New Challenges for Japanese Cluster Policy - Beyond proximity and trust -

unknownlippsAI and Robotics

Oct 16, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

68 views

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Prof. Dr. Ichiro Sakata

Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute

Faculty of Engineering

The University of Tokyo

1

New Challenges for Japanese Cluster Policy

-

Beyond proximity and trust
-

OECD Outreach Workshop on Smart Specialization Program

(April 3
-
5 2013,
Gwangju
, Korea)

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Abstract

Networks within an organization and also among organization are expected to work as
conduits of resources and knowledge for innovation. Previous studies have shown that
dense networks are closely related with innovation performance. Tight relationships in
a close unit group foment trust among actors and therefore promote collaborations,
and diverse connections with the others can open an opportunity for breakthrough.


Thus, Japanese policy program on regional cluster is characterized by its emphasis on
networks and networking as compared to traditional strategies of industrial policy.
‘Small
-
world’ structure of regional network is the target of public intervention.


However, no single region or even country will possess all knowledge and skills
required for dynamic innovation in the 21
st

century. Technology collaboration between
leading regions or countries is important to promptly and efficiently address the global
challenges such as climate change, aging and food security. Globalization has become a
crucial issue of Japanese cluster policy.


We will discuss this matter based on several cases such as Hamamatsu auto and
photonics cluster and identify the role of governments and universities.

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

1950’s


Foundation of Organization



Agency of Industrial Science


and

Technology



Science and Technology Agency

Early 2000’s



government
reorganization



Regional

cluster policy




2006



Innovation Strategy



New Economic Growth Strategy



Innovation 25

1980’s


Basic research shift




JAPAN as NO.1




criticism against free



rider on basic science



Shift of national research


institutes to basic science



Boom of central research


institute

Late 1990’s


Reconstruction of Innovation


System



Science and Technology Basic Plans



Bayh
-
Dole Act



TLO

1960’s



Establishment of Institution



Act of Research Association



National Project System

1970’s


Mega National Project




Super LSI




Sunshine




Moonlight

I: 1950’s~60’s

Organization

Technology

II: 70’s~80’s

III: 00’s~

90’s~ The Lost Decade

Fundamentals

Brief History of Japanese Innovation Policy

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Industrial Park/District

Technopolis


Corporate Cities


Industrial


Cluster


Innovation


Cluster

Infrastructure to knowledge and network

Transition of regional policy

1960 Pacific Industrial Belt Plan

1962 National Comprehensive


Development Plan

1962 Law for Development of


New Industrial Cities

1972 Relocation Promotion Law

1983
Technopolis

Law


1997
Law on Activation of Specific


Regional agglomeration

1998 Regional Platform


2001
Industrial regional Cluster Plan

2002
Innovation Cluster Plan

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Changes in the focus of regional policy

5

Production

Resources


Infrastructure(Land, water ,Port, Road etc)


Labor force


Absorptive Capability

Knowledge


Academic and Industrial Knowledge


Learning Capability


Science Park

Fundamentals

System


Global / Creative Cities


Open Innovation System and Network
(Network as a conduit of information)


Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Cluster Projects in Japan

In Japan, national projects for forming regional clusters have been developed
since 2001. Now local governments lead cluster policy.

R&D projects, academic
-
industry collaboration, incubation,

networking efforts, setting buffer institutions and modern IT/Web infrastructure are
included in the cluster policy.

Industrial Cluster Project

Innovation Cluster Project

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Proximity does matter for Innovation

7

While firms can access factors of production across the
globe
,

local knowledge and capabilities, including
proximity

to

research and education institutions continue to matter for

innovation
.



(Source)

Ministerial report on the OECD innovation strategy, May 2010.

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Global innovation network and region

Regional Cluster


Hub of network


knowledge circulation



Dense collaboration


Severe competition

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©


Hamamatsu: Auto, Photonics



Fukuoka: Medical Device


Okinawa

Food and Tourism


Aomori

Food

Comparison of Four Networks

I. Sakata et al. Four regional clusters and ‘small
-
world’ network,
Hitotsubashi

Business Review 53(3)(2005)

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Yamaha Auto

Suzuki

Yamaha

Hamamatsu
Photonics

Honda

Local dense
network

Case : Network structure in Hamamatsu

Effective division of labor, dense collaboration, severe competition in the region

(source) Y. Kajikawa, J. Mori and I. Sakata "Identifying and bridging the network in a regional cluster"


Technological Forecasting and Social Change 79(2012) 252
-
262

Global network

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Outside links in Hamamatsu

Inputs from outside

(%)

(%)

Sales outside

Photonics

Yamaha

Other sample

(Source )K. Matsushima, I. Sakata et al. “Design for revitalizing regions” 2013

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Major Factors to Develop Network

(1)Trust
,
(2)Proximity
,
(3)Industrial Categories


(Source) J. Mori, Y. Kajikawa, H. Kashima and
I. Sakata


"Machine learning approach for finding business partners and building reciprocal relationships"


Expert Systems with Applications 39(2012) 10402
-
10407


Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Policy suggestions from our experience


Network structure is different across regions or industries in Japan.


Specialization and globalization depends not only on the nature of industry


such as economy of scale and scope but also on policy and corporate strategy.


It is possible to improve the regional capability and openness by
policy


intervention
.



Even though

transactions tend to be more global, trust and proximity
are the


significant factors to decide network structure.


Policy intervention may be necessary to change the structure.



Communities tend to be segmented

by industrial categories and keiretsu


(existing relationships).


Bridging efforts

are essential to develop innovative regions. It is also


necessary to provide special
support for SMEs or start ups
which

are


suffering from lack of trust and networking resources.

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Next stage of our regional policy

Production

Resources


Infrastructure(Land, water ,Port, Road etc)


Labor force


Absorptive Capability

Knowledge


Academic and Industrial Knowledge


Learning Capability


Science Park

Fundamentals

System


Global / Creative Cities


Open Innovation System and
Network(Network as a conduit of information)


Next Stage ?

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©


Climate Change


Health / Aging Society


Food Security


Poverty

Identify policies, frameworks and governance mechanisms


that can accelerate scientific and technological progress

and diffuse innovation as widely as possible.

(Source)2009 Interim Report on the OECD Innovation Strategy

New innovation model

Accelerating tech Progress

(ex. Academic paper of PV)

Global challenges

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Research Network Diagram (Wind Power)

England and Scandinavian

Countries lead

Close relationship

in Asia

Well Balanced structure

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

Research Network Diagram (Solar Cell)


Strong
ties
between US / EU

Germany leads

Many countries included

(Source) I. Sakata, H. Sasaki, H. Nakamura and Y. Kajikawa "Maps of international research collaboration in clean energy"


Journal of Energy and Power Engineering vol.7

Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

New challenges


No single region or even country will possess all
knowledge and skills required for dynamic innovation in
the 21
st

century.



Technology collaboration between leading regions or
countries is important to promptly and efficiently address
the global challenges such as climate change, aging and
food security.
Globalization

as well as
specialization

has
become a crucial issue of Japanese cluster policy.



Universities and research institutions can lead
globalization and wider collaboration based on their
expanded networks.


Copyright
© Prof. Ichiro Sakata, The University of Tokyo

Copyright
©

“SMEET” Sakata & Mori Lab. The University of Tokyo

Co
-
research

Co
-
work

Graphic User
Interface


Approach

Users

Existing link

Plausible link

Actor identification

Information extraction

Link identification,
Similarity measurement,
Machine Learning

Appendix: Web system for finding new partners