Fish-farming the new driver of the blue

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Nov 9, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Brussels Development Briefing n.32


Fish
-
farming the new driver of the blue
economy?

3
rd

July 2013

http://brusselsbriefings.net




Fish
-
Farming: The drivers of success for Blue
economy across Africa.

Sloans

Chimatiro
, NEPAD


Fish
-
Farming
: The Drivers of Success
for Blue Economy
Across
Africa

Sloans Chimatiro

Senior Fisheries Advisor,

NEPAD
Agency,

Johannesburg
, South Africa


Brussels
Policy Briefing no. 32



ACP Secretariat, 3
rd

July 2013


Outline of Presentation


History of aquaculture in Africa


Current production


Challenges
and opportunities



Potential of
aquaculture in terms of food and
nutrition security as well as local employment


Key drivers of successful
and lessons for
scaling up

History of Aquaculture in Africa

Phase 1
:
1950

1970. The introductory phase, during which the sector
was popularized but
with limited
knowledge and understanding. Most
government stations were built during this era.

Phase 2
:
1970

1995. The expansion phase, significant donor support,
active R&D,
government involvement
in seed supply and extension.
Commercialization of the sector in some countries (e.g
. Nigeria
,
Madagascar, Côte d’Ivoire, Zambia, South Africa).

Phase 3
:
1995 to
present (2006).
Reduced donor support, re
-
orientation of public support
towards facilitation
, emergence of the
commercial sector.

Source: Hecht et. Al (2006)

Phase 4:

2005


present. The Pan
-
African focus of fisheries and
aquaculture, increased awareness by governments of the
development potential of aquaculture and increased private sector

Aquaculture production in Sub
-
Saharan
Africa (excluding aquatic plants)

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2010
Thousand tonnes

Volume
Source:

FAO
2012.

Table 1 Top ten African aquaculture producers in
2010

Country

Tonnes

Percent
increase
(since 2009)

Percent
increase
(since 2003)

Egypt

919585

71.38


-

Nigeria

200535

15.57

84.70

Uganda

95000

7.37

94.21

Kenya

12154

0.94

91.80

Zambia

10290

0.80

56.26

Ghana

10200

0.79

90.80

Madagascar

6886

0.53

-
37.44

Tunisia

5424

0.42


-

Malawi

3163

0.25

78.94

South Africa

3133

0.24

-
20.59

Source: FAO (2012)

MALDECO cage farm, Lake Malawi

S Chimatiro

Challenges as the sector grows


Increasing
the contribution of
aquaculture to food security,
employment and economic
development,


Meeting the growing demand for capital,
as well as, seed and feeds in terms of
quantities and quality,


Strengthening the base for aquaculture
management (knowledge and
information, including trade),


Increasingly
severe competition with
other resource (land/water/feed) users,


Successful integration of aquaculture
with other farming activities,


improving
the overall governance of the
sector (environmental management,
biodiversity, food safety)

Women waiting for buyers in
Cameroon R.
Brummet

Opportunities for sector growth

Women digging ponds in
Malawi

S. Chimatiro


Reduced catches from capture fisheries


Increased
demand
and rising prices
of aquaculture
products


Increased
awareness of the potential of aquaculture in
SSA
following
the
AU
-
NEPAD Fish for
All Summit of 2005
and adoption of the
AU
-
NEPAD Abuja
Declaration on
Sustainable Aquaculture in Africa


Increasing
awareness of aquaculture as a viable
commercial venture


The
Agreement by
AU
Head of States at the Food
Security Summit in December 2006 in Abuja, Nigeria
designating fisheries and aquaculture as strategic
commodity alongside rice, maize and other strategic food
products


Adoption of fisheries and aquaculture as

key drivers of
6% CAADP growth target


Complementary efforts by FAO (
Special
Programme for
Aquaculture Development in Africa (SPADA
), Aquaculture
Network for Africa (ANAF)

Key Drivers of Aquaculture Growth


I
ncreasing
demand for
fish
(rise of
African
middle
-
class,
and
urban
population; dwindling
natural sources)


Improved
environment for
investments

(rising
demand and
prices
make investments more
profitable); and


Reduced
risk of
production

(enhanced
research
and scientific knowledge of major commercially
farmed fish species such as tilapia and
catfish)

Potential of Aquaculture in terms of food and
local employment


Fish
consumption or demand is affected by

(income
, prices of fish, prices of fish
competitors and complements and non
-
price
factors)


FAO estimated
that by 2015 total annual fish
consumption in SSA could be 1.5
-
2.0 million
tonnes

higher than in 2005
or annual
increase
in
demand of 3%


Delgado
a et al (2003)
reported 2.7%
per cent
per year or an additional 1.6 million
tonnes

of
fish a year by 2015 just to maintain current
consumption of 7.8 kg per person per year.


