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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Highlight results
from the MAGIC
telescopes

E
LISA

P
RANDINI
*


Padova University & INFN



From neutrino to
multimessenger

astronomy :


status and perspectives


Marseilles 4
th

April 2011

*Mail to:


prandini@pd.infn.it

O
UTLINE

2


MAGIC:
A

LOW

ENERGY

THRESHOLD

IACT


R
ECENT

RESULTS

o
G
ALACTIC

o
E
XTRAGALACTIC


F
INAL

REMARKS




M
AIN

IACT
O
BSERVATORIES

IN

THE

WORLD

MAGIC

H.E.S.S.

VERITAS

3

T
HE

T
E
V

S
KY

H.E.S.S.

MAGIC &
VERITAS

4

From:
TeVCat

http://
tevcat.uchicago.edu
/



46 extragalactic objects



61 galactic objects

T
HE

MAGIC T
ELESCOPES


Energy threshold ~50
GeV

(~ 25
GeV

with a special trigger)


FOV 3.5
o


Energy Resolution ~16% (E>300
GeV
)


Angular Resolution ~0.07
o
(E>300
GeV
)


Sensitivity (5
s

in 50 hours) ~0.8% Crab Nebula flux (> 250
GeV
)


MAGIC I (2004)

MAGIC II (2009)

5

MAGIC: T
HE

I
NSTRUMENT

SIGNAL TRANSPORT

IP
E

IP
E

IP
E

C
E

NE
T


ACQUISITION
SYSTEM

MIRRORS

STRUCTURE


CAMERA

6

Cosmology and
fundamental physics

Source detection and
monitoring

MAGIC A
STROPHYSICS

7

Populate the
TeV

sky

Origin of
the emission
(and
CRs
)

g
-
ray
propagation

Dark Matter
and new
physics

T
HE

STEREO

I
MPROVEMENT

(2009)

8


T
HE

S
ENSITIVITY
:

required observation time
for
DETECTION

greatly
reduced!

a factor of two more
sensitive above 250
GeV
,

up to factor 3 at 100
GeV


A
CHIEVEMENTS


New discoveries

9

6 new sources in 1 year!

10

pulsar

Supernova

Remnants

X
-
ray
binaries

MAGIC

S
OURCES

11

pulsar

Supernova

Remnants

X
-
ray
binaries

blazars

FSRQs

radiogalaxies

MAGIC

S
OURCES

12

pulsar

Supernova

Remnants

X
-
ray
binaries

blazars

FSRQs

radiogalaxies

MAGIC

S
OURCES

Galaxy
Clusters

GRBs

Dwarf
Galaxies

Unidentified
objects

L
ATEST

S
TEREO

D
ISCOVERIES

13

NGC 1275


IC 310

1ES 1215+303


4C +21.35

B3 2247+381

MAGIC J2001+435

6 new extragalactic objects in12 months!

A
CHIEVEMENTS


New discoveries

ToO

program

14

6 new sources in 1 year!

Optical triggers

HE
g
-
ray triggers

Neutrino triggers

T
ARGET

OF

O
PPORTUNITY

O
BSERVATIONS

15

1.
Discovery of new
sources

2.
Study of eventual
correlations

Proposals


Interesting
sources list


Criteria

ToO


Alert!

MAGIC
Observations


Data

collected
according to
the proposal

Optical
ToOs
:
very successful

Fermi
ToOs
:
promising

Neutrino
ToOs

T
ARGET

OF

O
PPORTUNITY

O
BSERVATIONS

16

1.
Discovery of new
sources

2.
Study of eventual
correlations

Proposals


Interesting
sources list


Criteria

ToO


Alert!

MAGIC
Observations


Data

collected
according to
the proposal

Optical
ToOs
:
very successful

Fermi
ToOs
:
promising

Neutrino
ToOs

MAGIC 13.1h

S=5.8
σ

ApJ

704 (2009) L129

Example
-

the discovery of S5 0716+714:

A
CHIEVEMENTS


New discoveries

ToO

program

MWL campaigns

17

Optical triggers

HE
g
-
ray triggers

Neutino

triggers

Combined information

Characterization of the SED

6 new sources in 1 year!

