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Susi e Iri zarry

19 Apri l 2011

Restorati on
Ecol ogy

RESTORATION OF
SURFACE MINES:
CHALLENGES OF THE
THIRD WORLD FROM A
FIRST WORLD
PERSPECTIVE

OUTLINE:

SURFACE MINING

AFRICAN DIAMOND MINES

CHINESE PERSPECTIVE

HIGGS AND THOMPSON


“The direct effects of mining activities can be
unsightly landscape, loss of cultivated land, forest
and pasture land, and the overall loss of production.
The indirect effects can be multiple, such as soil
erosion, air and water pollution, toxicity, geo
-
environmental disasters, loss of biodiversity, and
ultimately loss of economic wealth (Li 2006)”



“The greatest threat to biodiversity is from surface
mining (Carrick and Kruger 2007)”

SURFACE MINING


Colonial history led
to international
investment and
control of land


Diamond rich lands
occur along the
western coast


Violence and poverty


Succulent Karoo
Biome


One of two semi
-
arid
biodiversity hotspots


Large amount of
endemics


Two case studies:


Sperrgebeit, Namibia


Namaqualand, South
Africa



AFRICAN DIAMOND MINES

MAP OF
NAMIBIA






SUCCULENT
KAR00
BIOME


Exclusion Policies


“Forbidden Zone”


Namib Diamond Corporation purchase


Establishment of Sperrgebeit National Park


Lessons Learned:


P
ublic vs. private ownership


N
atural resource exploiting

SPERRGEBEIT, NAMIBIA


Government legislation: Minerals Act 50
(1991) and Mineral and Petroleum
Resources Development Act 28 (2002)

NAMAQUALAND, SOUTH
AFRICA

Restoration
Ecology research
being conducted

Limiting autogenic
factors

Local knowledge of
restoration

Ecological
Restoration
in China

“AMONG THESE TERMS
RECLAMATION CAN BEST
DESCRIBE THE
RESTORATION PRACTICE
IN CHINA…”

(LI 2006)


Population growth has been the primary
motivation for restoration


As of 2004, China had 3.2 million
hectares of land unavailable for use
because of degradation by mining
operations


Restoration occurs at a rate of 10
-
12% of
the degraded land


CHINESE RESTORATION

THE PROBLEM:

SOLUTIONS


Government policy


Investment in
research


Conversion of land
to agricultural uses

RELATED ISSUES


Lack of enforcement


Lack of integration



Unsafe practices and
no testing for
contamination

CHINESE RESTORATION

How do
they fit
together?

AFRICA, CHINA,
HIGGS
,
AND THOMPSON?


HIGGS CONCEPTS


Focal Restoration


more or less
embraced in case studies we’ve
examined


Nostalgia and narrative continuity


Sperrgebeit National Park


Ecological integrity and historical
fidelity


is it ethical to insist on
these principles given the
situations in these countries?


Wilderness as a theme?
Colonization of the imagination?

FIRST WORLD MEETS THIRD WORLD


Nature = what exists outside of human
intervention, yet restoration = act of human
intervention in nature. Should we really focus
on this definition of natural in these
situations?


Metaphor of Healing may be appropriate in
these discussions


Humility


regarding knowledge and control


Restraint


regarding pursuit of self
-
interest


Sensitivity


regarding to quirks of the system


Respect


for system itself



THOMPSON’S PERSPECTIVES

Just a
thought…

LACK OF A POSITIVE
SENSE OF PLACE JUST
MIGHT HELP THE
PROGRESS OF
ECOLOGICAL
RESTORATION


Bar nar d, P., Brown, C. J., Jar vi s, A. M., & Rober tson, A. 1998. Extendi ng t he
Nami bi an protected ar ea net work to safeguard hot spots of endemi sm and di ver si ty.
Bi odi ver si ty and Conser vati on 7
: 531
-
547.


Bot ha, M. S., Carri ck, P. J., &
Al l sopp
, N. 2008. Capt uri ng l essons f rom l and
-
user s
to ai d t he devel opment of ecol ogi cal r estorati on gui del i nes for l owl and
Namaqual and.
Bi ol ogi cal Conser vati on 141
: 885
-
895.


Burke, A. 2007. Recover y i n nat ur al l y dynami c envi ronments: A case st udy f rom t he
Sper regebei t
, Southern Af r i can Ar i d Succul ent Karoo.
Envi ronmental Management
40
: 635
-
648.


Gao
, L., Mi ao, Z.,
Bai
, Z., Zhou, X., Zhao, J., & Zhu, Y. 1998. A case st udy of
ecol ogi cal r estorati on at t he
Xi aoyi

Bauxi te Mi ne, Shanxi Provi nce, Chi na.
Ecol ogi cal Engi neeri ng 11
: 221
-
229.


Car r i ck, P. J., &
Kr üger
, R. 2007. Restori ng degr aded l andscapes i n l owl and
Namaqual and: Lessons f rom t he mi ni ng experi ence and f rom r egi onal ecol ogi cal
dynami cs.
Journal of Ari d Envi ronments 70
: 767
-
781.


Li, M. S. 2006. Ecol ogi cal r estorati on of
mi nel and

wi th par t i cul ar r efer ence to t he
met al l i ferous

mi ne wastel and i n Chi na: A r evi ew of r esearch and pr acti ce.
Sci ence
of t he Tot al Envi ronment 357
: 38
-
53.


Mi t sch
, W. J., Yan, J., &
Cronk
, J. K. 1993. Ecol ogi cal engi neeri ng


cont rasti ng
experi ences i n Chi na wi th t he West.
Ecol ogi cal Engi neeri ng 2
: 177
-
191.


Republ i c of Nami bi a Mi ni str y of Envi ronment and Touri sm. 2008. Sper rgebei t
Nat i onal Park. Bul l eti n [ Onl i ne]. 4 Apr i l 2011.
<ht t p://
www.met.gov.na
/Documents
/Sperrgebi et
%20Nati onal %20Park.pdf>.


Wang, Y., Dawson, R., Han, D.,
Peng
, J., Li u, Z., & Di ng, Y. 2001. Landscape
ecol ogi cal pl anni ng and desi gn of degr aded mi ni ng l and.
Land Degr adati on &
Devel opment 12
: 449
-
459.

REFERENCES