Therefore, by
2015, neither domestic
production from capture fisheries (marine and
freshwater) nor
current local
aquaculture will
be able to provide the increased quantities of
fish needed for human consumption
.

Processing trout for export. Highland
Trout, Lesotho (2013)

Potential
of
Aquaculture
in terms of food and
local
employment


Given the rise in overall fish consumption, and stagnation
in capture fisheries the question is not what would be the
demand but where could supply come from to fill the gap.


Therefore,
demand will be satisfied through increased
imports
and/or
expansion of
aquaculture


FAO’ estimates that by 2015 and assuming the SPADA
initiative
is fully embraced by the countries aquaculture
production from SSA would be more than 400 000
tonnes

a year,


But
even this will be little in comparison to demand
.


Therefore, aquaculture production may be expanded even
more



Lessons
learned
from the top African Producing
Countries and opportunities
to scale
up (NEPAD 2012)


Legislation, Policies
and plans
:
All
top
producers
have
strong policies,
strategies
and implementation
, although some don’t have policies



Land
and water rights
: All top ten performing countries had strong
water and land rights in their statutes.


Mainstreaming of aquaculture into national development plans

: All
top producers have aquaculture strongly
mainstreamed into national
development
plans e.g
. Poverty Reduction Strategic Plans and National
Development
Strategies, CAADPs
.


Commercial and food security orientation
: All countries except
a few
have
strong commercial/market
-
led and food security objectives for
the aquaculture sector


Privatized
services
:

Most of the top producers have aquaculture
services
strongly
privatized
.


Potential Models to be Up
-
scaled (NEPAD 2012)



Egypt
Commercial Tilapia Model
:


Interventionist investments by government
(
research stations, public hatcheries)


Market
-
driven
development of aquaculture (immanent development)


Anchored
by good infrastructure and the existence of a pool of highly qualified
aquaculturists

who act as investors or managers.



Comprehensive strategic and implementation plans and legal framework available
to guide and protect investments.




Nigeria Commercial Catfish Model
.



Market
-
driven commercial aquaculture development built on a foundation of
aquaculture infrastructure developed through interventionist programmes.



Human capacity gaps filled by international experts and technologies required for
effective and efficient commercial aquaculture brought in from outside the country.


Existing subsistence aquaculture infrastructure transformed for commercial
aquaculture production by entrepreneurs.


Sector policies and strategies developed after take
-
off of commercial catfish


farming
support equitable participation of all citizens by focusing on the inclusion of
youth and development of village
centers
.

Potential Models to be Up
-
scaled (NEPAD 2012)


Malawi
Evolutionary Approach Model


Evolutionary interventionist approach
(gradual
evolution towards high productivity
and
commercialization)


Increased
levels of sustainability in tandem with increased farmer capacity, new
technologies and changing market demands.


Centralized planning


Aquaculture development funding mainly dependent on donor resources.




Kenya High Input Interventionist Model


Home
-
grown interventionist approach focused on achieving rapid increases in
aquaculture production


Large
public sector funding to support development of aquaculture value chain.


Political will and good organizational and implementation capacity to support
effective and efficient roll
-
out of programme


Promotion
of equitable participation of socio
-
economic groups, creation of
employment and input and output markets for aquaculture products and services.


Conclusion


Rapid aquaculture development is occurring in countries where market,
governance and investment conditions are
conducive;


Market
-
led
aquaculture
development approaches offer the best options
for accelerating aquaculture growth in Africa;


NEPAD Agency is setting up an Impact Investment Fund for Small &
Medium Enterprises in Fisheries & aquaculture (NEST) of US$150 million
to support aquaculture investments in Africa


Aquaculture
is one of the most environmentally sustainable ways of
producing protein at
scale:


16,000
litres of water are needed to produce 1 kg of
beef (
Grace
Communications Foundation,
2011)


The
only net water use in fish farming is water lost through
evaporation.


Therefore, while Africa might have missed out of Green Revolution,
there is a chance for “
Blue Revolution


Thank
you!


Merci
!


Obrigado!



Fish vendors on Chia Lagoon, Lake Malawi


S. Chimatiro