J
OINT

HESS
-
MAGIC
-
VERITAS
CAMPAIGN

OF

M87
(S
CIENCE

2009)

VHE

nucleus

Peak flux

knot HST
-
1

nucleus

X
-
ray

Radio

HST
-
1

Core

Knot D

Knot A

Colours: 0.2
-

6 keV (
Chandra
)

Contours: 8 GHz radio (VLA)

The M87 radio
-
galaxy Jet



Shared monitoring
HESS, MAGIC
VERITAS



Confirmation of day
-
scale
variability at VHE



Evidence
of central origin of the
VHE emission
(60
Rs

to the BH
)

Chandra

jet

18

A
CHIEVEMENTS


New discoveries

ToO

program

MWL campaigns

19

Characterization of the SED

Combined information


AND

OPEN

SEARCH

FIELDS

Dark matter emitters

GRBs



6 new sources in 1 year!

Optical triggers

HE
g
-
ray triggers

Neutino

triggers

O
UTLINE

20



R
ECENT

RESULTS

o
G
ALACTIC

o
E
XTRAGALACTIC





Criterion:
Recent/incoming
publications!

21

O
UR

STANDARD

CANDLE
:

THE

C
RAB

N
EBULA



3.2 hours of Crab
Nebula data



stereoscopic system



November 2009

Complete
coverage!

O
UR

STANDARD

CANDLE
:

THE

C
RAB

N
EBULA

22



3.2 hours of Crab
Nebula data



stereoscopic system



November 2009

Low energy!

O
UR

STANDARD

CANDLE
:

THE

C
RAB

N
EBULA

23

Low energy range



overlap with
Fermi
!

VHE
g
-
RAY

EMISSION

FROM

B
INARY

S
YSTEMS

24

LSI +61 303


Discovered by MAGIC in 2006


C
orrelation between X and
VHE

g

emission


Suggests
leptonic processes
are at work.

MAGIC Coll
.

ApJ

Lett

706 (2009) 27

VHE
g
-
RAY

EMISSION

FROM

B
INARY

S
YSTEMS

25

LSI +61 303


Discovered by MAGIC in 2006


C
orrelation between X and
VHE

g

emission


Suggests
leptonic processes
are at work.

MAGIC Coll
.

ApJ

Lett

706 (2009) 27

Cyg

X
-
3



Large MWL efforts!


MAGIC measured upper limits

HESS J0632+057

January & February 2011:

26


Discovered by H.E.S.S


VARIABLE

(non detection by VERITAS)


Possible binary system (compatible
with VHE and X
-
ray sources)

I
NCREASED

X
-
RAY

ACTIVITY

(Swift
-
XRT
Atel
) from Jan
23th

2011 on till at least Feb 6
th




ToO

observations:

o

VERITAS
(
Atel

#3153): 7&8 February

Flux

4% Crab > 400
GeV

o

MAGIC
(
Atel

#3161): 7
-
9 February

Flux

3.4% Crab > 200
GeV

P
ULSAR

O
BSERVATIONS
:

THE

C
RAB

N
EBULA

27


MAGIC is the only Cherenkov
telescope that has detected a
pulsar:

o
Special
LOW
-
ENERGY

“Sum
-
Trigger” system

o
Lower threshold (but higher
systematics
)

Pulsars: Energy cutoffs at few
GeV



very difficult for
IACTs

Crab Nebula pulsar
phaseogram


(Oct 2007


Jan 2009)

Clear signal

Determinant to
CONSTRAIN

MODEL
:



discards production mechanisms
close to the pulsar surface, where the
B
-
field is too high

L
ONG

TERM

STUDY

OF


B
RIGHT

E
XTRAGALACTIC

S
OURCES

28


Mkn

421,
Mkn

501,
1ES 1959+650,
1ES 2344+514,
PG1553+113


Strategies: MWL
campaigns,
ToOs


29

Correlation with
X
-
ray

Jan 20
th



April 30th 2009 SED

L
ONG

TERM

STUDY

OF


B
RIGHT

E
XTRAGALACTIC

S
OURCES


Mkn

421
,
Mkn

501,
1ES 1959+650,
1ES 2344+514,
PG1553+113


Strategies: MWL
campaigns,
ToOs


M
KN

421
M
WL

VIEW

FERMI

MAGIC

Both peaks are
resolved!

