Sustainable Development - tlscyear12oes

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Nov 9, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Outdoor and
Environmental
Studies

UNIT 4

TAYLORS LAKES
SECONDARY COLLEGE

OUTCOME 1 REVISION
2013


Unit 4
-

Sustainable Outdoor
Environments

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In this unit students explore the sustainable use and
management of outdoor environments. They examine the
contemporary state of environments in Australia, consider
the importance of healthy outdoor environments, and
examine the issues in relation to the capacity of outdoor
environments to support the future needs of the Australian
population.


Outcome 1
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Healthy Outdoor
Environments

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This area of study explores the contemporary state of
environments in Australia and the importance of natural
environments for individuals and society. Students examine
the nature of sustainability and, using key indicators,
evaluate the health of outdoor environments. They
investigate current and potential impacts of damage to
outdoor environments.


Key Knowledge

S
U
nderstandings
and critiques of sustainability and
sustainable development

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I
ndicators
of healthy outdoor environments, including:

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Q
uality
and adequacy of water, air and soil

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L
evels
of biodiversity, pest and introduced species


Key
Knowledge Continued…

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The
contemporary state of outdoor environments in Australia,
with reference to common themes
used
in State of the
Environment
reports.

S
T
he
importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual
physical and emotional wellbeing,
and
for the future of
society.

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T
he
potential impact on society and outdoor environments of
land degradation, introduced species,
climate
change,
urbanisation

and other significant threats.


Key Skills

S
P
lan
for and reflect upon a range of practical sustainable outdoor
experiences and
analyse

relevant information collected during
these
experiences.

S
I
dentify
definitions of sustainability and
analyse

the concept of
sustainable
development.

S
D
escribe
a range of different indicators that can be used to
identify healthy outdoor
environments.

S
E
valuate
the contemporary state of Australian outdoor
environments.


Key Skills Continued…

S
C
ollect
and interpret data on the contemporary state of a
particular outdoor
environment.

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A
nalyse

the importance of healthy outdoor environments
for individuals and
society.

S
I
dentify
and predict the potential impact of significant
threats on society and outdoor environments.


Understandings and critiques of
sustainability and sustainable
development


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Sustainability
-

Sustainability is based on a simple principle:
Everything that we need for our survival and well
-
being
depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural
environment.


Sustainability creates and maintains the
conditions under which humans and nature can exist in
productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social,
economic and other requirements of present and future
generations
.

Definitions


Understandings and critiques of sustainability
and sustainable development
continued…

Textbook definition:


the practice of ensuring and equitable, healthy future for all people and natural
environments”

Sustainable Development
-

Brundtland

Commission
definition 1987
:

"
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. It contains within it two key concepts:

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the concept of

needs
, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor,
to which overriding priority should be given; and

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the idea of

limitations

imposed by the state of technology and social
organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future
needs
.“


Understandings and critiques of sustainability
and sustainable development continued…

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Real world example that we studied in class
-

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The Bed Zed Community
-

UK.


Sustainable development of the wider Grampians area

Key Knowledge

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Indicators of healthy outdoor environments, including:

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Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil

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Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced species



Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil


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Victoria Governments
-

State of the Environment Report 2008 and
2011.

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How do we determine the Quality of the environment (Indicators)?

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Range a of tests to determine quality of environment.

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Benchmark
-

compare current to past statistics.

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Predict the future state of the environment.

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Quality of water
-

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Types of testing
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PH testing, turbidity, salinity, levels of biodiversity
-

fauna
and flora.

Quality and adequacy of water, air and soil

continued…

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Quality of air
-

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Type of tests
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ozone testing, carbon dioxide, water vapor,
visual test.

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Quality of soil
-

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Type of tests
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PH testing, worms, nutrients, levels of topsoil
-

erosion
etc.


Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced
species


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Biodiversity
-

is
the variety of all life forms on earth
-

the different
plants, animals and micro
-
organisms and the ecosystems of which
they are a part
.

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How do we determine the level of Biodiversity of a particular
environment?

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Compare statistics
-

from past and present

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Like environment

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How do we know whether or not the environment is healthy?

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Testing, comparing, visual etc.

Levels of biodiversity, pest and introduced
species continued…


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Pest and introduced species
-


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How do we determine the level (Indicators) of the impact of
pest and introduced species.

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What is the difference between pest and introduced species.

Key Knowledge

S
The contemporary state of outdoor environments in
Australia, with reference to common themes used in State
of the Environment reports.

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State of Environmental reports
-

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2011

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2008

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Major Themes from the 2011 State of Environment Report
-

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Biodiversity, Land, Inland waters
and Atmosphere.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment
Report


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Major Themes/Headlines from the State of Environment Report 211
-

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Our
environment is a national issue requiring national leadership and
action at all
levels
-


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Coordination of all government departments.

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Effective environmental management requires adequate
information
-


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Long term studies are required to fully understand the challenges the Australian
environment is facing.

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Earth is warming, and it is likely
that we
are already seeing the effects of
climate change in Australia. As the driest inhabitable continent, Australia
is particularly vulnerable to climate
change
-


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Change of temperature and rainfall distribution across Australia.


Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Early action by Australia to reduce emissions and to deploy
targeted adaptation strategies will be less costly than delayed
action
-


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Reduction in the level of emissions is required ASAP.

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Ambient
air quality and air pollution management in Australia’s
urban
centres

are generally good, but the impact of urban air
quality on health is still a matter of serious
concern
-


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Most of Australia’s air is fairly good quality, however near the
Urban
centres

the quality of air is reducing.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Pressures of past human activities and recent droughts are
affecting our inland water systems.

