.)

Router#

show interface bri0 1




BRI0: B
-
Channel 1 is up, line protocol is up


Hardware is BRI


MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255


Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive not set


lcp = OPEN multilink = OPEN


ipcp = OPEN


Last input 0:05:51, output 0:05:52, output hang never


Last clearing of "show interface" counters never


Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0


Output queue: 0/64/0 (size/threshold/drops)


Conversations 0/1 (active/max active)


Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated)


5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec


5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec


15 packets input, 804 bytes, 0 no buffer


Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants


0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort


14 packets output, 806 bytes, 0 underruns


0 output errors, 0 collisions, 19 interface resets, 0 restarts


0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out


1 carrier transitions

Troubleshooting Multilink PPP

BranchF#
debug dialer

BranchF#ping 10.115.0.135


Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100
-
byte ICMP Echos to 10.115.0.135, timeout is 2 seconds:


BRI0: Dialing cause ip (s=10.155.0.1, d=10.115.0.135)

BRI0: Attempting to dial 6000

%LINK
-
3
-
UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:2, changed state to up

dialer Protocol up for BR0:2.

%LINEPROTO
-
5
-
UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:2, changed state to
up!!!!

Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round
-
trip min/avg/max = 32/34/36 ms

BranchF#

BRI0: rotary group to 6000 overloaded (1)

BRI0: Attempting to dial 6000

%ISDN
-
6
-
CONNECT: Interface BRI0:2 is now connected to 6000 CentralF

Troubleshooting Multilink PPP
(cont.)



CHAP/PAP/caller ID on answering router?



Dialer load threshold on one router?



Fair queuing turned on?

Bundle

Router#
debug isdn q921

Router#
debug isdn q931


Shows call setup and teardown of ISDN
network connections (Layer 3) between the
access router and the ISDN switch

ISDN
debug

Commands


Shows data link layer messages (Layer 2) on the D
channel between the access router and the ISDN
switch

Configuration Tasks for PRI


Select the PRI switch type


Specify T1/E1 controller, framing, and line coding for
the facility


Set PRI group timeslots for T1/E1 and indicate the
speed used


Specify the interface on the router that

you will configure for DDR

T1/E1

PRI

23B (T1) or

30B (E1)



D

ISDN PRI Configuration


Router(config)#controller {t1 | e1}





{
slot/port
|

unit
-
number
}


Router(config)#isdn switch
-
type
switch
-
type


Configures the ISDN PRI switch type


Configures the ISDN PRI controller

T1/E1 Controller Parameters

Router(config
-
controller)#framing


{sf | | crc4 | no
-
crc4}


Selects the line
-
code type on the controller

Router(config
-
controller)#linecode


{ami | | hdb3}


Selects the framing type on the controller


Specifies the T1 clock source


Router(config
-
controller)#clock source


{line [primary | secondary] | internal}

esf

b8zs

Additional ISDN PRI
Configuration Parameters


Specifies ISDN PRI on the T1 or E1 controller


Specifies the serial port for the PRI D channel


Router(config)#interface serial {
slot/port
: |
unit
:}{23 | 15}


Router(config
-
controller)#pri
-
group [timeslots

range
]


Switches incoming analog calls to internal modems


Router(config
-
if)#isdn incoming
-
voice modem

PRI Configuration Example

Cisco 3600

T1 PRI

isdn switch
-
type primary
-
5ess

!

controller t1 0/0

pri
-
group timeslots 1
-
24

framing esf

linecode b8zs

clock source line

!

interface serial 0/0:23

ip address 192.168.11.2 255.255.255.0

isdn incoming
-
voice modem

ISDN

5ESS

Laboratory Exercise: Visual
Objective

Branch office


Central site

PRI

BRI

ISDN

ISDN, PPP,

CHAP, DDR

Summary


After completing this chapter, you should be able
to perform the following tasks:


Select BRI or PRI service for a particular
application


Identify Q.921 and Q.931 signaling and call
sequences


Configure ISDN BRI


Configure ISDN PRI


Configure ISDN DDR

Review Questions


Compare ISDN BRI with ISDN PRI.


If you are not sure what your ISDN switch
type is, where would you obtain this
information?


What are Q.921 and Q.931?



