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upsetsubduedManagement

Nov 9, 2013 (4 years and 4 days ago)

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1.
Correcting

the

mistakes
!

Example
: The
ecology

is
history

science


The
ecology

is
biological
/
environmental

science


2.
Find

3
mistakes

in

this

summary

and
correct

them
!

Example
:
Ecology

represents

local
interests
. (
the

interests

of
the

whole

Earth
)

The
biological

diversity

is
the

greatest

value

of
Economy
.

(
Ecology

)


Ecology

applies

planning

for

short

time

e.g
. 1
year
.
(…
for

long

time

e.g
. 20
years
)

CHECK



2.
Choosing

the

correct

sentence
!
One

sentence

is
correct
/
true
.
Which

one
?
Choose

the

correct

sentence
!
Put

√ (
true
) and X (
false
)
Correct

the

false

sentences

Example
:

The
ecology

is a
study

of
Economy

X (
environment
/
biology
)

Profit is
the

biggest

value

of
Ecology

X (
Economy
)

Ecology

represents

the

interests

of
the

whole

Earth



3
.
Complete

the

text (
the

sentences
)!

Example
: The ECOLOGY is a
study

of
interaction

between

the
………….. and
the

biotic

factors
. (
abiotic

factors
)


CHECK


THE DEFINITION OF
BASIC
CONCEPTS


THE DEFINITION

OF

ECOLOGY


ECOLOGY is:

-
Environmental

SCIENCE

-
Biological

SCIENCE

The SCIENCE of
Humans

and
the

Environment

The SCIENCE of
Environmental

Protection

a STUDY
of
interactions

between

the

living

organisms

and
their

environments

a STUDY of
interactions

between

the

abiotic

and
biotic

factors

a STUDY of
all

living

organisms

in

the

Ecosystems



THE DEFINITION
OF
„OIKOS”, HABITAT


OIKOS
means
:

-
house
,

-

household
,

-
habitat

HABITAT
means
:

-
a
living

area

of
living

organisms

-
-

the

original

place

(
natural

place
) of
living

organisms



THE
TASKS

OF
ECOLOGY



The
task

of
ecology

is
conservation

of:

-

biological

diversity
,

-

all

different

organisms

(
plants
,
animals
,
fungus
),

-
the

natural

habitat
,

-
the

natural

resources

RENEWABLE
resources

means
:

-
They

can

be
replaced

by

nature

(
e.g
.
wind
,
sunlight
,
water
,
geothermal

energy
)

NON RENEWABLE
resources

means
:

-

They

cannot

be
replaced

(
e.g
.
fossil

energy
:
oil
,
carbon
)


THE
TASKS

OF
ECOLOGY



The
task

of
ecology

is
to

reduce
/
to

prevent

pollution

-

POLLUTION
can

be
caused

by

industry
,
transport
, trade and
agriculture

Some

ways

of
prevention

are
:

-
We

can

use

alternative

forms

of
energy
,

-
We

can

recycle

materials
,

-
We

can

use

decreasing

amounts

of
energy

and
materials



THE
PRINCIPLES

OF
ECOLOGY



1.
Clean

air,
clean

water
,
biological

diversity

are

the

greatest

value

for

Ecology

2.
Ecology

applies

planning

for

long

time

(
e.g
. 20
years
)

3.
Ecology

represents

the

interests

of
the

whole

Earth




THE
PRINCIPLES

OF
ECONOMY



1.
Profit is
the

biggest

value

for

Economy

2.
Economy

applies

planning

for

short

time

(
e.g
. 1
year
)

3.
Economy

represents

the

local
interests




THE
PRINCIPLES

OF
ENVIRONMENTAL

MANAGEMENT



1.
If

prevention

cost

is
high
,
there

is

no
profit.

2.
If

pollution

cost

is
high
,
there

is

no
profit.

