. What addition did German

musicians make to church cantatas?


2. At what point in

the church service was the cantata performed, what was the text based

upon, and what purpose did it serve?


3. Note the textual and musical organization of the seven movements of
Awake, a Voice is

Calling
. Which movements are based on the chorale's tu
ne and text and which upon
the gospel reading?


4. Listen to the seventh movement of Cantata 140 and observe the chorale’s phrase structure

as it is described on pages
000
-
000

of the text and in the Listening Guide on page
000
.


5. Listen to the first

movement of Cantata 140 and answer the questions in Listening

Exercise
00
. Next, consider how the alto, tenor, and bass lines illustrate the following
textual passages: "Der Wächter sehr hoch auf der Zinne" (1:02
-
1:20), the repetition of
this phrase "Si
e rufen uns mit hellen Munde" (2:52
-
3:10), and "Alleluja" (5:18
-
5:32).
Do you detect any other examples where the music amplifies elements of the text?


CONCERTO GROSSO


1. Compare the first movement of Bach's Fifth Brandenburg Concerto with the first

m
ovement of Vivaldi's concerto "The Spring." Consider the following questions.




Compare the orchestration of these two compositions.



Both movements are in ritornello form. How many ritornello sections occur in each
one?



Characterize the melodic struct
ure of the ritornello themes in the two movements. Do
the motives and phrases suggest a melodic style that is clear or complex?



Which composition has the most active bass line?



Does the texture of the tutti passages tend toward contrapuntal density or
a
homophonic style?



Do the concertino sections of these concertos emphasize melodic unity through
repetition and development of motives or melodic contrast with the continual
presentation of new musical ideas?



How do these compositions reflect the Baroqu
e preference for a unified musical style
throughout a movement
? I
f they do not, can you determine the rationale for this
diversion?



In what way is Bach's predilection for complex counterpoint and Vivaldi's virtuosity
on the violin apparent in their respec
tive compositions?

12

LISTENING TO MUSIC


FUGUE


1. What is the difference between a fugue and a canon (see Glossary in text)? Be
aware of the three major elements of a fugue (exposition, subject, and episodes) and
their purpose. What four steps will assist one to listen int
elligently to a fugue?


2. Listen to the alternation between episode sections and presentations of the subject in the

Organ Fugue in G minor (6CD
0
/
00
; 2CD
0
/
0
). Notice the important motive in the
first episode (it
occurs

four times in the upper two v
oices). In which other episode
does it appear? What standard melodic technique from the Baroque period does Bach
employ to extend the phrases of the episode sections?


DANCE SUITE


1. What is the definition of the French word
suite

and how does it refle
ct the
term’s
musical

usage?

Note the style, number, and organizational principles for the Baroque dance
suite. What is the formal structure for each movement regardless of the dance style?


2. Read the general description of a Minuet and Hornpipe on p
age
000
-
000

of the text and

listen to the two movements from Handel's
Water Music

(Intro CD 00 and 00)

How
do these movements conform to the style traits described in the text?
What effect does
the change
in timbre
have on
the musical character
of each
repetition
?


ORATORIO


1. What purpose did the seventeenth
-
century Italian oratorio originally serve? What type of

composition did it resemble by the time Handel began writing his oratorios? In what
ways are these two genres similar and different?


2.

How many oratorios did Handel compose and during what period of his career were they

written? When did he compose
Messiah
, what served as the impetus for its creation,
and for what social purpose did performances take place?


3. Note the tripartite str
ucture of the
Messiah

and the mood each section attempts to evoke.


INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEW


1. Examine Fig. 7
-
0
. In what way does the painting demonstrate contrast and energy while

maintaining a unified theme? (The subject is the personification of

Nobility and
Virtue abandoning Ignorance.) Compare this with the "Hallelujah" chorus. In what
ways do the alternation of themes and contrasts of texture match the technique in the
painting? In what way is the gradual ascent to the climax (1:53
-
2:32) si
milar to the
manner in which the painting draws the eye to the main figures?