30

A R
ECENT

D
ISCOVERY
:

IC 310 (M
ONO

& S
TEREO
)

31

Fermi (10
-
100
GeV
)

MAGIC
Coll.
,ApJ

Lett
.

723
(2010) L207
-
212

E > 400
GeV


Head tail radio galaxy


Observation triggered by
Fermi
(hard spectra)


Complex
FoV


Variable emission (since
2008)


Inner jet emission location
favored

A R
ECENT

D
ISCOVERY
:

IC 310 (M
ONO

& S
TEREO
)

32


Head tail radio galaxy


Observation triggered by
Fermi
(hard spectra)


Complex
FoV


Variable emission (since
2008)


Inner jet emission location
favored

Fermi (10
-
100
GeV
)

MAGIC
Coll.
,ApJ

Lett
.

723
(2010) L207
-
212

MAGIC discovery (E<400
GeV
)!!
ATel

October 2010

E > 400
GeV

Dominguez et al. (2011)

VHE
PHOTONS

ABSORPTION

BY

THE

E
XTRAGALACTIC

B
ACKGROUND

L
IGHT

Absorption:


dF/dE
OBS
= (
dF/dE
EM
)
e
-
t


VHE photon +
diffuse
light



electron
-
positron
pair
production

g
VHE
g
䕂L


=
e
+
e
-

33

g
-
g

opacity

Absorption:


dF/dE
OBS
= (
dF/dE
EM
)
e
-
t


EBL Model

Dominguez et al. (2011)

The
E
NERGY

T
HRESHOLD

plays a key
role!
34

3C 279 (J
AN
-
A
PR

2006)

35

-

The farthest
TeV

object
(
z
=0.54)

-

Modeling of 3C 279 non
-
trivial


6.2σ

2.2σ

MAGIC: E>100
GeV

MAGIC Coll.,

Science 320 (2008) 1752

Index 4.1+
-
0.68

3C 279 (F
OLLOW
-
UP

O
BSERVATIONS
)

36


16
th

of January 2007:
another flare detected
(during a high optical
state!)

MAGIC Coll.
,


accepted
to A&A

Confirms 2006 signal
and short timescale
variations

MAGIC: E>
150
GeV

Optical state
(KVA)

PKS 1222+21:

MAGIC D
ISCOVERY
!

37


The second most distant
TeV

emitter (
z

~ 0.432)


FSRQ


One night of detection:

o
17
th

June 2010


Rapid variations!


No cut
-
off observed:

o
Emitting region
constrained to lie outside
the BLR

MAGIC Coll.
,

ApJ

Letters
2011
,

730
L8

PKS 1222+21:

MAGIC D
ISCOVERY
!

38


The second most distant
TeV

emitter (
z

~ 0.432)


FSRQ


One night of detection:

o
17
th

June 2010


Rapid variations!


No cut
-
off observed:

o
Emitting region
contrained

to lie outside
the BLR

Challenge for
blazar

emission models

D
ARK

M
ATTER

S
EARCH

WITH

MAGIC

Dwarf Galaxies
(High mass
-
to
-
light ratio)

Galaxy clusters
(~80% is DM)

39


MAGIC
ULs

from good candidates:

o
Segue I

o
Willman

I

o
Draco


Perseus

(
z

= 0.018)


Constraints on emission:

o
from Cosmic Rays

o
through Dark Matter annihilation

o
from
NGC 1275 (Now detected at VHE)

MAGIC
Coll
,
ApJ

710 (2010) 634

g
-
RAYS

FROM

DM
SELF
-
ANNIHILATION

MAGIC
Coll
, submitted to JCAP

MAGIC
Coll
,
ApJ

697,1299 (2009)

MAGIC
Coll
,
ApJ
, 679, 428 (2008)