3.
If

prevention

and
pollution

cost

are

optimal
,
there

is
high

profit




THE
SUBJECT

OF
ECOLOGY

IS
THE

ECOSYSTEM


The
ecosystem

is:

-
an

open

system
,
where

there

is a
material

and
energy

which

drifts

between

abiotic

and

biotic

factors
,


-
the

interactions

between

the

living

organisms

and
their

environment

-

all

organisms

and
their

environment




THE DEFINITION
OF

ENVIRONMENTAL

FACTORS

(
ECOLOGICAL

FACTORS
)

The
environmental
/
ecological

factors

are

the

abiotic

factors

(
nonliving

factors
)
in

an
environment

INDICATIONS OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS
means

that
:

-
the

abiotic

factors

determine

biotic

factors
,

-
the

abiotic

factors

determine

who

can

live

there
.

The
living

organisms

can’t

live

anywhere
,
anytime

and
in

any

volume

on

the

Earth
.

THE
CLASSIFICATION

TYPE

OF
THE

ABIOTIC

FACTORS

IS
ACCORDING

TO

-
the

type

of
effects

(
e.g
.
chemical
,
physical
)
,

-

the

effects

on

living

organism

(
e.g
.
the

interaction

within

one

species,
or

the

interaction

between

species
)

-
the

quality

of
effects

(
e.g
.
independently

effective

factor
/
subsistence

factor
,
or

collectivly

effective

factor
/
conditioner

factor
,

-
the

geographical

location

(
e.g
.
abiotic

factors

in

Aquatic

Ecosystems
,
or

abiotic

factors

in

continental
/
terrestrial

Ecosystem

ABIOTIC

FACTORS

IN
THE

TERRESTRIAL

ECOSYSTEM

-
Moisture
,

-
Air

fow
, air
pressure
,

-
Temperature
,

-
Soil
,

-
Rocks
,

-
Sunlight
,

ABIOTIC FACTORS
IN

THE

AQUATIC

ECOSYSTEM





DISSOLVED

OXYGEN


MINERAL

CONCENTRATION

OF
WATER


WATER

TEMPERATURE


SUNLIGHT

WATER

CYCLE


Evaporation

is:

the

process
,
when

the

oceans

, and
seas

evaporate
.

Transpiration

is:

the

process
,
when

the

plants

give

out
vapor
.

Precipitation

includes

the

rain

and
snow
.

Runoff

is
the

process
,
when

the

rain

becomes

groundwater
.

Groundwater

is

the

water

in

the

soil
.


-

the

interactions

between

the

organism

and
their

environment




Carbon cycle


Photosynthesis

is the process, when 6CO2 + 6
H2O becomes sugar (glucose) and 6O2 with the
help of sunlight.


Respiration

is the process, when the living
organisms give out O2.


Combustion is a synonym of fire.


Decomposition is the process, when the organic
materials (e.g.plants, sewage sludge) disintegrate
by metanogen bacteria and later become fossil
fuels

NITROGEN CYCLE

The b
iolog
i
cal
n
itrogen

fixation

means
:
the

fixation

of
atmospheric

nitrogen

by

symbiotic

bacteria
, and
synthesis

of
amino
-
acids
,
which

become

protein


The
decomposition

of
nitrogen

by

nitrifying

bacteria

is
the

process
,
when

the

organic

nitrogen

gradually

disintegrates

into

NO3

THE ECOLOGICAL TOLERANCE

The
ecological

tolerance

represents

the

adaptation

of
living

organisms

to

change

of

the

environment

Tolerance

is
the

interval

betweeen

the

minimum and
the

maximum
value
,
when

the

living

organism

is
viable
.
Above

maximum and
under

minimum
value

the

habitat

is
lethal
.

horizontal axis:
changing of
ecological factor

minim
um

maxim
um

vertical axis
:
strengths of
ecological
factor and the
response given
to it

HIGH TOLERANCE

High

tolerance

means
,
when

the

interval

between

minimum and
maximum
value

is
large
. The
high

tolerance

species
are

generalists

or

cosmopolitan
,
or

EURIÖK,
they

are

widespread

on

the

Earth

(
e.g.lake

and
sea

trout
)

LOW TOLERANCE

Low

tolerance

means
,
when

the

interval

between

minimum and maximum
value

is
small
.
The
low

tolerance

species
are

specialists

or

indicators
,
or

SZTENÖK (
e.g
.
sea

corals
,
mussels
,
lichens
,
perch
)

ADAPTATION, MODIFICATION

Adaptation

means
:
change

with

effect

on

the

genetic

information

Modification

means
:
:
change

without

effect

on

the

genes

.
W
hen
the difference
appears

only
in

the

phenotype

(For example
:

plant

grows smaller in dry
weather
).