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

13


2. Identify the different levels of visual activity and interest in Fig. 7
-
0
0
. How does it

compare with the
layered
musical style of the first
and fourth
movement
s

of Bach's
Cantata 140?


COMPOSER SELF TEST


____

1. Bach was largely a self
-
taught musician. An important part of his musical

education consisted of studying, copying, and arranging compositions by
other composers. Which composer’s music did not contribute to Ba
ch’s
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c⸠⁒ece楶敤ia渠nxce汬e湴ne摵da瑩潮⁩渠o桥⁨畭慮楴 es

搮†䡥⁷ 猠a⁤ 癯瑥搠桵v扡湤Ⱐ汯癩湧⁦a瑨敲⁴漠 we湴y c桩h摲d測⁡湤na

牥獰scte搠d楴楺en

彟彟

㌮†f渠睨楣栠瑨牥e⁇ 牭
a渠n楴楥猠摩搠iac栠獰e湤⁡ 獩s湩晩na湴⁰潲瑩潮o⁨楳 ca牥e爿


a⸠⁗e業ar
ⰠI桥測öie楰z楧

戮†䵵湩ch
ⰠIa決扵牧Ⱐ䑲e獤sn

c⸠⁃桥ö
ⰠIe牬楮Ⱐr潴獤慭

搮†ie楰i楧
Ⱐ䡡浢畲gⰠB潮o

彟彟

㐮†
Which statement does not apply to Bach’s activities in Weimar?

a⸠K

牶r搠d猠srga湩獴⁴漠 桥⁤畣a氠捯l牴

戮†b桥渠瑨攠摵步⁨ a牤r瑨慴⁂ac栠睡湴敤⁴漠瑡ne a⁤楦 ere湴潢Ⱐ桥⁨ 搠瑨d猠

畮ura瑥t畬⁥浰汯yee⁴桲 睮⁩渠橡楬

c⸠⁗牯瑥畳 c⁦潲⁵湩癥牳楴y⁣e牥浯湩e猠a湤⁤楲nc瑥搠瑨t⁃潬oeg極i

䵵獩c畭

搮†d潭灯oe搠浡dy映桩猠晩s
e獴⁷潲歳⁦潲o条渠睨楬攠摵w楮i⁴桩猠灥物潤

彟彟

5. Identify the incorrect statement regarding Bach’s work in Cöthen.

a⸠K
Wrote operas for the prince’s private theater

戮†b潭灬e瑥搠t潲欠o渠瑨攠nra湤n湢畲朠g潮oe牴潳

c. Conducted a small “all
-
star” orch
e獴牡

搮†d潭灯oe搠浯牥⁴桡渠 ⁤潺e渠獯n漠o潮oe牴潳⁡s⁷ 汬⁡猠潴桥爠ro牫猠r潲o

潲o桥獴牡

彟彟

6. Which activity was not a part of Bach’s duties as Cantor of St. Thomas Church?

a⸠⁔漠灲潶楤攠湥眠浵獩c⁦潲⁥ac栠h畮摡y⁡湤n牥汩g楯畳⁨潬o摡y

戮†呯⁴敡ch

ia瑩渠gra浭a爠瑯⁴桥⁣桯楲⁢hys

c⸠⁔漠
灬py⁴桥 条渠景n a汬⁦畮 牡汳

搮†
To write concertos for weekly concerts by the school’s orchestra,

桩h桬hg桴hng⁴桥⁳歩 汳映桩猠h潳琠oa汥湴l搠灵灩ds

彟彟

㜮†T桩捨⁥湤na癯爠v楤潴捣異y⁂ac栠摵h楮g⁨ 猠sa牥e
爠楮rie楰i楧?