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Most Northern and remote areas of Australia remain
unaffected by Human Impact.

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However areas that have been inhabited by humans have been
significantly changed e.g. Inland waterways.

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Meeting our water needs will be a critical challenge.

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As our population and demand increases so will the demand
for water E.g. Desalination Plant, water management etc.


Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Australia’s land environment is threatened by widespread
pressures.

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Invasive species, inappropriate fire patterns and grazing are having
a significant impact on much of our land environment.

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Threats
to our soil, including acidification, erosion and the loss of
soil
carbon, will
increasingly affect Australia’s agriculture unless
carefully managed.

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In 2001, it was estimated that soil acidity affected 50 million
hectares of surface layers and 23 million hectares of subsoil layers,
estimated to cost $1.585 billion per year in lost agricultural
production.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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The overall condition of the Australian marine environment
is good, but integrated management will be key to the future
conservation of our ocean resources.

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The ocean climate is changing and we will need to adapt.

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I
ncreasing
sea level, increased incidence and severity of
extreme weather events, altered ocean currents, changing
patterns of biodiversity, and changing productivity.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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The Antarctic environment is showing clear signs of climate change,
which is likely to have profound effects on Antarctic species and
ecosystems.

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The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is losing ice at its coastal fringes

about 60
billion
tonnes

each year since 2006.

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Our unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be
needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.

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Australia
is identified as one of the world’s ‘
megadiverse
’ countries.
However, there have been major declines in many components of
biodiversity since European settlement, and data on pressures suggest that
many species continue to decline, despite promising investment to address
these pressures.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Our
unique biodiversity is in decline, and new approaches will be
needed to prevent accelerating decline in many species.

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Australia’s built environment faces many pressures and consumes
significant natural resources, although consumption may

be slowing.

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The majority of Australians (87% in 2006) live in urban areas. An
increasing need for urban space

and buildings, increasing traffic congestion and increasing
consumption are affecting the livability

and environmental efficiency of the built environment.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Coastal regions bring together many

of the issues affecting other parts of the environment, and
coordinated management will be needed to mitigate
pressures.



Major Themes from the 2011 State of
Environment Report


continued…

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Australians cannot afford to see themselves as separate from the
environment.

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The
Australian environment is precious. Our ecosystems, biodiversity and
heritage are vulnerable to the choices we make. At the same time, we
depend on them
for our
survival and wellbeing. Our ecosystems, and the
biodiversity they support, provide services that are fundamental to human
life, such as regulation of
the
atmosphere, maintenance of soil fertility,
food production, filtration of water, and pest control. The major future
drivers of change

climate change, population growth, economic
development and associated consumption of natural resources, as

well as the pressures that these drivers place on the environment

will
need to be managed carefully if our society is to achieve a sustainable
relationship with the Australian environment.


Key Knowledge

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The importance of healthy outdoor environments for individual
physical and emotional wellbeing, and for the future of society.

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How does the Outdoors promote healthy wellbeing for humans?

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Recreation
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Fun and exercise

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Physical

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Mental
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stress relief and relaxation.

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Fresh air.

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Linked to Topic 8
-

Importance of Healthy Outdoor Environments


The importance of healthy outdoor environments for
individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and
for
the
future of society.


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Individuals
-

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Places for recreation and adventure
.

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Bushwalking
-

Organ Pipes NP

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Camping and Bushwalking
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Grampians

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Canoeing


Murray river

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Places for inspiration and creativity
.

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Bushwalking
-

Organ Pipes NP

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Camping and Bushwalking
-

Grampians

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Canoeing


Murray river

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Education

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As above


The importance of healthy outdoor environments for
individual physical and emotional wellbeing, and for
the future of society.

Continued…

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Society
-

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Resource
-

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Fossil fuels, food production, primary industries etc.

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Scientific Research

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Brisbane Ranges
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Impact of Cinnamon Fungus (prevention and or
control)
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Foot washing stations.

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Intrinsic values

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Internal
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Wilderness environment that is preserved for future
generations.

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Biodiversity
-

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Brisbane Ranges

Key Knowledge

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The potential impact on society and outdoor environments
of land degradation, introduced species, climate change,
urbanisation

and other significant threats.


L
and
degradation

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Habitats being cleared for farming and urban development.

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Clearing over the last 200 years has also destroyed many
species.

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At least ½ of Victoria’s native vegetation has been cleared.


Introduced
species

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Pest species compete with natural species for food and territory.

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Some pest species have no predators thus no competition for food
or space.

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At least 90% of Native bush land in Melbourne is effected by
weeds.

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The total cost of pest species in Victoria alone is $900 million per
year.

Climate
change

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Affects biodiversity as species cannot adapt fast enough for
rising temperatures and a change in food source as a result.

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12% increase in greenhouse gas emissions since 1990.

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Australia are the 2
nd

highest emitters per capita in the world.

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Since 1961 global average sea level has risen by 10cm.
Williamstown has registered 18cm sea level rise over the last
100 years.

Urbanisation

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What is
urbanisation
?

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Clearing land

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Building houses, factories, infrastructure etc.

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What are the major threats of
Urbanisation
?

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Land degradation

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Emissions

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Extinction of species

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Habitat loss

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Population increase

Other Major Threats

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Unsustainable use of natural resources.

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Inappropriate fire regimes.

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Changes to the aquatic environment and water flows.

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More information on the above threats in Topic 9
-
Biodiversity.