ADAPTABILITY

TO

SUNLIGHT

The
high

light

tolerant

plants

are

HELIOPHYTA

The
shade

tolerant

plants

are

HETEROPHILIA

The
plants

which

can

be
adapted

to

the

shade

is SCIOPHYTA

The
short

day

plants

get

less
than

12
hours

daytime

(
e.g
.
tropical

zone
)

The
long

day

plants

get

more
than

12
hours

daytime

(
e.g.temperate

zone
)

The
daytime

animals

are

active

during

the

daytime
.

The
night

time

animals

are

active

during

the

night

(
e.g.bats
,
owls
)

ADAPTABILITY OF
LIVING

ORGANISMS

TO
TEMPERATURE

Heat

demand

means
:
the

tolerance

to

temperature

(
high

tolerance

or
,
low

tolerance
)

Permanent

body
temperature

means
,
that

there

are

living

organisms

with

constant

temperature

(
mammals
,
birds
).

Changing

body
temperature

means
:
that

there

are

living

organisms

with

inconstant

body

temperature

(
e.g
.
reptiles
,
frogs
,
salamanders
,
insects
)

TO

PREVENT

LOSS

OF
TEMPERATURE

Bergmann’s rule
explains

that
:
the

ratio
between

the

body
mass

and
the

body
surface

is
different

with

species
who

live

in

different

climatic

zones
.
I
n case of close
-
relative species
,
species of larger
body mass are found in colder climate zones
.
Animals

who

live

in

cold

zones

have

smaller

surface

to

prevent

loss

of
temperature
.

110X40cm=
4400cm2

>>


30 kg

>

50X20cm=
1000 cm2


2 kg

15

4

(
Aptenodytes

forsteri
):
100 cm, 30 kg

(
Spheniscus

mendiculus
):

50 cm, 2,5 kg

TO

PREVENT

LOSS

OF
TEMPERATURE

Allen’s rule:
in case of close
-
relative species
, those who live in colder climate have
smaller

ears
.


The
Allen’s

rule

claims

that

animals

in

worm

climate

have

large

ears

to

give

off

heat

(
e.g
.
desert

fox
).

The
artic

fox

has
small

ears

to

preserve

heat
.

TO

PREVENT

LOSS

OF
TEMPERATURE

THE
ADAPTATION OF ANIMALS TO THE
TEMPERATURE


Gloger’s

rule:
in case of close
-
relative species
,
colour

is usually
lighter in colder climate (e
.
g. ermine: white in winter and brown in
summer (
ability to change the
colour

as adaptation to the environment,

mimicry!!!),

Adaptation with fur and hair
e.g. polar bear.

Ozone

Hole

=
Ozone

depletion

means

the

average

annual

decrease

of
the

ozone

concentration

in

the

stratosphere
.



Dobson
-
unit

is
the

measure

unit of
the


thickness

of
the

ozone

layer
.
1
Dobson
-
unit

is


0,01 mm
thick

layer

at

1 bar
atmospheric


pressure

at

the

surface

of
the

Earth
.

Ozone

Hole

=
Ozone

depletion

The
stratospheric

ozone

layer

-
The
ozone

layer

is situated about 15 to 30 km above the earth's
surface.

-
The Ozone protects the living organisms by absorbing harmful
UVB (280 nm


315nm) from the sun.

-
UV
-
B is dangerous, causes problems for photosynthesis,
metabolism . UV
-
B causes mutate of cells, causes increase
malignant/nonmalignant melanoma, and photo allergy.

-
The
ozone

layer

is being
destroyed

by

clorine
-
fluorine
-
carbon
-
hidrogens

(
CFC’s
: freon)

-
Is very toxic, because the ozone prevents the absorption of O2
in the lungs.