a⸠⁃潭灯o楮i⁴桥
Art of Fugue

14

LISTENING TO MUSIC

b.
Teaching music lessons to members of the royal family

c. Responsibility for the liturgical music of the city’s four principal churches

搮†䑩dec瑩ng⁴桥⁃潬汥g極i⁍畳 c畭⁡湤⁣潭灯o楮i畳 c⁦ 爠畮楶r牳楴y

ce牥浯湩es

彟彟

8. Which statement regarding Bach’s reputation is erroneous?

a⸠⁈K癩vg⁣潭灯oe搠浯牥⁴桡渠㐵〠 潮ce牴潳Ⱐ桥⁷ 猠瑨攠浯獴⁰牯汩晩 ⁡nd

楮晬略湴na氠捯浰潳l爠楮⁴桥⁣牥a瑩潮o⁴桥 Ba牯煵e⁣潮oe牴r

戮†b潮獩摥牥搠瑨攠g牥a瑥獴⁣潭灯獥s映
潮瑲a灵p瑡氠浵t楣⁩渠瑨攠桩獴潲y映

睥獴敲渠浵n楣

c⸠⁄畲楮g⁨楳楦i瑩浥⁨m⁷ 猠歮潷渠浯牥 a渠n⁰ 牦潲浥爠a湤⁩n灲潶楳p爠rn

瑨攠潲条渠瑨慮⁡猠a⁣潭o潳or

搮†d牯rg桴⁴桥⁣a湴慴n⁴ ⁴桥⁨楧桥獴⁰潩湴映楴猠摥癥汯灭e湴

彟彟

㤮†V桩捨⁳瑡瑥浥湴⁤潥猠湯琠慰
ply to Handel’s education and earl
y

yea牳⁡猠s

浵獩c楡i?

a⸠⁈楳⁦K瑨敲⁩湴e湤e搠瑨a琠桩猠獯渠s桯畬搠h瑵ty 眠w湤潴畳楣

戮†䡥潶敤⁴漠䡡浢畲g⁡琠t桥 age映ㄸ a湤⁷n牫r搠d猠s⁶楯 楮i獴⁩渠瑨攠

灵扬pc⁴桥 瑥t



䅳⁡⁳ 汦
-
瑡tg桴畳楣楡測⁨n敡牮e
搠桩猠cra晴⁢y c潰y楮g畴⁴桥⁳ o牥猠

潦瑨o爠r潭灯oe牳Ⱐ獵rh⁡猠s潲o汬椬⁐a汥獴物湡ⰠIn搠噩癡汤l

搮†䅳⁡⁢ yⰠ桥⁣畬u楶慴i搠桩猠楮ie湳n畳 ca氠l湴敲e獴Ⱐs潭整業e猠獥sre瑬y⁩n

瑨攠t瑴楣

彟彟

㄰⸠⁗桩捨⁥癥湴⁤n搠湯琠潣d畲⁤u物rg⁴桥 ea牬y yea牳r⁈an
del’s career?

a⸠⁓灥湴⁦潵n yea牳⁩渠f瑡ly⁴敡c桩hg⁡琠t桥
Ospedale della Pietà

b. Composed operas in Florence and Venice

c. Was appointed chapel master to the elector of Hanover

d. His work in Rome primarily consisted of writing secular cantatas

____

11. Identify the incorrect statement regarding Handel’s efforts in opera while he

睡猠牥獩摩ng⁩渠i潮摯渮

a⸠⁈楳灥牡猠c潮瑩湵n搠瑨攠d湧汩獨⁳syle⁴桡琠桡搠扥e渠n獴慢汩s桥搠dy⁈e湲y

m畲ue汬

戮†b潲⁡⁴ 浥Ⱐ瑨m e牡猠睥牥 晩湡湣楡汬y⁳畣ce獳s畬

c⸠⁈
e⁨楲 搠瑨e⁳楮来 猬⁣潭灯oe搠瑨攠浵獩cⰠ汥搠瑨I⁲ 桥a牳r汳Ⱐa湤n

c潮摵o瑥搠瑨t⁰e牦潲oance猠晲潭⁴桥⁨a牰獩r桯牤

搮†
䅦瑥t⁲e灥ate搠扯d晦楣i⁦ 楬畲e猬⁨s gra摵d汬y 瑵牮t搠晲潭⁣潭灯獩ng

潰o牡猠瑯⁷物瑩ng牡瑯物ts

彟彟

ㄲ⸠⁗桩捨⁡c瑩癩vy⁤楤潴 cu
py Handel’s time while working in London?

