Definition of Machine Learning - Villanova Department of ...

unknownlippsAI and Robotics

Oct 16, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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CSC 4510


Machine Learning

Dr. Mary
-
Angela Papalaskari

Department of Computing Sciences

Villanova University

Course website:

www.csc.villanova.edu/~map/4510/





Introduction

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
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Villanova University

Machine Learning

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
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Villanova University

3

What is Learning?


Herbert Simon (1970):
“Learning is any process by
which a system improves
performance from experience.”

4

What is Machine Learning?


Arthur Samuel (1959):
Machine Learning: Field of
study that gives computers the
ability to learn without being
explicitly programmed.

Why Study Machine Learning?

Engineering Better Computing Systems


Develop systems that are
too difficult/expensive
to
program explicitly because they require specific detailed
skills or knowledge tuned to a specific task


Personalized news or mail filter


Personalized tutoring

SPAM

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
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Villanova University

Why Study Machine Learning?

Cognitive Science


Computational studies of learning may help
us understand learning in humans and other
biological organisms.


Hebbian neural learning


“Neurons that fire together, wire together.”


Human’s relative difficulty of learning disjunctive
concepts vs. conjunctive ones.


Power law of practice

log(# training trials)

log(perf. time)

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
-

Villanova University

Why Study Machine Learning?

The time is ripe



Large amounts of computational resources available.


Many basic effective and efficient algorithms available.


The world is driven by data
(
data mining
).


Market basket analysis (e.g. diapers and dvds)


News aggregation


Over 50m credit card transactions a day in the US alone.


The Large Hadron Collider produces 60 gigabytes per minute


Climate research centres generate 1
-
20 petabytes per year


Google processes 24 petabytes per day



CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
-

Villanova University

So, um, what’s a petabyte again?

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
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Villanova University

Humans can:


-

think,
learn
, see, understand language, reason, etc.




Artificial Intelligence aims to reproduce these capabilities.

Machine Learning is
one

part of Artificial Intelligence.


Artificial Intelligence




















Statistics / Mathematics

Computer Vision



Data Mining




Machine Learning




Robotics


CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
-

Villanova University

Let’s try something


You will be given instructions in class to
collect data about your classmates


Enter these data in the document provided


We will use the decision tree algorithm
from
aispace.org/

to “learn” something
about your sample



CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
-

Villanova University

Next time


Some historical background on AI and a
more careful definition of machine learning


Discussion of Alan Turing article:
“Computing Machinery and Intelligence”

http://loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html


See also:


Alan Turing website maintained by Andrew Hodges:

http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/


Philosophical objections to Turing Test

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese
-
room/



Some of the slides in this presentation are adapted from:


Prof. Frank Klassner’s ML class at Villanova



the University of Manchester ML course
http://www.cs.manchester.ac.uk/ugt/COMP24111/


The Stanford online ML course
http://www.ml
-
class.org/






Playing Turing’s imitation game

CSC 4510
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M.A. Papalaskari
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Villanova University