Establishing a
Dedicated Frame
Relay Connection and
Controlling Traffic
Flow

Objectives


Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to
perform the following tasks:


Configure Frame Relay


Configure Frame Relay subinterfaces


Configure Frame Relay traffic shaping


Verify Frame Relay operation

261

Chapter Activities

Windows 95 PC

Modem

Branch office


ISDN/analog

Small office


Central site

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

service

PRI

BRI

BRI

Frame Relay

Async

AAA server

Async

Frame Relay Overview


Virtual circuits make connections


Connection
-
oriented service

DTE or

CPE

routers

Frame Relay

works here

CSU/DSU

DCE or Frame

Relay switches

Frame Relay Operation


Get locally significant DLCIs from your Frame Relay
provider


Map your network addresses to DLCIs

CSU/DSU

DLCI=500

PVC

10.1.1.1

ARP

Inverse ARP or

Frame Relay map

ETH

Destination

MAC

Source

MAC

IP

IP

(10.1.1.1)

Frame

Relay

Destination

DLCI (500)

CSU/DSU

Frame Relay Signaling


Cisco supports three LMI standards:


ANSI T1.617 Annex D


ITU
-
T Q.933 Annex A



The gang of four



DLCI=500

PVC

LMI

500=Active

400=Inactive

DLCI=400

PVC

Keepalive



Configuring Basic Frame Relay

Central

Branch

Central(config)#
interface Serial1

Central(config
-
if)#
ip address 10.16.0.1 255.255.255.0

Central(config
-
if)#
encapsulation frame
-
relay

Configuring Address Mapping

Branch

Non
-
Cisco

Central(config)#
interface Serial1

Central(config
-
if)#
ip address 10.16.0.1 255.255.255.0

Central(config
-
if)#
encapsulation frame
-
relay

Central(config
-
if)#
bandwidth 56

Central(config
-
if)#
frame
-
relay map ip 10.16.0.2 110 broadcast

Central(config
-
if)#
frame
-
relay map ip 10.16.0.3 120 broadcast ietf


Central

Branch

DLCI to Branch=110

DLCI to Non
-
Cisco=120

10.16.0.1/24

10.16.0.2/24

Central site

VC

VC

10.16.0.3/24

Verifying Frame Relay Operation


Displays line, protocol, DLCI, and LMI information

Router#show interface serial 0

Serial0 is up, line protocol is up


Hardware is CD2430 in sync mode


MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255


Encapsulation FRAME
-
RELAY, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)


LMI enq sent 112971, LMI stat recvd 112971, LMI upd recvd 0, DTE LMI up


LMI enq recvd 0, LMI stat sent 0, LMI upd sent 0


LMI DLCI 1023 LMI type is CISCO frame relay DTE


FR SVC disabled, LAPF state down


Broadcast queue 0/64, broadcasts sent/dropped 32776/0, interface broadcasts 14


Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:03, output hang never


Last clearing of "show interface" counters never


Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0


Queueing strategy: weighted fair


<Output Omitted>

Verifying Frame Relay Operation
(cont.)


Displays PVC traffic statistics

Router#show frame
-
relay pvc 110



PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE)



DLCI = 110, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial0




input pkts 14055 output pkts 32795 in bytes 1096228


out bytes 6216155 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0


in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0


in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0


out bcast pkts 32795 out bcast bytes 6216155



<Output Omitted>

Verifying Frame Relay Operation
(cont.)


Displays the route maps, either static or dynamic

Router#show frame
-
relay map

Serial0 (up): ip 10.140.2.1 dlci 120(0x78,0x1C80), dynamic,


broadcast,, status defined, active

Verifying Frame Relay Operation
(cont.)


Displays LMI information

Router#show frame
-
relay lmi



LMI Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) LMI TYPE = CISCO


Invalid Unnumbered info 0 Invalid Prot Disc 0


Invalid dummy Call Ref 0 Invalid Msg Type 0


Invalid Status Message 0 Invalid Lock Shift 0


Invalid Information ID 0 Invalid Report IE Len 0


Invalid Report Request 0 Invalid Keep IE Len 0


Num Status Enq. Sent 113100 Num Status msgs Rcvd 113100


Num Update Status Rcvd 0 Num Status Timeouts 0

Verifying Frame Relay Operation
(cont.)