a⸠⁐牯癩摥搠浵d楣⁦潲⁴oe⁡物獴潣racy

戮†b牯瑥畳 c⁦潲⁲ yal⁥湴敲瑡楮浥湴猠t湤ncere浯湩es

c⸠⁗a猠s畳 c⁴畴潲⁴漠瑨攠ooya氠la浩ly

搮†d污ye搠瑨攠drga渠景爠業灯牴r湴⁦畮n牡汳

彟彟

ㄳ⸠⁗hy⁤楤⁈a湤n氠晩湤⁴
e牡瑯物漠t⁦楮a湣楡汬y⁶楡扬 ⁡汴e牮r瑩癥⁴漠c潭灯o楮i

潰o牡猿

a⸠⁅汩K楮慴i搠dx灥湳楶攠獯汯n獴sⰠ獥瑳Ⱐ慮搠t潳瑵oes

戮†䕸灬潩瑥搠瑨t⁅湧汩獨s汯癥l⁣桯ha氠l畳楣



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

15

c. Appealed to the religious attitudes of Puritan and Methodist citizens

d. All of the
above

____

14. Identify the incorrect statement regarding Handel’s posthumous reputation

a⸠⁂eca浥⁴me潳 ⁦ m潵猠o潭灯oe爠楮⁅畲潰o

戮†be牨r灳⁴桥⁦楮 獴⁣s浰潳e爠潦⁣桯ha氠l畳楣⁷桯⁥癥爠汩癥d

c. He was the first composer to write in a “modern” har
浯湩c⁳ y汥

搮†䡩猠牥灵瑡瑩潮⁣潮瑩湵敤⁴漠楮捲ease⁡晴e爠桩猠摥a瑨

彟彟

ㄵ⸠⁗桩捨⁣潭灯o楴楯渠睡猠湯s⁣潭灯oe搠dy⁊潨o湮⁓e扡獴sa渠nac栿

a. Violin Concerto in E Major, The “Spring”

戮†ba湴慴nⰠ
Awake, A Voice is Calling

c. Organ Fugue in G Minor

d.
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5



SELF TEST


____

1. Listen to the first concertino section of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (6
C䐠
M
L

㬠〺㈹
-
〺㐹⤮†M桩捨⁴h牭⁢r獴⁤敳s物扥猠瑨攠浥汯摩c⁳ y汥l


a⸠⁴敲raced

戮†獥煵q湴nal

c⸠潮
-
業楴a瑩癥⁣潵湴敲灯楮p

搮†潳d楮慴i

彟彟

㈮†O桩捨⁩摥a⁢ 獴⁣桡rac瑥t楺e猠瑨攠浵獩ca氠獴y汥映瑨 慴 Ba牯煵e⁰ 物rd?


a⸠⁩湮潶慴楯K

戮†
ex灥物浥湴慴楯n

c⸠K
灥牦ec瑩潮

搮†牥景f浡瑩潮

彟彟

㌮†P桩捨⁴h牭⁤r獣物扥猠瑨攠t畧u氠獥l瑩潮⁷oe牥⁴桥⁴桥浥⁩猠牥灬pce搠dy 浯m楶ic
摥癥汯灭e湴⁡湤潤畬n瑩潮?