-
Help the formation of
tropospheric

ozone if higher quantity of
nitrogen
-
oxids

and carbon
-
hidrogens

are in the air



SMOG


Smog

is a
combination

of
various

gases

with

water

vapor

and
dust
.


LONDON SMOG/SULPHUR SMOG/ WINTER
SMOG: 2SO2+O2 ↔ 2SO3


LA SMOG/ PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG:


N2 +O2→2NO→+O2 →2NO2


NO2+UV →NO+O


O+O2 →O3


O3+HC →HCO3



WATER RESEOURCES


BOUND WATER RESEOURCES:
It

can

be
found

in

minerals

and
rocks
.


ACCESSIBLE WATER RESEOURCES INCLUDE:
oceans

and
freshwater
.


The
freshwater

includes

glacier

and
deepwater

and

surface

water

and

vapor
.


The
surface

water

includes

lakes
,
groundwater
,
streams
,
bigenewater
.


Stratified

horizontally
:

1.
Intertidal

zone
/
Wetlands
/
litoral

region

means
:
land

meets

water
,
area

covered

with

water

periodically
.

2.
Neritic

zone
/
or

continental

shelf

zone

means
:
the

depth

of
water

is
from

surface

of
ocean

to

200
meters
. The
sunlight

is
high

and
nutrients

riche
. The
Coral

Reefs

of
neritic

zone
,
where

dominated

by

coral
.

3.
Oceanic

zone
/
pelagic

zone

is
away

from

shore

,
it

is
open

water
.

Stratified

vertcally
:

1.
Photic

zone
/
light

zone
,
where

the

sunlight

is
high

2.
Aphotic

zone
/
little

and
zero

light

zone

3.
Benthic

zone
/
abyssal

zone
/
benthos
/
deep
-
sea

zone
:
In the benthos region there is
no sunlight and nutrients aren’t rich.

Food

is
detritus
,
that

falls

from

above
.
Hydrothermal

vents

help

chemocinto
-
tropic

organisms
.

Earth’s

Ocean

WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS


HALOBITY:

ion concentration, depends on the concentration and quality
of
oll

ions of the water


TROPHIC

INDEX
: the ability for producing organic material of the
aquatic communities


EUTROPHICATION
:

Excessive amounts of nitrates can cause too much
algae growth. This lowers the dissolved oxygen levels when the algae die
and decompose
.


SAPROBIC

WATER
: the intensity of decomposition of organic materials

by

bacterias
. The
types

of
saprobic

water

are
:
oligosaprobic
,
mesosprobic
,
and
polysaprobic

water
.
In

the

oligosaprobic

water

the

intensity

of
decomposition

of

organic

materials

is
small
/
low
. The
polysaprobic

water

is
marsh

or
,
swamp
.


TOXICTY
: ability to damage an organism

by

mercury
,
cyanide
,
heavy

metals

, lead.


DISSOLVED OXYGEN
:
levels change throughout the day based on water
temperature and photosynthetic activity. Warm water contains less
dissolved oxygen than cool water
.


pH
determine

the

quality

of

water
. The
water

is acidic or alkaline.





aquatic

plants
, and
animals

(
e.g.seaweeds
,
fishes
)




marsh

plants

(
e.g.marigold
/gólyahír,/
meadow

buttercup
/réti
boglárka)




plants

with

medium

water

demand

(
e.g
.
trees
)




drought

tolerant

plants

(
e.g
. species of
dry

grasslands


chamomile
)



animal’s

species
periodically

binding

to

water

(
e.g
.
salamander
,
amphibians
)



terrestrial

animal

species (
e.g
.
butterflies
)


ADAPTATION TO THE WATER


Litter

layer
/ „A”
layer


Leaching

layer
/ „A”
layer


Accumulation

/
aggregation

layer
/ „B”
layer


Soil

formation

layer
/ „C”
layer



Complete and incomplete structured soils


(
e.g
.:
saline soil :


A

layer
, limestone:


B

layer
)




THE SOILPROFILE

RIZOSPHERE



Specific habitat is the
rizosphere

:
environment formed by roots

(
microflora



macrofauna
)

Biosphere’s

levels


SUBINDIVIDUAL

LEVELS

:
molecular

level
,
cellular

level
,
tissue

level
,
organ

level


INDIVIDUALS

LEVEL

IS
the

organism

level

(
e.g
.
Flying

fox
)


SUPRAINDIVIDUAL

LEVELS

:
population

level
,
community

level
,
biome

level
,
or

ecosystem

level
.