Displays LMI debug information

Router#debug frame
-
relay lmi

Serial3/1(in): Status, myseq 214

RT IE 1, length 1, type 0

KA IE 3, length 2, yourseq 214, myseq 214

PVC IE 0x7 , length 0x6 , dlci 130, status 0x2 , bw 0

Serial3/1(out): StEnq, myseq 215, yourseen 214, DTE up

datagramstart = 0x1959DF4, datagramsize = 13

FR encap = 0xFCF10309

00 75 01 01 01 03 02 D7 D6



Serial3/1(in): Status, myseq 215

RT IE 1, length 1, type 1

KA IE 3, length 2, yourseq 215, myseq 215

Serial3/1(out): StEnq, myseq 216, yourseen 215, DTE up

datagramstart = 0x1959DF4, datagramsize = 13

FR encap = 0xFCF10309

00 75 01 01 01 03 02 D8 D7


Verifying Frame Relay Operation
(cont.)


Clears dynamically created Frame Relay maps

Router#sh frame map

Serial0 (up): ip 10.140.2.1 dlci 120(0x78,0x1C80), dynamic,


broadcast,, status defined, active

Router#clear frame
-
relay
-
inarp

Router#sh frame map

Router#

Selecting a Frame Relay Topology

Star (hub and spoke)

Full mesh

Partial mesh


Broadcast traffic must be replicated for

each active connection

Reachability Issues with Routing
Updates

Routing

update

A

Circuit #21

Circuit #22

Circuit #23

D

C

B

B

C

D

2

3

1

Resolving Reachability Issues


Split horizon can cause problems in NBMA

environments


A single physical interface simulates multiple

logical interfaces


Subinterfaces can resolve split horizon issues

Subnet A

Subnet B

Subnet C

S0

Physical

interface

Logical

interface


S0.1

S0.2

S0.3

Configuring Subinterfaces


Multipoint


Subinterfaces act as default NBMA network


Can save subnets because uses single subnet


Good for full
-
mesh topology


Point
-
to
-
point


Subinterfaces act as leased line


Each point
-
to
-
point connection requires its own subnet


Good for star or partial
-
mesh topologies

Central(config)#<Output Omitted>

Central(config
-
if)#interface Serial0

Central(config
-
if)#no ip address

Central(config
-
if)#encapsulation frame
-
relay

!

Central(config)#interface Serial0.2 point
-
to
-
point

Central(config
-
subif)#ip address 10.17.0.1 255.255.255.0

Central(config
-
subif)#frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 110

!

Central(config)#interface Serial0.3 multipoint

Central(config
-
subif)#ip address 10.18.0.1 255.255.255.0

Central(config
-
subif)#frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 120

Central(config
-
subif)#frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 130

!

<Output Omitted>


Configuring Subinterfaces Example

10.17.0.1

S0.2
-
DLCI=110

10.18.0.2

S0

Branch

Central

Branch

10.18.0.1

S0.3
-
DLCI=120

S0.3
-
DLCI=130

10.18.0.3

S0

120

130

10.17.0.2

S0

Branch

110

56 kbps

T1

Branch office

Central site

Frame Relay cloud

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
Overview

CIR=32 kbps

Frame Relay Traffic Flow
Terminology

I am congested.

T1

B
c
=64 kbps

Local

access

loop=T1

Local

access

loop=64 kbps

Traffic flow

BECN

Frame Relay Traffic Flow
Terminology (cont.)

Time (T=B
c
/CIR)

Discard

B
c

B
c +
B
e

Discard frame

DE=1

DE=0

Frame 1

Frame 2

Frame 3

Frame 4

Bits

56 kbps

T1

Branch

office

Frame Relay

cloud

Bottleneck

Central

site

I need to reduce

the pace at which

I send packets.

Why Use Traffic Shaping over
Frame Relay?

56 kbps

T1

Frame Relay cloud

Why use Traffic Shaping over
Frame Relay? (cont.)

Branch

office

Central

site


Enters map class configuration mode so you can define
a map class


Router(config)#map
-
class frame
-
relay
map
-
class
-
name

Configuring Frame Relay Traffic
Shaping

Steps 1 and 2

Configuring Frame Relay Traffic
Shaping

Step 2 (cont.)


Defines the average and peak rates


or

Router(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay traffic
-
rate
average
[
peak
]


Specifies that the router fluctuates the sending rate
based on the BECNs received

Router(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay adaptive
-
shaping becn


Specifies a custom queue list


or

Router(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay custom
-
queue
-
list
number


Specifies a priority group

Router(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay priority
-
group
number

or

Configuring Frame Relay Traffic
Shaping

Step 2 (cont.)