a⸠⁥x灯獩瑩潮

戮†
c潵湴敲灯楮p

c⸠⁳畢Kect

搮†
e灩獯pe

彟彟

㐮†周4⁳楺e映 ⁂a牯煵r牣桥獴牡 睡猠sa牥ly潲e⁴桡渺


a⸠‱K

戮†㈵

c⸠″K

搮†㔰

彟彟

㔮†fde湴nfy⁴桥
incorrect

statement regarding the bass line during th
e opening
section of “Rejoice greatly” from the Messiah (6CD
〯M
㬠〺〰
-
ㄺ㌲⤮

a⸠⁷K汫lng⁢ 獳⁳syle

戮†
basso continuo

consists of harpsichord and low strings

c. maintains a steady tempo

d. whenever the soprano sings the
basso continuo

is omitted

____

6. What element did German composers add to the church cantata?


a.
an introductory fugue

b. orchestral accompaniment

c. text in the vernacular

d. choral movements

16

LISTENING TO MUSIC

____

7. Which statement is
not

true concerning the treatment of musical elements dur
ing
the late Baroque period?

a. short, regular phrases

b. driving rhythms

c. harmony based on major and minor keys

d. contrapuntal texture predominant

____

8. Which woodwind was
occasionally
added to the
basso continuo

group?


a. flute

b. oboe

c.
clarinet

d. bassoon

____

9. Identify the true statement about the
Messiah
.

a. Handel composed the work in the space of three and a half weeks

b. first performed in London, England as part of a charity benefit

c. initial performance was for a chorus o
f 500 voices

d. the composition did not become popular until fifty years after Handel’s
摥a瑨

彟彟

10. Which statement does not apply to Bach’s cantatas

a⸠⁃潭灯oe搠d汭潳琠o桲he⁨畮摲e搠da湴慴n猬⁢畴湬y⁴睯
-
瑨t牤猠獵r癩癥

戮†周b⁣a湴慴aⰠ睩瑨⁩瑳⁥t
灨p獩s渠瑨敯汯 楣i氠acc畲ucyⰠ睡猠楮se湤e搠瑯d

牥灬慣e⁴桥⁳ 牭潮

c⸠†䡩猠晡浩lye浢敲猠a湤⁰n楶慴i⁳瑵摥湴猠桡搠 漠o潰y畴⁢y⁨a湤⁴桥n

浵獩c⁦潲⁥ac栠獩湧n爠rn搠楮獴牵浥湴慬楳n

搮†周dy ex灲p獳⁨s猠牥汩杩潵g⁦ 楴栠h湤⁳n湣ere⁢ l楥i⁩渠 桥⁲ 景牭r瑩
潮o

瑲t摩d楯湳映瑨f⁇ 牭r渠i畴桥牡渠n桵牣h

彟彟

ㄱ⸠Nfde湴nfy⁴桥⁷潯摷o湤⁩湳瑲畭t湴⁨敡牤⁤r物湧⁴桥 e湩湧 物瑯牮r汬漠獥c瑩潮o
Bach’s Cantata
Awake, a Voice is Calling
, movement I (6CD 1/15; 2CD 1/6;
0:00
-
0:33).


a. clarinet

b. French horn

c.
oboe

d. flute

____

12. Which statement about the German church cantata is
not

true?

a. consists of a succession of independent movements

b. composition is strictly for soloist and orchestral accompaniment

c. text based on Gospel reading for a specifi
c Sunday or holiday

d. utilized the operatic forms of recitative and aria

____

13. Identify the
incorrect

statement regarding the oratorio.

a. uses the operatic forms of recitative and aria

b. chorus serves a dual function as narrator and commentator

c. performances are staged with costumes and scenery

d. an opera with a religious subject

____

1
4
. Listen to the Organ Fugue in G minor (6CD 1/19; 2CD 1/7). Identify the term
that best describes what you hear between 2:13
-
2:25.


a. episode

b. expos
ition

c. subject

d. terraced dynamics




LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

17

FOR FURTHER LISTENING


BACH


Although any selection on Bach's music will omit far more masterpieces than it will contain,
it is hoped that this list will inspire readers to explore the rich heritage this composer
bequeathed to humanity. Well
-
known sacred works include Cantata 4,
Christ lag in
Todesbanden

(for Easter Sunday and believed to be Bach's first cantata); Cantata 80,
Ein feste
Burg

(cantata for Reformation Sunday and based on Luther's chorale
A mighty for
tress is our
God
); Cantata 147,
Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben

(composed for the feast of the
Visitation of Mary, it contains the famous setting later known as
Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring
);
and the
Christmas Oratorio

which is a collection of six cantatas
narrating the Christmas story.
Bach's
Mass in B Minor

and
St. Matthew Passion

are two of the greatest artistic achievements
of western civilization.