POPULATIONS


Population
:
all of the individuals of a species
that live together in one place at one time.


Population is a group of individuals that live in
the same place at the same time
.


The structural fundamental unit of ecological
processes is the population
.


Characteristics

of
Populations



Population

size
, (
growth

rate
):

is
a
t
otal

number

of
individuals

in

the

population


Population
density

is the number of individuals per unit
area.


Geographic

distribution


the area inhabited by a population


Dispersion

interpret
s

how individuals in a population are
distributed


Age

structure

(sex ratio)
inform
s

about the number of
individuals at different ages


Survivorship

curves

inform about

reproductive

strategy

of
populations

POPULATION GROWTH


Population

increases
:
Natality

+
immigration


Population

decreases
:
Mortality

+
emigration





1.
Number

of
births

(
natality
)





2.
Number

of
deaths
,
mortality

from





diseases
, being
eaten





3.
Immigration

(
in
)
-

individuals

entering




an
ecosystem
,




4.
Emigration

(out)
-

individuals

leaving





an
ecosystem
.


Growth

rate

-

Positive

growth

rate
=
population

increase
,


-

Negative growth rate= population decrease
.




CLOSED POPULATION


Reproductive

rate
:


r=
births



deaths
/N (
population

size
)


These are populations in which individuals can
NOT enter or leave.


Populations change because of births and
deaths, e.g.: ZOO, FISHTANK



These

are

populations

affected

by

all

(4)
factors
:
birth
,
death
,
immigration
,
emigration
;
e.g
.:
natural

ecosystems


OPEN POPULATIONS


When the individuals in a population
reproduce at constants rate, occurs under
ideal conditions (no limits) . G =
rN


G = the population growth rate


r = births
-
deaths/N (reproductive rate)


N = the population size


EXPONENTIAL GROWTH (J
shaped

growth

curve
)

LOGISTIC GROWTH

(
S
-

shaped

growth

sigmoid

curve
)


When limiting factors restrict the size of the
population to the carrying capacity (K) of the
habitat. G =
rN
(K
-
N/K)


G = the population growth rate


r = births
-
deaths/N (reproductive rate)


N = the population size

K = Carrying capacity
of an
environment

=
is the maximum

population size

that an environment

can support



R
-
SELECTED

POPULATIONS

(R VERSION)


many

offspring

,


little

parental

investment

,


results

exponential

growth
,


usually

have

short

life,



environmental

conditions

of
their

habitats

are

variable
,



become

sexually

mature

within

a
short

time
,

The
number

of
individuals

of

R

strategist

species
can

increase

explosion
,
if

their

environmental

conditions

are

invariable
.
It

is
called

gradation
.

REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES


K
-
SELECTED

POPULATIONS

(K VERSION)


few

offspring
,


large

parental

investment
,


logistic growth
,


usually

have

long

life,


environmental

conditions

of
their

habitats

are

constant
,


become

sexually

mature

later
,


they

increase

slowly
.


REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES


Concept

of
gradation

means
:
The number of
individuals can increase explosion
.


latent

phase
,


introduction

phase
,


outbreak
,


breakdown
,


closing

phase

.




GRADATION

DENSITY
OF
POPULATION


The
DENSITY

of population: is the total number of
individuals per area or volume occupied.


Density dependent factors:


Competition for resources


Predation


The toxic effect of waste product


Population size


Parasitism


Disease


Density

independent

factors
:


Natural disasters,


Climate extremes
,


Drought,


F
rost
,


Some human activities.





Predation

Lotka
-
Volterra

model



Predation

Lotka
-
Volterra

model

explore

a
population

density

of
prey

and
predator

the

time

changes

as

a
function
.

AGE STRUCTURE


AGE STRUCTURE:

These are represent information about the
number of population at different ages
.