M
ANY

NEW

DISCOVERIES


1
YEAR

OF

A
-
T
ELS
:

40

1.
25 February 2011:
MAGIC
OBSERVES

A

VERY

HIGH

ENERGY

GAMMA
-
RAY

FLARE

FROM

1ES 0806+524

2.
11 February 2011:
MAGIC
CONFIRMS

VHE
GAMMA
-
RAY

EMISSION

FROM

HESS
J0632+057
BETWEEN

7
-
9 F
EB

2011

3.
6 J
ANUARY

2011: D
ISCOVERY

OF

V
ERY

H
IGH

E
NERGY

G
AMMA
-
R
AY

E
MISSION

FROM

1ES 1215+303
BY

MAGIC

4.
23 O
CTOBER

2010: N
O

SIGNIFICANT

ENHANCEMENT

IN

THE

VHE
GAMMA
-
RAY

FLUX

OF

THE

C
RAB

N
EBULA

MEASURED

BY

MAGIC
IN

S
EPTEMBER

2010

5.
10 O
CTOBER

2010: D
ISCOVERY

OF

V
ERY

H
IGH

E
NERGY

G
AMMA
-
R
AY

E
MISSION

FROM

NGC 1275

BY

MAGIC

6.
7 October 2010
: D
ISCOVERY

OF

V
ERY

H
IGH

E
NERGY

G
AMMA
-
R
AY

E
MISSION

FROM

B3
2247+381

BY

MAGIC

7.
22
July
2010
: Discovery of Very High Energy gamma
-
ray emission from
1FGL
J2001.1+4351
by MAGIC

8.
19 June 2010:
MAGIC
DETECTS

A

VHE
FLARE

FROM

4C +21.35
(PKS 1222+21)

9.
9
April
2010: VERITAS
AND

MAGIC R
EPORT

F
LARING

IN

V
ERY

H
IGH

E
NERGY

G
AMMA

R
AYS

FROM

M 87

10.
25 M
ARCH

2010: MAGIC
DETECTS

VHE
GAMMA
-
RAY

EMISSION

FROM

IC 310

Strong points of MAGIC

Future plans

41


Low energy threshold

o
Overlapping with Fermi

o
Deep universe



New stereoscopic system


Fast repositioning
(sensitivity to transients:
GRB)


Moon observations




MAGIC upgrade
(
IMPROVE

LOW

ENERGY

SENSITIVITY
)
:

o
M1 Camera

o
Trigger

o
Readout electronics


… many new discoveries!!


C
ONCLUSIONS

Improved trigger
acceptance and
energy threshold

Less noise

Strong points of MAGIC

Future plans

42


Low energy threshold

o
Overlapping with Fermi

o
Deep universe



New stereoscopic system


Fast repositioning
(sensitivity to transients:
GRB)


Moon observations




MAGIC upgrade
(
IMPROVE

LOW

ENERGY

SENSITIVITY
)
:

o
M1 Camera

o
Trigger

o
Readout electronics


… many new discoveries!!


C
ONCLUSIONS

Improved trigger
acceptance and
energy threshold

Less noise

Backup Slides

43

T
HE

VHE
g
-
RAY

SKY
:
A

NEW

FIELD

44

B
LAZARS

SED:
BEAMING

EFFECTS




Collimation (
sin
q
=1/
g
)


Time:
D
t
OBS
=
D
t
EM
/
d


Energy:
n
OBS

=
d

n
EM


Luminosity: L
OBS

=
d
p

L
EM



Rs

<
c
D
t
VAR

/ (1+z)

45

d
=
Doppler factor
, ~10

p

~ 4

D
ETECTION

TECHNIQUE

46

MAGIC C
AMERA


M1: 377 0.1
o
PMTs
, 180 0.2
o


M2: 1039 0.1
o
PMTs


QE ~ 30%

47

MAGIC T
RIGGER



Multi
-
level:

o
L0: threshold

o
L1: temporal and spatial coincidence (topology)

o
L2: topological constraints to the images (flag mode)

o
L3: stereo coincidence

48