DCN286 INTRODUCTION TO DATA COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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DCN286
INTRODUCTION TO DATA
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY


Network Fundamentals




Network hardware/software

Network hardware:


NIC on the computer


Hub/switch/router


Cables (or wireless router/NIC)


Patch panel and cable jacks


Network Software:


Protocols


Application software programs

Network Standard Organizations

Abbreviation

Full Name

ISO

International Organization for
Standardization

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

TIA

Telecommunications Industry
Association

EIA

Electronic Industries Alliance

ITU

International Telecommunications
Union

Cisco IBM Products Symbols

Cisco LAN Symbols

More Cisco Icons

Cisco People Icons

Cisco WAN Icons

Cisco Building Icons

Network Topologies


Bus



Star



Ring



Mesh


Network Topology

Ethernet


Ethernet is a family of frame
-
based
computer networking technologies for local
area networks (LANs). The name comes
from the physical concept of the ether.

Old Ethernet 10Base2 and 10Base5


Use Coaxial cable (TV cable)






10 means 10mbps


BASE means baseband


2 or 5 means 200m / 500m length limit


Bus topology

10BASET


The 10Base
-
T standard (also called
Twisted Pair Ethernet) uses a twisted
-
pair
cable with maximum lengths of 100
meters. The cable is thinner and more
flexible than the coaxial cable used for the
10Base
-
2 or 10Base
-
5 standards.


Its bandwidth is as same as 10base2 or 10
base5. But, it is using different connector,
RJ45. It also use STAR topology.

100BASE
-
TX

10BASE
-
T and 100BASE
-
TX
only require two pairs to
operate, pins 1 and 2
(transmit or TX), and pins 3
and 6 (receive or RX).

The cabling length limit is 100
meter.

1000BASET (gigabit)


All connection cables must be qualified to
1000mbps.


All switches, equipment NICs and
connectors must be qualified to
1000mbps.

Ethernet
Cabling

Repeater


10base5


500meter cable length limit;


10base2
-

200meter cable length limit;


10BaseT
-

100meter cable length limit;

Repeater is to amplify signal and extend the
cabling distance.

Working in layer 1 (Physical) of TCP/IP
model


Hub


Central connection of Ethernet LAN.


Physically Star topology and could be
logically RING, Bus and/or Star


May have built
-
in repeater


Working in layer 1 (Physical) of TCP/IP
model

Ethernet Bridge


Intelligent device to forward frame according to
destination Media Access Control (MAC)
address


Forwarding: If the destination MAC address has
a port different to the originate port, the frame
will be sent.


Filtering: If the destination MAC address is
reachable with the same interface when it
arrived, the frame will be discarded.


Working in layer 2 (Data Link) of TCP/IP model

Switch

Think switch as a hub with bridge functioning on
each port (interface):

1.
Switch will offer central connection to all hosts.

2.
Switch will only forward frame according to
destination MAC address on per
-
port base.

3.
Will regenerate signals (repeater function)

4.
Most switches are working in layer 2 (Data
Link) of TCP/IP model.


Router


Redirect packets according to destination
logical address (IP address).


Can build routing path between different
network segments (subnets)


Can act as firewall


Can work as VPN (server) connection


Working in layer 3 (Network) of TCP/IP
model

LAN (Local Area Network)


Has physical high speed connections in
the network.


Usually in the same office building.


Private owned network.


May contain one to hundreds computers

Local
-
area Networks (LANs)

WAN (Wide Area Network)


Connected by more than one LANs.


Connection could be dedicated line, lease line
and / or other remote connections:


M
odem (dial up) 56Kbps over analog phone line.


ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 128Kbps


DSL (Digital Subscriber Line): over digital phone line
such as Bell Sympatico


Frame Relay


T1, T3, E1 or E3 lease line



SONET (Synchronous Optical Network): using Optical
Carrier (OC)

Wide
-
area Networks (WANs)

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

VPN is a kind of encryption tunnel built
based on internet connection. It could be:

Site
-
to
-
Site (two locations of same or
different organizations connection)

Point
-
to
-
Site (for travelers)


VPN must have three components working
together: VPN server, VPN client and VPN
protocol such as L2TP and PPTP.

MAN and SAN


MAN (Metropolitan
-
Area
-
Network) is
between LAN and WAN.



SAN (Store
-
Area
-
Network) is for
performance (load balance), availability
and scalability. The server farm is a typical
example of SAN.

Bandwidth

Term

Number of Bits Per
Second

Bits per second (bps)

1

Kilobits per second (kbps)

1 thousand

Megabits per second (Mbps)

1 million

Gigabits per second (Gbps)

1 billion

Terabits per second (Tbps)

1 trillion

LAN bandwidth


10 Mbps: 10BASE2 (185m), 10BASE5
(500m) and 10BASE
-
T (100m)


100Mbps: 100BASE
-
TX (100m Cat 5
cable), 100 BASE
-
FX (2000m optic fiber),


1000Mbps: 1000BASE
-
TX (100m Cat5e
cable), 1000BASE
-
SX (220m/550m optical
fiber), 1000BASE
-
LX (500m single mode
optical fiber)

WAN bandwidth

WAN connection

Bandwidth

Dial up

56Kbps

ISDN

128Kbps

DSL

128Kbps


6.1Mbps

T1

1.5Mbps

T3

44.736 Mbps (28T1)

STS1 (OC
-
1)

51.84Mbps

STS3 (OC
-
3)

155.52Mbps

STS48 (OC
-
48)

2.5Gbps

STS192 (OC
-
192)

10Gbps

Bandwidth planning


Predict business demand


Bandwidth is not free


Reserve the upgrade option

TCP/IP ISO OSI model

Name

Description

7 Application

Interact with programs. Application protocols
are HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, IMAP, SMTP, POP3,
and Telnet

6 Presentation

Format conversion, encryption and decryption

5 Session

Establish, maintain and terminate connection
sessions between hosts

4 Transport

Error recovery and segment. UDP and TCP
are here.

3 Network

IP addressing and routing

2 Data Link

MAC addressing and switching

1 Physical

Defines the electrical and physical
connections

TCP/IP model

Name

Description

Application

Covers 3 layers of OSI
model: Application,
Presentation and Session )

Transport

Transport

Internet work

Equals to Network

Network Access

Equivalent to Data Link and
Physical Layer of OSI

Encapsulation

1. Application layer add application protocol
header.

2. Transport layer add TCP or UDP header and
breaks into Segment which has TCP header and
data.

3. Network layer adds logical address header and
the PDU packets have IP header and data

4. Data link layer adds header including
destination MAC address. Frame has Ethernet
header, trailer and data.

5. Physical layer will be responsible to transmit bits
(electrical signals) over the medium.

De
-
encapsulation

1.
According to the Ethernet encoding
scheme, assemble received bits.

2.
Frames would be delivered according to
destination MAC address.

3.
Or, the packet is routed to destination IP
address.

4.
Transport layer protocol (TCP) may
assemble segment

5.
Application layer will interpret the data
from segments.

PDU

Bit

L1PDU for electrical
signals

Frame

L2PDU

Packet


L3PDU

Segment

L4PDU

Bit

L7PDU for data

Question


Any question?


If you do not have question, please practice
conversion calculation between binary and
decimal numbering system.

1.
Please convert decimal value 123, 240 and
255 to binary.

2.
Please convert binary value 11001101,
10010011 and 00110011 into decimal value.