1.
prereproductive

ages
,



2.
reproductive

ages
,



3.
postreproductive

ages
.



AGE STRUCTURE


AGE STRUCTURE:

These are represent information about the
number of population at different ages
.



1.
prereproductive

ages
,



2.
reproductive

ages
,



3.
postreproductive

ages
.



AGE STRUCTURE


Stable populations : ratio of different age
groups is the same at every generation


Growing population: more individuals at
younger ages.


Declining population: more individuals at
middle ages.




RANDOM :
weeds

,


FRAGMENTED:
oasis
,
desert
,
savannas
,


REGULAR :
gull

nests
,


REGULAR
IN

SMALLER

GROUPS
,


ACCUMULATE

(
aggregating
)
distribution
.

DISTRIBUTION

OF
POPULATIONS


COMMUNITY


The community is all organisms that live in
one (1)/same area at the same time.


The
community

include

a
biotope

and
biocenosis
.


A community is formed from all living
populations found in an area.




LIVING AREA


TERRITORY
:

The living space for the individuals.


ECOLOGICAL

NICHE

is
the

environment

and
functional

living

space

of
the

population
. A
niche

is
the

full

range

of
physical

and
biological

environmental

factors

in

which

an
organism

lives
, and
the

way

in

which

the

organism

uses

those

conditions
.
Environmental

factors

determine

the

niche
;
reseources

are
:
food
,
nutrients
,
light
, and
other

factors

are

space
,
time
, body
size
.
Adaptation

to

environment
:
Climate

(
latitude
,
altitude
),
chemical

factors

(air,
soil
,
water
), and
biological

factors
:
other

species.
NARROW NICHE:
specialist

species, WIDE NICHE:
generalist
,
cosmopolitan

species.


HABITAT
:
is where a living organism lives
, t
he
environment, in which a species lives.





ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION


The change in an ecosystem that happens when one
community
replaces
another as a result of changing
biotic and
abiotic

factors


PRYMARY

SUCCESSION
:
When

one

community

replaces

other

community
.


SECONDARY

SUCCESSION
:
when

a
disturbed

area

grows

back
to

normal
.



COMMENSALISM
:
effects

of A
on

B
positive
, and
effects

of B
on

A
neutral
.


MUTUALILISM
:
effects

of A
on

B, and
effects

of B
on

A
is
positive

e.g
.
flower
/
pollinator
.


PARASITISM
:

effects

of A
on

B is
positive
, and of B
on

A
negative
.


COMPETITION
:
Effects

of A
on

B is
negative

and of B
on

A is
negative

too
.
Compete for same resource in
same place at the same time.

T
wo

species can occupy
the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
.


PREDATION

:
Effects

of A
on

B is
positive
, and of B
on

A
is
negative
.




INTERSPECIFIC

INTERACTION

FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS
,

TROPHIC

LEVELS


AUTOTROPHS



PRODUCERS



plants
,
that

capture

energy

from

the

sun
;
Producers

are found at the base of the
pyramid and compromise the
first
trophic

level
.


HETEROTROPHS


CONSUMERS



Carnivores



animal

eaters
,
Secondary consumers
make up
the
third
trophic

level
.

Finally
tertiary consumers

make up the
top
trophic

level

(top predators
,
super

predators
)


Omnivores



eat

both

animals

and
plants


Herbivores



plant

eaters
,
Phytofagous
,
Primary
consumers

make up the
second
trophic

level
.



DECOMPOSERS


FOOD CHAIN


The
producers
,
consumers

and
decomposers

of
each

ecosystem

make

up

a
food

chain
.


There

are

many

food

chains

in

an
ecosystem
.


Food

chains

represent
,
where

energy

is
transferred

and
not

who

eats

who
.


Only 10% of energy is transferred from one
trophic

level to the next.




FOOD WEBS


All the food chains in an area make up the
food web

of the area.


BIOMASS


BIO= LIFE, MASS=WEIGHT


BIO+MASS=
weight

of
living

things

within

an
ecosystem
.


BIO+MASS=
the totality of the living organic
material
within

an
ecosystem
,
expressed in
g/kg/t.