While a list of compositions for organ should begin by stating the obvious, the Toccata and
Fugue in D Mi
nor (in which the fugue is inserted into the middle of the toccata), other
compositions are also greatly beloved, including the Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor (one
of the few works which has the same theme for both movements), Prelude and Fugue in E
-
flat

Major "St. Anne" (the three fugue subjects are believed to reflect the divine nature of the
Trinity and the initial subject bears an uncanny resemblance to the hymn tune of the same
name), and "Wachet auf" from the
Schubler Chorales

(an arrangement for or
gan of the fourth
movement of Cantata 140). Two important collections of fugal writing are
The Art of Fugue

(in which Bach demonstrated every possible fugal technique) and the two volumes of
The
Well
-
Tempered Clavier
. Recordings of the latter are availab
le featuring harpsichord or piano
as a solo instrument. Some listeners find it easier to perceive the contrapuntal texture of the
fugues in piano recordings. Bach also composed dance suites for the keyboard (Six Partitas,
English Suites, and French Suite
s) and a collection called the
Goldberg Variations
. A
Russian ambassador who suffered from insomnia commissioned the latter work, making it
one of the only works in which a composer desired his audience to go to sleep. For something
completely different
try finding an old recording of
Switched
-
On Bach

by Walter (now
Wendy) Carlos. It features numerous keyboard works played on the Moog Synthesizer.


Beside the Brandenburg Concertos, Bach's best
-
known compositions for orchestra are the four
Orchestral Suit
es. He also composed other concertos for a variety of instrumental
combinations. Any composition by this composer is certain to offer a stimulating and
aesthetically pleasing listening experience.


HANDEL


Handel was one of the greatest composers of chor
al music in the history of Western music;
his mastery of musical drama and effect are
superbly

illustrated in the four Coronation
Anthems for George II. These
anthems
have been performed at every English coronation
since 1727. There are recordings of
Mes
siah

to suit every taste, from a large chorus and
18

LISTENING TO MUSIC

orchestra (Toronto Symphony and Mendelssohn Choir, Angel CDCB 49027) to an attempt to
replicate the "content, sound, and style" of Handel's performance on April 5, 1754 (Academy
of Ancient Music, Christophe
r Hogwood, L'Oiseau
-
Lyre 411858
-
4). Boston Baroque,
conducted by Martin Pearlman, observes the style of the period but uses female voices in the
chorus (Telarc CD
-
80322). One of the best methods to develop an appreciation for this
beloved composition is
to join a chorus preparing it for performance. It is not easy, but the
exhilaration that comes from singing the "Hallelujah" chorus for the first time is an enriching
experience you will never regret. Other oratorios by Handel include
Israel in Egypt

(th
e
plagues of frogs and flies are
wonderfully
graphic) and
Judas Maccabaeus

(which contains
several well
-
known choruses).


Later oratorios that followed the Handelian tradition include Joseph Haydn's
The Creation

(the passages relating the creation of li
ght and the rising of the sun are particularly stirring)
and Felix Mendelssohn's
Elijah

(the dramatic conflict between the priests of Baal and Elijah is
a highlight). The latter two compositions are available in both German and English versions.
Both com
posers expected these works to be performed in English in England, so there is no
need to listen to them in German except for reasons of personal preference.


Three orchestral compositions serve as the backbone of Handel's instrumental style: Concerti
gros
si, Op. 6,
Water Music
, and
Royal Fireworks Music
. The compositions of Georg Philipp
Telemann are another source of excellent late Baroque instrumental music.




LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

19

LISTENING EXERCISE
00




Name ____________________


Johann Sebastian Bach


6CD
0
/
00
; 2CD
0
/
0

O
rgan Fugue in G minor (ca. 1710)




The following diagram is essentially the same as that found on page 000. It charts the flow of
the music as Bach's Organ Fugue in G minor unfolds from the straightforward exposition,
through the increasingly lengthy epi
sodes, to the final statement of the subject in the bass.

Your task is to differentiate statements of the subject from the episodes

can you hear when
the subject is being played or not? The first statement of the subject appears at 0:00, so your
first qu
estion is easy.
For th
e

other eight statements of the subject, however, you may find
yourself more challenged. Indicate the correct time that all nine statements of the subject of
the fugue occur by choosing “a” or “b” below.

You
are not asked to
indica
te
the
times
at
which

the episodes

begin
, but see if you can sense that
the subject is no longer present and
that
modulations are occurring.





EXPOSITION

EPISODE


EPISODE

S 1._____

____


A

2.______








6._____


T



3. ______


5. __


B



4._____






7.______



† This entry starts in the tenor and continues in the soprano.




EPISODE


EPISODE

S



8._______


A


T


B






9._____



20

LISTENING TO MUSIC

1. a
. 0:00 or b. 0:05

6. a. 1:56 or b. 2:04

2. a. 0:15 or b. 0:19

7. a. 2:25 or b. 2:33

3. a. 0:37 or b. 0:42

8. a. 3:00 or b. 3:09

4. a. 0:59 or b. 1:06

9. a. 3:39 or b. 3:48

5. a. 1:20 or b. 1:28


10. Finally, which of the four

parts is played by the pedals of the organ?


a. soprano

b. alto

c. tenor

d. bass



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

21

LISTENING EXERCISE
00




Name ____________________


Johann Sebastian Bach


6CD 0/00; 2CD 0/0

Cantata,
Awake, a Voice Is Calling

(1731)

Fourth movement


The most famous

portion of Cantata
Awake, a Voice Is Calling
, is the middle (fourth)
movement in which Bach assigns the violins a lovely counter melody to sound against the
chorale tune. The following exercise asks you to concentrate mainly on the relationship
between t
he three musical lines that are clearly audible throughout this beautiful work: bass,
chorale tune, and violin counter melody.




1. (0:00
-
0:42) How many musical lines or parts do you hear at the beginning of the

movement?

a. one


b. two

c. three


2.

(0:00
-
0:34) A bass that plods along in equal note values moving in predominantly

conjunct* motion (step
-
wise motion) is called?

a. an ostinato bass

b. a pedal point

c. a walking bass


(0:00
-
0:42) The meter of the movement is duple, indeed 4/4.

There are four quarter notes in
each measure. You can
hear the beat by focusing on the bass. At the beginning (0:00
-
0:34)
the double basses play nothing but quarter notes; that is to say, here they are playing the beat.


3. (0:00
-
0:01) Does the melod
y begin with a pickup* before the double basses enter with the

first downbeat? (Do you hear a bit of violin sound before the basses enter?)

a. The melody begins with a pickup in the violins.

b. The melody does not begin with a pickup in the violins.


4
. (0:00
-
0:40) Count and conduct the music. Your beat should be marching in sync with the

bass. How many
full

measures of music do your hear before the voices enter?

a. four

b. eight

c. twelve


5. (0:43) When the chorale tune enters it is sung

a
. in four
-
part harmony.

b. in unison by the sopranos.

c. in unison by the tenors.


6. (0:43
-
1:13) Bach sets the chorale tune in notes that are

a. longer (hence sound slower) than those of the strings.

b. shorter (hence sound faster than those of the

strings.