Enables Frame Relay on an interface

Router(config
-
if)#encapsulation frame
-
relay

Router(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay traffic
-
shaping


Enables Frame Relay traffic shaping on an interface

Router(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay class
map
-
class
-
name


Maps the map class to virtual circuits on the interface

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Configuring Frame Relay Traffic
Shaping

Steps 3 to 5

Traffic Shaping Rate
Enforcement Example

T1

Frame Relay cloud

9.6 kbps

9.6 kbps

Branch office

Central site

I need to send

packets at the CIR

for each VC.

Branch office

Egress point



Configuring Traffic Shaping
Rate Enforcement Example

Central(config)#interface Serial2

Central(config
-
if)#no ip address

Central(config
-
if)#encapsulation frame
-
relay

Central(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay traffic
-
shaping

Central(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay class branch

!



!

Central(config)#map
-
class frame
-
relay branch

Central(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay traffic
-
rate 9600 18000

T1

Frame Relay cloud

Branch office

Central site

Branch office

I need to adjust my

transmit speed

because of BECNs.

Traffic Shaping BECN Support
Example

56 kbps

T1

Frame Relay cloud

Branch

office

Central

site

Configuring Traffic Shaping
BECN Support Example



Central(config)#interface serial 0

Central(config
-
if)#no ip address

Central(config
-
if)#encapsulation frame
-
relay

Central(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay traffic
-
shaping

Central(config
-
if)#frame
-
relay class becnnotify

!





!

Central(config)#map
-
class frame
-
relay becnnotify

Central(config
-
map
-
class)#frame
-
relay adaptive
-
shaping becn

56 kbps

T1

Frame Relay cloud

Branch

office

Central

site



interface Serial0


no ip address


encapsulation frame
-
relay


frame
-
relay lmi
-
type ansi


frame
-
relay traffic
-
shaping


frame
-
relay class slow_vcs

!

interface Serial0.1 point
-
to
-
point


ip address 10.128.30.1 255.255.255.248


ip ospf cost 200


bandwidth 10


frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 101

!

interface Serial0.2 point
-
to
-
point


ip address 10.128.30.9 255.255.255.248


ip ospf cost 400


bandwidth 10


frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 102


class fast_vcs

!


interface Serial0.3 point
-
to
-
point


ip address 10.128.30.17 255.255.255.248


ip ospf cost 200


bandwidth 10


frame
-
relay interface
-
dlci 103



!

map
-
class frame
-
relay slow_vcs


frame
-
relay traffic
-
rate 4800 9600


frame
-
relay custom
-
queue
-
list 1

!

map
-
class frame
-
relay fast_vcs


frame
-
relay traffic
-
rate 16000 64000


frame
-
relay priority
-
group 2

!

access
-
list 100 permit tcp any any eq 2065

access
-
list 115 permit tcp any any eq 256

!

priority
-
list 2 protocol decnet high

priority
-
list 2 protocol ip normal

priority
-
list 2 default medium

!

queue
-
list 1 protocol ip 1 list 100

queue
-
list 1 protocol ip 2 list 115

queue
-
list 1 default 3

queue
-
list 1 queue 1 byte
-
count 1600 limit 200

queue
-
list 1 queue 2 byte
-
count 600 limit 200

queue
-
list 1 queue 3 byte
-
count 500 limit 200

Configuring Traffic Shaping
Queuing Example

Verifying Frame Relay Traffic
Shaping

CentralA#sh frame
-
relay pvc


PVC Statistics for interface Serial3/1 (Frame Relay DTE)


DLCI = 110, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial3/1.1



input pkts 35 output pkts 40 in bytes 4324


out bytes 6684 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0


in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0


in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0


out bcast pkts 25 out bcast bytes 5124


Shaping adapts to BECN


pvc create time 00:12:55, last time pvc status changed 00:12:55


Laboratory Exercise: Visual
Objective

Cisco 3640

Central site

Frame Relay

Frame Relay

S3/1

Branch office

Cisco 1600

S0

Frame Relay

service

Summary


Configure Frame Relay


Configure Frame Relay subinterfaces


Configure Frame Relay traffic shaping


Verify Frame Relay operation

After completing this chapter, you should

be able to perform the following tasks:


What is a DLCI and how is it used to route Frame Relay
traffic?


Why would you use Frame Relay subinterfaces?


List and describe three Frame Relay traffic shaping
features.

Review Questions