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uptightexampleNetworking and Communications

Oct 24, 2013 (4 years and 19 days ago)

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Networking Fundamentals

Introduction and OSI model

CLASSIFICATIONS

Introduction


LAN


Local Area Network


WAN


Wide Area
Network


PAN


Personal Area
Network


MAN


Metropolitan Area
Network

Classifications

TOPOLOGIES

Introduction


Bus


Star


Ring


Mesh


Wireless


Hybrid

Topologies

NETWORK MODELS

Introduction


Client/Server


Peer
-
to
-
Peer

Network Models

PROTOCOLS

Introduction


TCP/IP


FIR


ATM


LLDP


NetBIOS & NetBEUI

Protocols

DEVICES

Introduction


Media / Converters


NIC


Network Interface Card


Repeater


Hub


Gateway


Bridge


Switch


Router

Devices

Hub


Physical Layer


Box
with lots of Ethernet
connection sockets


Repeats messages to
all connected
nodes


Generates wasted traffic


Nodes must filter messages intended








for them


Cheapest way

to connect

devices

Bridge


Data
Link
Layer


Single
incoming and outgoing
ports


Keeps
MAC address
tables
for
two LAN
segments


Filters
traffic
using
the MAC
address

Switch


Connects
all nodes to each
other
like a
hub


Examines Ethernet messages for destination
MAC

address


Intelligently relays messages toward
destination


More expensive than hubs


Can be combined with hubs

Router


Network Layer


A router connects
to two different
networks

Ex: LAN to WAN (internet)


Routers maintain a so
-
called routing table to
keep track of routes


Without
routers the internet could not
function


Uses
the IP address to forward packets

Gateway


Application Layer down to network layer


Connect
and translate data between networks
with different protocols or
architecture


For
instance, allowing communication between
TCP/IP clients and IPX/SPX or
AppleTalk


A
gateway links two systems that do not use the
same
:


Communication protocols


Data formatting structures


Languages


Architecture

STANDARDS GROUPS

Introduction


IEEE


ISO


W3C


CERN


UL


EIA


TIA


ANSI

Standards Groups


IEEE

Institute
of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers


ISO

International Organization for Standardization


W3C

World Wide Web Consortium


CERN

European Organization for Nuclear Research


UL

Underwriters
Laboratories


EIA

Energy Information Administration


TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association


ANSI

American National Standards Institute

Standards Groups

OSI MODEL

Introduction


Application


Presentation


Session


Transport


Network


Data Link


Physical


OSI MODEL

Mnemonics to Remember

Top Down:

A
Perfectly Simple Technology Narrowed Down
Physically

All People
Seem To Need Data Processing

All

Pros

Search

Top

Notch

Donut Places


Bottom Up:

Programmers
Like Networks That Seldom Postpone
Anything*

Programmers
Dare Not Throw Salty Pretzels Away

Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away

Please
Do Not Tell Sales People Anything

People Don’t Need To See Paula Abdul

People Desperately Need To See Pamela Anderson

Paula Did Networking
'Til

She Passed
Away


*

Uses
L

for Link layer rather than
D

for Data Link