7. (0:43
-
1:13) Throughout this section which is true?

a. The chorale tune is at the top of the texture, strings in the middle, double basses at

22

LISTENING TO MUSIC

the bottom

b. The chorale tune is in the middle of the texture, strings at the top, double basse
s at

the bottom.

c. The chorale tune is at the bottom of the texture, strings at the top, double basses in

the middle.


8. (1:10
-
1:18) Which is true of the conclusion of section
A

of the movement?

a. The strings begin to repeat their flowing melody b
efore the voices conclude their
phrase of the chorale tune.

b. The voices conclude their phrase of the chorale tune and then the strings begin to
repeat their flowing melody.


(1:12
-
2:50) Repeat section
A

of the movement. Check your answers to questions

1
-
8.


9. (3:17
-
3:32) Which is true about this section?

a. It is in a major key and the chorale tune is present in the sopranos.

b. It is in a minor key and the chorale tune is not sung during this passage.


10. At any time throughout this movement is

the three
-
line texture (bass, chorale tune, violin

counter melody) increased by the addition of woodwinds and brasses?

a. Yes, woodwinds and brasses are added at the end for extra weight. Bach likes the

big, dramatic event.

b. No, Bach never uses mor
e than a three
-
line texture in this movement. Once he

decides on a texture, he prosecutes it rigorously to the end.





LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

23

LISTENING EXERCISE
00




Name ____________________


George Frideric Handel


Intro CD (10)

"Hallelujah" chorus from
Messiah




As a man
of the theater, Handel was the master of the dramatic gesture. Sometimes, as we
shall see, he would even insert a “thundering silence” for special effect. This exercise asks
you to hear the frequent changes of texture in the “Hallelujah” chorus. I
t

is b
y

means of
striking textural changes that Handel creates the grand effects of this classical favorite.


1. How many musical lines are prominent during the instrumental introduction?

a. one: basses (cellos and double basses)

b. two: violins and basses (c
ellos and double basses)

c. three: oboes, violins, and basses (cellos and double basses)


2.
In w
hat
kind of
musical texture do

the voices sing when they enter with

"Hallelujah"?

a.
mono
phony b. polyphony c.
homo
phony


3. (0:25
-
0:31; "For the L
ord God omnipotent reigneth")
When

the chorus sings in unison
,

do

the violins double (play the same line as) the voices?

a. yes


b. no


4. Unison singing and playing creates what kind of text
ure?

a. monophonic

b. polyphonic

c. homophonic


5. (0
:47
-
1:12; "For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth") Now we have a passage of imitative,

contrapuntal

writing in which a subject is presented in succession in the voices. In
what order do the voices enter with this subject?

a. soprano,
alto, male voices

b.

soprano,
male voices, alto

c. alto, male voices, soprano


6. (1:32
-
1:53; "And he shall reign for ever and ever") Again, Handel offers another passage

of
imitative

writing
,

with a new subject. In what order do the voices enter?

a. bass,
alto, tenor,
soprano

b. bass, tenor,
soprano, alto

c. bass, soprano, alto, tenor

d. bass,
tenor,
alto, soprano


7. Polyphonic passages such as this (1:32
-
1:52) most closely approximate the style and

musical texture found in

a. a fugue

b. a chorale tune

c. a G
regorian chant


8
. (2:06
-
2:30) What are the sopranos doing here

on “King of Kings and Lord
o
f Lords”
?

24

LISTENING TO MUSIC

a. rising
in an arpeggio

b. rising by
leap

c. rising by step


9. (3:22
-
3:24) In a brilliant stroke Handel sets off and highlights the final statemen
t of

“Hallelujah” (and the final cadence) by inserting a new kind of texture. Which is
correct?

a. He inserts a homophonic brass fanfare.

b. He inserts the texture of silence.


10. What is it that creates the drama and grandeur in this choral movement
?

a. a skillful use of a variety of textures and styles

b. a very clear setting of the English text (music reflecting the natural stresses in the

words)

c. the concentration of all voices and instruments on a few, simple musical gestures

d. all of the

above



LATE BAROQUE MUSIC: BACH AND HANDEL

25